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Medical Dictionary


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contrecoup (kawn-tr-koo′)
Denoting the manner of a contrafissura, as in the skull, at a point opposite that at which the blow was received. SEE ALSO: c. injury of brain. [Fr. counter-blow]

cont. rem.
Abbreviation for L. continuenter remedia, continue the medicines.

control (kon-trol′)
1. (v.) To regulate, restrain, correct, restore to normal. 2. (n.) Ongoing operations or programs aimed at reducing a disease. 3. (n.) Members of a comparison group who differ in disease experience or allocation to a regimen from the subjects of a study. 4. (v). In statistics, to adjust or take into account extraneous influences. [Mediev. L. contrarotulum, a counterroll for checking accounts, fr. L. rotula, dim. of rota, a wheel] autogenous c. regulation by the action of a gene product on the gene that codes for that product. automatic gain c. (AGC) a feature of some hearing aids that reduces amplification at high-input intensity levels. aversive c. c. of the behavior of another individual by use of psychologically noxious means; e.g., attempting to force better study habits by withholding a child's allowance, or withholding sexual contact unless the partner complies with a request. biologic c. c. of living organisms, including vectors and reservoirs of disease, by using their natural enemies (predators, parasites, competitors). birth c. 1. restriction of the number of offspring by means of contraceptive measures; 2. projects, programs, or methods to c. reproduction, by either improving or diminishing fertility. idiodynamic c. nervous impulses from the medulla that preserve the normal trophic condition of the muscles. negative c. regulation of an enzyme activity by an inhibitor of that enzyme or regulation of a protein by repression of transcription. own controls a method of experimental c. in which the same subjects are used in both experimental and c. conditions. positive c. regulation of an enzyme activity by an activator of that enzyme. Also, regulation via induction of a specific protein's biosynthesis or activation of a protein's processing. quality c. the c. of laboratory analytical error by monitoring analytical performance with c. sera and maintaining error within established limits around the mean c. values, most commonly ±2 SD. reflex c. nerve impulses transmitted to the muscles to maintain normal reflex action. social c. the influence on the behavior of a person exerted by other persons or by society as a whole; e.g., through appropriate social norms, ostracism, or the criminal law. stimulus c. the use of conditioning techniques to bring the target behavior of an individual under environmental c.. See classical conditioning. synergic c. impulses transmitted from the cerebellum regulating the muscular activity of the synergic units of the body. time-varied gain c. (TGC) SYN: time-gain compensation. tonic c. nerve impulses that maintain a normal tonus or level of activity in muscle or other effector organs. vestibulo-equilibratory c. nerve impulses transmitted from the semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle that serve to maintain the equilibrium of the body.

Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (CCDM)
The internationally recognized authoritative manual, in the 17th (2000) edition, published by the American Public Health Association.

contusion (kon-too′shun)
Any mechanical injury (usually caused by a blow) resulting in hemorrhage beneath unbroken skin. SEE ALSO: bruise. [L. contusio, a bruising] brain c. a bruising, usually of the surface, of the brain with extravasation of blood but without rupture of the pia-arachnoid; healing results in a superficial depressed sclerotic area, possibly with incorporated meninges. SEE ALSO: brain cicatrix. scalp c. intracutaneous or subcutaneous extravasation of blood without gross disruption of skin.

conular (kon′u-lar)
Cone-shaped.

Conus (ko′nus)
A genus of shellfish that inhabits the shores of some South Pacific islands. Several species, C. geographus, C. textilis, C. aulicus, C. tulipa, and C. marmoreus are poisonous, their sting or spine causing acute pain, edema, numbness, spreading paralysis, and sometimes coma and death.

