|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A phylum of protozoa that includes the abundant free-living ciliates and the sessile suctorians; formerly classified as a subphylum of the phylum Protozoa. [cilio- + G. phoros, bearing]
Pertaining to the ciliary body and the retina.
Relating to the ciliary body and the sclera.
Relating to the ciliary body and the spinal cord; denoting in particular the c. center.
The characteristic of a drug or other substance that impairs ciliary activity (generally refers to respiratory mucous membrane cilia) ( e.g., tobacco smoke).
cilium, pl .cilia (sil′e-um, -a)
1. [NA] SYN: eyelash. 2. A motile extension of a cell surface, e.g., of certain epithelial cells, containing nine longitudinal double microtubules arranged in a peripheral ring, together with a central pair. [L. an eyelid]
An obsolete genus of motile, anaerobic bacteria containing Gram-positive, straight or curved rods.
A histamine analogue and antagonist used to treat peptic ulcer and hypersecretory conditions by blocking histamine H2 receptor sites, thus inhibiting gastric acid secretion.
A genus of bedbugs of the family Cimicidae in the order Hemiptera, with flat, reddish-brown, wingless bodies, prominent lateral eyes, a three-jointed beak, and a characteristic odor from thoracic stink glands; an abundant pest in human abodes. Although its bite produces characteristic linear groups of pruritic wheals with a central hemorrhagic punctum, the bedbug is not a proven vecter of human disease, with the possible exception of hepatitis B. [L. c., bug, L. lectulus, a bed] C. hemipterus a bedbug frequently found in the tropics. C. lectularius the common bedbug.
James E., U.S. nephrologist, *1928. See Brescia-C. fistula.
Abbreviation for cyclic inosine 3,5-monophosphate.
cinanserin hydrochloride (si-nan′ser-in)
A serotonin inhibitor.
The dried bark of the root and stem of various species of C., a genus of evergreen trees (family Rubiaceae), native of South America but cultivated in various tropical regions. The cultivated bark contains 7 to 10% of total alkaloids; about 70% is quinine. C. contains more than 20 alkaloids, of which two pairs of isomers are most important: quinine and quinidine, and cinchonidine and cinchonine. SYN: bark (2) , c. bark, Jesuits bark, Peruvian bark, quina, quinaquina, quinquina. [C., fr. Countess of Chinch′on]
Relating to cinchona.
A quinoline alkaloid prepared from the bark of several species of Cinchona; a tonic and antimalarial agent. Several c. salts are available.
Poisoning by cinchona, quinine, or quinidine; characterized by tinnitus, headache, deafness, and occasionally, anaphylactoid shock. SYN: quininism.
An analgesic, antipyretic, and uricosuric agent that may produce liver damage and gastric lesions; used in experimental animals to produce gastric ulcer.
Rapid repetition of a movement, e.g., rapidly repeated winking. [G. kingklizo, to wag the tail, change constantly]
Movement, usually relating to motion pictures. SEE ALSO: kin-. [G. kineo, to move]
Motion pictures of the passage of a contrast medium through chambers of the heart and great vessels.
Motion pictures of gastroscopic observations.
cineole, cineol (sin′e-ol, -ol)
A stimulant expectorant obtained from the volatile oil of Eucalyptus globulus and other species of Eucalyptus. SYN: cajeputol, cajuputol, eucalyptol.
The making of a motion picture of microscopic objects; time lapse photography is often used.
SYN: cineplastic amputation.
Radiography of an organ in motion, e.g., the heart, the gastrointestinal tract. SYN: cinefluorography, cinefluoroscopy, cineroentgenography.
1. The gray matter of the brain and other parts of the nervous system. 2. Obsolete term for mantle layer. [L. fem. of cinereus, ashy, fr. cinis, ashes]
Relating to the gray matter of the nervous system.
Ashen; denoting the gray matter of the brain, spinal cord, and ganglia.
A technique for measuring movements of the body by continuous photographic recording of shaking or vibration.
cinetoplasm, cinetoplasma (sin-et′o-plazm, sin-et-o-plaz′ma)
Relating to a cingulum.
SYN: cingulotomy. [cingulum + G. ektome, excision]
Formerly, a unilateral or bilateral surgical excision of the anterior half of the cingulate gyrus, but now accomplished by electrolytic destruction of the anterior cingulate gyrus and callosum. SYN: cingulectomy. [cingulum + G. tome, a cutting]
cingulum, gen. cinguli, pl .cingula (sin′gu-lum, -le, -la) [TA]
1. SYN: girdle. 2. A well-marked fiber bundle passing longitudinally in the white matter of the cingulate gyrus; the bundle extends from the region of the anterior perforated substance back over the dorsal surface of the corpus callosum; behind the latter's splenium it curves down and then forward in the white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus; composed largely of fibers from the anterior thalamic nucleus to the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, it also contains association fibers connecting these gyri with the frontal cortex, and their various subdivisions with each other. [L. girdle, fr. cingo, to surround] c. dentis [TA] SYN: c. of tooth. c. membri inferioris pelvic girdle. c. membri superioris pectoral girdle. c. pectorale [TA] SYN: pectoral girdle. c. pelvici [TA] SYN: pelvic girdle. c. of tooth [TA] a U- or W-shaped ridge at the base of the lingual surface of the crown of the upper incisors and cuspid teeth, the lateral limbs running for a short distance along the linguoproximal line angles, the central portion just above the gingiva. SYN: c. dentis [TA] , basal ridge (2) , lingual lobe.
