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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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chyle (kil)
A turbid white or pale yellow fluid taken up by the lacteals from the intestine during digestion and carried by the lymphatic system via the thoracic duct into the circulation. The milky appearance is due to chylomicrons in the lymph. [G. chylos, juice]

chylemia (ki-le′me-a)
The presence of chyle in the circulating blood. [chyl- + G. haima, blood]

chylidrosis (ki-li-dro′sis)
Sweating of a milky fluid resembling chyle. [chyl- + G. hidros, sweat]

chylifaction (ki-li-fak′shun)
SYN: chylopoiesis. [chyl- + L. facio, to make]

chylifactive (ki-li-fak′tiv)
SYN: chylopoietic.

chyliferous (ki-lif′er-us)
Conveying chyle. SYN: chylophoric. [chyl- + L. fero, to carry]

chylification (ki′li-fi-ka′shun)
SYN: chylopoiesis.

chyliform (ki′li-form)
Resembling chyle.

chylo-, chyl-
Chyle. [G. chylos, juice.]

chylocele (ki′lo-sel)
An effusion of chyle into the tunica vaginalis propria and space of the tunica vaginalis testis. [chylo- + G. kele, tumor] parasitic c. SYN: elephantiasis scroti.

chylocyst (ki′lo-sist)
SYN: cisterna chyli. [chylo- + G. kystis, bladder]

chylomediastinum (ki′lo-me-de-as-ti′num)
Abnormal presence of chyle in the mediastinum.

chylomicron, pl .chylomicrachylomicrons (ki-lo-mi′kron, -mi′kra, -mi′kronz)
A large lipid droplet (between 0.8 and 5 nm in diameter) of reprocessed lipid synthesized in epithelial cells of the small intestine and containing triacylglycerols, cholesterol esters, and several apolipoproteins ( e.g., A-I, B-48, C-I, C-II, C-III, E); the least dense (less than 1.006 g/mL) of the plasma lipoproteins that functions as a transport vehicle. [chylo- + G. micros, small]

chylomicronemia (ki′lo-mi-kro-ne′me-a)
The presence of chylomicrons, especially an increased number, in the circulating blood, as in type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. SEE ALSO: familial c. syndrome.

chylopericardium (ki′lo-par-i-kar′de-um)
A milky pericardial effusion resulting from obstruction of the thoracic duct, from trauma, or of idiopathic origin.

chyloperitoneum (ki′lo-par-i-to-ne′um)
SYN: chylous ascites.

chylophoric (ki-lo-for′ik)
SYN: chyliferous. [chylo- + G. phoros, bearing]

chylopleura (ki-lo-ploor′a)
SYN: chylothorax.

chylopneumothorax (ki′lo-noo-mo-thor′aks)
Free chyle and air in the pleural space.

chylopoiesis (ki′lo-poy-e′sis)
Formation of chyle in the intestine. SYN: chylifaction, chylification. [chylo- + G. poiesis, a making]

chylopoietic (ki′lo-poy-et′ik)
Relating to chylopoiesis. SYN: chylifactive.

chylorrhea (ki-lo-re′a)
The flow or discharge of chyle. [chylo- + G. rhoia, flow]

chylosis (ki-lo′sis)
The formation of chyle from the food in the intestine, its digestion and absorption by the intestinal mucosa, and its mixture with the blood and conveyance to the tissues.

chylothorax (ki-lo-thor′aks)
An accumulation of chylous fluid in the pleural space. SYN: chylopleura, chylous hydrothorax.

chylous (ki′lus)
Relating to chyle.

chyluria (ki-loo′re-a)
The passage of chyle in the urine; a form of albiduria. [chyl- + G. ouron, urine]

chymase (ki′mas)
SYN: chymosin.

chyme (kim)
The semifluid mass of partly digested food passed from the stomach into the duodenum. SYN: pulp (3) [TA] , chymus. [G. chymos, juice]

chymification (ki-mi-fi-ka′shun)
SYN: chymopoiesis. [G. chymos, juice, + L. facio, to make]

chymopapain (ki′mo-pap-a′in)
A cysteine proteinase similar to papain in specificity; on rare occasions, it is used to shrink slipped disks as an alternative to surgery; used as a meat tenderizer. It is the major endopeptidase of papaya.