conus, pl .coni (ko′nus, -ni)
1. [TA] SYN: cone. 2. Posterior staphyloma in myopic choroidopathy. [L. fr. G. konos, cone] c. arteriosus [TA] the left or anterosuperior, smooth-walled portion of the cavity of the right ventricle of the heart, which begins at the supraventricular crest and terminates in the pulmonary trunk. SYN: arterial cone, infundibulum (4) , pulmonary cone, pulmonary c.. congenital c. SYN: Fuchs coloboma. distraction c. a c. in which the optic nerve passes through the scleral canal in a markedly oblique direction. c. elasticus [TA] thicker lower portion of the elastic membrane of the larynx, extending between the cricoid cartilage and the vocal ligaments, the latter actually being a thickening of the free, superior margin of the c. elasticus; SYN: cricovocal membrane&star, elastic cone. coni epididymidis lobules of epididymis, under lobule. c. medullaris [TA] the tapering lower extremity of the spinal cord. SYN: medullary cone [TA] . myopic c. SYN: myopic crescent. pulmonary c. SYN: c. arteriosus. supertraction c. a reddish yellow c. or ring at the nasal margin of the optic disk, produced by displacement of the retinal pigment epithelium and lamina vitrea of the choroid; occurs in high myopia. coni vasculosi SYN: lobules of epididymis, under lobule.

convalescence (kon-va-les′ens)
A period between the end of a disease and the patient's restoration to complete health. [L. con-valesco, to grow strong, fr. valeo, to be strong]

convalescent (kon-va-les′ent)
1. Getting well or one who is getting well. 2. Denoting the period of convalescence.

convallaria (kon-va-lar′e-a)
The flower, rhizome, and roots of C. majalis (family Liliaceae), lily of the valley; they contain glycosides with digitalis-like action ( e.g., convallatoxin). [L. convallis, an enclosed valley]

convection (kon-vek′shun)
Conveyance of heat in liquids or gases by movement of the heated particles, as when the layer of water at the bottom of a heated pot rises or the warm air of a room ascends to the ceiling. [L. con-veho, pp. -vectus, to carry or bring together]

convergence (kon-ver′jens)
1. The tending of two or more objects toward a common point. 2. The direction of the visual lines to a near point. [L. con-vergere, to incline together] accommodative c. the meter angle of c. expressed in diopters; equal to the product of the meter angles of c. times the interpupillary distance measured in centimeters. amplitude of c. the distance between the near point and far point of c.. SYN: range of c.. angle of c. the angle that the visual axis makes with the median line when a near object is viewed. far point of c. the point to which the visual lines are directed when c. is at rest. near point of c. the point to which the visual lines are directed when c. is at its maximum. negative c. the slight divergence of the visual axes when c. is at rest, as when observing the far point or during sleep. positive c. inward deviation of the visual axes even when c. is at rest, as in cases of convergent squint. range of c. SYN: amplitude of c.. unit of c. meter angle.

convergent (kon-ver′jent)
Tending toward a common point.

conversion (kon-ver′zhun)
1. SYN: transmutation. 2. An unconscious defense mechanism by which the anxiety which stems from an unconscious conflict is converted and expressed symbolically as a physical symptom; transformation of an emotion into a physical manifestation, as in c. hysteria. See c. hysteria. 3. In virology, the acquisition by bacteria of a new property associated with presence of a prophage. SEE ALSO: lysogeny. [L. con-verto, pp. -versus, to turn around, to change]

convertase (kon′ver-tas)
Proteases of complement that convert one component into another. See component of complement.

convertin (kon-ver′tin)
Active form of factor VII designated VIIa.

convex (kon′veks, kon-veks′)
Applied to a surface that is evenly curved outward, the segment of a sphere. [L. convexus, vaulted, arched, c., fr. con-veho, to bring together] high c. the segment of a sphere of short radius. low c. the segment of a sphere of long radius.

convexity (kon-veks′i-te)
1. The state of being convex. 2. A convex structure. cortical c. SYN: superolateral surface of cerebrum.

convexobasia (kon-vek-so-ba′se-a)
Forward bending of the occipital bone. [L. convexus, outwardly curved, + basis, foundation]

convexoconcave (kon-vek′so-kon′kav)
Convex on one surface and concave on the opposite surface.

convexoconvex (kon-vek′so-kon′veks)
SYN: biconvex.

convolute (kon′vo-loot)
Rolled together with one part over the other; in the shape of a roll or scroll. SYN: convoluted. [L. con-volvo, pp. -volutus, to roll together]

convoluted (kon′vo-loo-ted)
SYN: convolute.