Chief constituent of cinnamon oil. SYN: cinnamic aldehyde.
A salt or ester of cinnamic acid.
SYN: benzyl cinnamate.
Relating to cinnamon.
Obtained from cinnamon oil, Peruvian and tolu balsams, or storax. It has been used in lupus as paint and in infectious diseases to promote leukocytosis. SYN: cinnamylic acid, phenylacrylic acid.
1. The dried bark of Cinnamomum loureirii Nees (family Lauraceae), an aromatic bark used as a spice and, in medicine, as an adjuvant, carminative, and aromatic stomachic. SYN: Saigon c.. 2. The dried inner bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. SYN: Ceylon c.. SYN: cassia bark. [L. fr. G. kinnamomon, c.] cassia c. Cinnamomum cassia Nees (family Lauraceae); the unofficial source of most of the c. in the shops; the source of c. oil. SYN: Chinese c.. Ceylon c. SYN: c. (2) . Chinese c. SYN: cassia c.. Saigon c. SYN: c. (1) .
The volatile oil distilled with steam from the leaves and twigs of Cinnamomum cassia; it contains not less than 80% by volume of the total aldehydes of c.. SYN: cassia oil.
cinnamylic acid (sin-a-mil′ik)
SYN: cinnamic acid.
An H1 antihistaminic. SYN: cinnipirine.
A synthetic organic acid, chemically related to nalidixic acid, used as an antibacterial to treat urinary tract infections.
An ultraviolet screen for topical application on the skin.
Archaic term for uvula. [G. kion, pillar, the uvula]
ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (sip-ro-floks′a-sin)
A synthetic fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antibacterial with activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms.
Relating to biologic variations or rhythms with a cycle of about 24 hours. Cf.:infradian, ultradian. [L. circa, about, + dies, day]
A small circle. [L.] c. venosus hypoglossi SYN: venous plexus of canal of hypoglossal nerve.
Occurring cyclically about once an hour.
Circular; ring-shaped. [L. circinatus, made round, pp. of circino, to make round, fr. circinus, a pair of compasses]
1. [TA] In anatomy, a ring-shaped structure or group of structures, as formed by anastomosing arteries or veins, or by connected (communicating) nerves, 2. A line or process with every point approximately equidistant from the center. SYN: circulus [TA] . [L. circulus] arterial c. of cerebrum SYN: cerebral arterial c.. articular vascular c. SYN: articular vascular plexus. See articular vascular network. Carus c. SYN: Carus curve. cerebral arterial c. [TA] the roughly pentagonally shaped c. of vessels on the ventral aspect of the brain in the area of the optic chiasm, hypothalamus, and interpeduncular fossa; formed, sequentially and in anterior to posterior direction, by the anterior communicating artery, the two anterior cerebral, the two internal carotid, the two posterior communicating, and the two posterior cerebral arteries. SYN: circulus arteriosus cerebri [TA] , arterial c. of cerebrum, c. of Willis. closed c. a circuit for administration of an inhalation anesthetic in which there is complete rebreathing with carbon dioxide absorption. defensive c. obsolete term for the addition of a secondary affection that limits or arrests the progress of the primary affection, as thought to occur when pneumothorax supervenes on pulmonary tuberculosis, the former having a therapeutic effect on the latter. greater arterial c. of iris SYN: major arterial c. of iris. Haller c. 1. SYN: vascular c. of optic nerve. 2. SYN: areolar venous plexus. Huguier c. anastomosis around the isthmus of the uterus (junction of the cervix with the body) between the right and left uterine arteries. least confusion c. in the configuration of rays emerging from a spherocylindrical lens system, the place where diverging rays of the lens first forming a line image are balanced by converging rays of the second lens. lesser arterial c. of iris SYN: minor arterial c. of iris. major arterial c. of iris an arterial c. at the ciliary border of the iris. SYN: circulus arteriosus iridis major [TA] , major circulus arteriosus of iris [TA] , greater arterial c. of iris. minor arterial c. of iris an arterial c. near the pupillary margin of the iris. SYN: circulus arteriosus iridis minor [TA] , minor circulus arteriosus of iris [TA] , lesser arterial c. of iris. Pagenstecher c. in the case of a freely movable abdominal tumor, the mass is moved throughout its entire range, its position at intervals being marked on the abdominal wall; when these points are joined, a c. is formed, the center of which marks the point of attachment of the tumor. Ridley c. SYN: circular sinus (1) . rolling c. a mechanism for the replication of circular DNA. semi-closed c. a circuit for administration of an inhalation anesthetic in which partial rebreathing with carbon dioxide absorption is combined with loss from the circuit of a portion of respired gases through valves. vascular c. 1. the c. around the mouth formed by the inferior and superior labial arteries; 2. SYN: areolar venous plexus. vascular c. of optic nerve [TA] a network of branches of the short ciliary arteries on the sclera around the point of entrance of the optic nerve. SYN: circulus vasculosus nervi optici [TA] , circulus arteriosus halleri, circulus zinnii, Haller c. (1) , Zinn corona, Zinn vascular c.. venous c. of mammary gland SYN: areolar venous plexus. vicious c. the mutually augmenting action of two independent diseases or phenomena, or of a primary and secondary affection; Vieth-Müller c. a geometric c. passing through the optical centers of two eyes by which points adjacent to the point of fixation, both lying on the c., theoretically fall on corresponding retinal points. c. of Willis SYN: cerebral arterial c.. Zinn vascular c. SYN: vascular c. of optic nerve.