chymopoiesis (ki′mo-poy-e′sis)
The production of chyme; the physical state of food (semifluid) brought about by digestion in the stomach. SYN: chymification. [G. chymos, juice, chyme, + poiesis, a making]

chymorrhea (ki-mo-re′a)
The flow of chyme. [G. chymos, juice, + rhoia, flow]

chymosin (ki′mo-sin)
An aspartic proteinase structurally homologous with pepsin, formed from prochymosin; the milk-curdling enzyme obtained from the glandular layer of the stomach of the calf. Acts on a single peptide bond (&cbond;Phe&cbond;Met&cbond;) in κ-casein. SYN: chymase, pexin, rennase, rennet, rennin.

chymosinogen (ki-mo-sin′o-jen)
SYN: prochymosin.

chymostatin (ki′mo-sta-tin)
An oligopeptide that is known to inhibit chymotrypsin-like proteases ( e.g., cathepsin A, B, and D, and papain).

chymotrypsin (ki-mo-trip′sin)
C. A or B; a serine proteinase of the gastrointestinal tract that preferentially cleaves carboxyl links of hydrophobic amino acids, particularly at tyrosyl, tryptophanyl, phenylalanyl, and leucyl residues; synthesized in the pancreas as chymotrypsinogen, and subsequently converted to π-, δ-, and finally α-c. by successive trypsin-dependent cleavages; proposed for use in the treatment of inflammation and edema associated with trauma and to facilitate intracapsular cataract extraction; c. A has the specificity above, c. B is homologous to c. A, and c. C has a broader specificity ( e.g., additionally acting on carboxyl links of methionyl, glutaminyl, and asparaginyl residues).

chymotrypsinogen (ki′mo-trip-sin′o-jen)
The precursor of chymotrypsin. Converted to π-chymotrypsin by the action of trypsin.

chymous (ki′mus)
Relating to chyme.

chymus (ki′mus)
SYN: chyme.

chytide
A skin wrinkle.

Ci
Abbreviation for curie.

Ciaccio
Carmelo, Italian pathologist, 1877–1956. See C. stain.

Ciaccio
Giuseppe V., Italian anatomist, 1824–1901. See C. glands, under gland.

cib.
Abbreviation for L. cibus, food.

cibophobia (si-bo-fo′be-a)
Fear of eating, or loathing for, food. [L. cibus, food, + G. phobos, fear]

CIC
Abbreviation for completely in the canal hearing aid.

CIC
Abbreviation for clean intermittent bladder catheterization.

cicatrectomy (sik-a-trek′to-me)
Excision of a scar. [L. cicatrix, scar, + G. ektome, excision]

cicatrices (si-ka′tri-sez)
Plural of cicatrix.

cicatricial (sik-a-trish′al)
Relating to a scar.

cicatricotomy, cicatrisotomy (sik′a-tri-kot′o-me, -sot′o-me)
Cutting a scar. [L. cicatrix, scar, + G. tome, cutting]

cicatrix, pl .cicatrices (sik′a-triks, si-ka′triks; sik-a-tri′sez)
A scar. [L.] brain c. a scarring of the brain resulting from injury (reactive gliosis), characterized by proliferation of mesodermal (vascular) and ectodermal (glial) elements. SEE ALSO: isomorphous gliosis. filtering c. SYN: filtering bleb. meningocerebral c. scarring and adhesions involving contiguous brain and meninges; typically caused by head injury. vicious c. a c. that by its contraction causes a deformity.

cicatrizant (sik-at′ri-zant)
1. Causing or favoring cicatrization. 2. An agent with such action.

cicatrization (sik′a-tri-za′shun)
1. The process of scar formation. 2. The healing of a wound otherwise than by first intention.

ciclopiroxolamine (si-klo-pir′oks ol′a-men)
A broad-spectrum antifungal agent used to treat a variety of fungus and yeast skin infections.

cicutoxin (sik-u-tok′sin)
A toxic principle present in water hemlock, Cicuta virosa (family Umbelliferae); pharmacologic action is similar to that of picrotoxin.