The path or course of flow of cases or electric or other currents. [L. circuitus, a going round, fr. circum, around, + eo, pp. itus, to go] anesthetic c. equipment used during inhalation anesthesia to regulate concentrations of inhaled gases; includes a reservoir bag and usually directional valves, breathing tubes, and a carbon dioxide absorber. Papez c. a long circuitous conduction chain in the mammalian forebrain, leading from the hippocampus by way of the fornix to the mammillary body and thence returning to the hippocampus by way of, sequentially, the anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus. reverberating c. a theory of periodic conduction through the cerebral cortex of trains of impulses traveling in circuits of neurons. signal-processing circuits the electronic hardware of hearing aids that allows alteration in the amplification of various bands of frequencies of the acoustic signal.
Movements in a circle, or through a circular course, or through a course that leads back to the same point; usually referring to blood c. unless otherwise specified. [L. circulatio] assisted c. application of external devices to improve pressure, flow, or both in the heart or arteries. blood c. the course of the blood from the heart through the arteries, capillaries, and veins back again to the heart. capillary c. the course of the blood through the capillaries. collateral c. c. maintained in small anastomosing vessels when the main vessel is obstructed. compensatory c. c. established in dilated collateral vessels when the main vessel of the part is obstructed. cross c. c. to an animal or one of its parts from the c. of another animal. embryonic c. the basic plan of the c. of a young mammalian embryo, at first similar to that in aquatic forms, with an unpartitioned heart and conspicuous aortic arches in the branchial region; as gestation progresses, the arrangement of the major blood vessels gradually approaches that of an adult, but the routing of blood through the heart, characteristic of an adult, cannot be attained until lung breathing begins at birth. enterohepatic c. c. of substances such as bile salts which are absorbed from the intestine and carried to the liver, where they are secreted into the bile and again enter the intestine. extracorporeal c. the c. of blood outside of the body through a machine that temporarily assumes an organ's functions, e.g., through a heart-lung machine or artificial kidney. fetal c. the c. which serves the fetus in utero, with the placental circuit responsible for supplying oxygen and nutritive material and for eliminating CO2 and nitrogenous wastes. SEE ALSO: embryonic c.. greater c. SYN: systemic c.. hypophysial portal c. SYN: portal hypophysial c.. hypothalamohypophysial portal c. SYN: portal hypophysial c.. lesser c. SYN: pulmonary c.. lymph c. the slow passage of lymph through the lymphatic vessels and glands. placental c. the c. of blood through the placenta during intrauterine life, serving the needs of the fetus for aeration, absorption, and excretion; also, maternal c. through the intervillous space of the placenta. portal c. 1. c. of blood to the liver from the small intestine, the right half of the colon, and the spleen via the portal vein; sometimes specified as the hepatic portal c.; 2. more generally, any part of the systemic c. in which blood draining from the capillary bed of one structure flows through a larger vessel(s) to supply the capillary bed of another structure before returning to the heart; e.g., the hypothalamohypophysial portal system. portal hypophysial c. a capillary network that carries hypophyseotropic hormones from the hypothalamus, where they are secreted into blood, to their sites of action in the anterior hypophysis. See portal c., pituitary gland, hypothalamus. SYN: hypophyseoportal system, hypophysial portal c., hypophysial portal system, hypophysioportal system, hypothalamohypophysial portal c., hypothalamohypophysial portal system (1) . pulmonary c. the passage of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and back through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. SYN: lesser c.. Servetus c. obsolete eponym for the pulmonary c.. systemic c. the c. of blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the general system, from the left ventricle to the right atrium. SYN: greater c.. thebesian c. (the-be′se-an) the system of smaller veins in the myocardium.
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