-cide
A word ending denoting an agent that kills ( e.g., insecticide), or the act of killing ( e.g., suicide). [L. -cida, -cidium, fr. caedo,to kill]

CIDP
Abbreviation for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

ciguatera ( se′gwah-tar′a)
An acute toxic syndrome with predominantly gastrointestinal and neuromuscular features induced by ingestion of the flesh or viscera of various marine fish of the Caribbean and tropical Pacific reefs that contain ciguatoxin. [Sp. fr. cigua, sea snail] Sporadic cases of c. occur along the east coast of the United States from Vermont to southern Florida and in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. Occasional outbreaks result from group consumption of large catches of contaminated fish. The condition is probably underreported, many cases being dismissed as viral syndromes or seasickness. The lipid-soluble, heat-stable toxin is produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, which is epiphytic on red and brown algae. Herbivorous fish foraging on reef algae consume the flagellates and are in turn consumed by carnivorous fish; the toxin becomes increasingly concentrated as it passes up the food chain. The heads and viscera of affected fish contain higher concentrations than other parts. Some 400 species of fish have been associated with human intoxication, including particularly predators such as amberjack, barracuda, grouper, moray eels, red snapper, sea bass, Spanish mackerel, and surgeon fish. Contaminated fish look, smell, and taste normal, and ciguatoxin is not destroyed by cooking, drying, salting, or freezing. Symptoms come on 3–12 hours after exposure (occasionally within minutes) and include vomiting and diarrhea, myalgia, dysesthesia and paresthesia of the extremities and perioral region, pruritus, headache, weakness, and diaphoresis. Bradycardia and hypotension may occur. A few deaths due to respiratory paralysis have been reported. Toxic effects usually resolve spontaneously in about 1 week but residual symptoms may persist for months. Repeated exposure can increase the sensitivity of an individual to the toxin. Diagnosis is confirmed by identification of toxin in uneaten portions of seafood or in the patient's serum. Treatment is purely supportive.

ciguatoxin (seg-wa-tok′sin)
A marine saponin of unknown structure but with the empirical formula C35H65NO8; the toxic substance causing ciguatera.

cilastatin sodium (si-la-stat′in)
An inhibitor of the renal dipeptidase, dehydropeptidase 1, used, in conjunction with antibiotics subject to metabolism in the kidneys, to increase therapeutic response to the antibiotic.

cili-
See cilio-.

cilia (sil′e-a)
Plural of cilium.

ciliary (sil′e-ar-e)
1. Relating to any cilia or hairlike processes, specifically, the eyelashes. 2. Relating to certain of the structures of the eyeball. [Mod. L. ciliaris, relating to or resembling an eyelid, or eyelash, fr. L. cilium, eyelid]

ciliastatic (sil-e-a-stat′ik)
Denoting a drug or condition that slows or stops the beating of cilia (generally used with reference to respiratory mucous membrane cilia).

Ciliata (sil-e-a′ta)
Formerly considered a class of Protozoa whose members bear cilia or structures derived from them, such as cirri or membranelles, but now placed within the phylum Ciliophora. Typical members, such as Paramecium or Balantidium coli (a parasite of humans) possess two distinctive nuclei, a macronucleus and a micronucleus; only the latter bears the hereditary material exchanged in conjugation, a form of sexual reproduction found only in the C.. [L. cilium, eyelid]

ciliated (sil′e-a-ted)
Having cilia.

ciliates (sil′e-ats)
Common name for members of the Ciliata.

ciliectomy (sil-e-ek′to-me)
SYN: cyclectomy.

cilio-, cili-
Cilia or meaning ciliary, in any sense; eyelashes. [L. cilium, eyelid (eyelash)]

ciliocytophthoria (sil′e-o-si-to- thor′e-a)
Detached ciliary tufts (remnants of ciliated epithelium) that can be seen in a variety of body fluids, especially peritoneal, amnionic, and respiratory specimens; they are motile and can be confused with ciliated or flagellated protozoa. [Pl. of ciliocytophthorium, fr. cilio- + cyto- + G. phthora corruption, decay, + -ium, noun suffix]

ciliogenesis (sil′e-o-jen′e-sis)
The formation of cilia.




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