convolution (kon-vo-loo′shun)
1. A coiling or rolling of an organ. 2. Specifically, a gyrus of the cerebral or cerebellar cortex. [L. convolutio] angular c. SYN: angular gyrus. anterior central c. SYN: precentral gyrus. ascending frontal c. SYN: precentral gyrus. ascending parietal c. SYN: postcentral gyrus. callosal c. SYN: cingulate gyrus. cingulate c. SYN: cingulate gyrus. first temporal c. SYN: superior temporal gyrus. hippocampal c. SYN: parahippocampal gyrus. inferior frontal c. SYN: inferior frontal gyrus. inferior temporal c. SYN: inferior temporal gyrus. middle frontal c. SYN: middle frontal gyrus. middle temporal c. SYN: middle temporal gyrus. posterior central c. SYN: postcentral gyrus. second temporal c. SYN: middle temporal gyrus. superior frontal c. SYN: superior frontal gyrus. superior temporal c. SYN: superior temporal gyrus. supramarginal c. SYN: supramarginal gyrus. third temporal c. SYN: inferior temporal gyrus. transitional c. SYN: transitional gyrus. transverse temporal convolutions SYN: transverse temporal gyri, under gyrus. Zuckerkandl c. SYN: subcallosal gyrus.

convulsant (kon-vul′sant)
A substance that produces convulsions. SEE ALSO: eclamptogenic, epileptogenic.

convulsion (kon-vul′shun)
1. A violent spasm or series of jerkings of the face, trunk, or extremities. 2. SYN: seizure (2) . [L. convulsio, fr. convello, pp. -vulsus, to tear up] benign neonatal convulsions a familial, self-limited epilepsy, beginning at 2, 3, or 6 days of age and resolving spontaneously by six months of age; autosomal dominant inheritance. clonic c. a c. in which the contractions are intermittent, the muscles alternately contracting and relaxing. complex febrile c. a febrile c. that is prolonged (greater than 15 minutes' duration) or is associated with focal neurologic deficits. febrile c. a brief seizure, lasting less than 15 minutes, seen in a neurologically normal infant or young child, associated with fever. SYN: febrile seizure. hysterical c., hysteroid c. hysteria. immediate posttraumatic c. a c. beginning very soon after injury. infantile c. any c. occurring in infancy (0–2 years of age). salaam convulsions SYN: infantile spasm. tetanic c. SYN: tonic c.. tonic c. a c. in which muscle contraction is sustained. SYN: tetanic c..

convulsive (kon-vul′siv)
Relating to convulsions; marked by or producing convulsions.

Cooke
A. Bennett, U.S. physician, *1869. See C. speculum.

Cooley
Thomas B., U.S. pediatrician, 1871–1945. See C. anemia.

Cooley
Denton, U.S. cardiothoracic surgeon, *1920, noted for inventing many surgical instruments.

Coolidge
William D., U.S. physicist, 1873–1975. See C. tube.

Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 [C.I. 42660]
A general protein stain used in electrophoresis because of its unusual sensitivity. [originally, a proprietary name of Imperial Chemical; Coomassie (Kumasi), Ghana]

Coombs
Robin R.A., English veterinarian and immunologist, *1921. See Gell and C. reactions, under reaction, C. serum, C. test, direct C. test, indirect C. test.

Coombs
Carey F., English physician, 1879–1932. See Carey C. murmur, C. murmur.

Cooper
Sir Astley Paston, English anatomist and surgeon, 1768–1841. See C. fascia, C. hernia, C. herniotome, C. ligaments, under ligament, suspensory ligaments of C., under ligament.

cooperativity
A property of certain proteins (often enzymes) in which the binding curves or saturation curves or, in the case of enzymes, a plot of initial rates as a function of initial substrate concentration, are nonhyperbolic; suggests that the binding of a ligand has a different affinity at different ligand concentrations. Both allosterism and hysteresis are models that will display c.. Cf.:allosterism, hysteresis. negative c. c. in which successive ligand molecules appear to bind with decreasing affinity. positive c. c. in which successive ligand molecules appear to bind with increasing affinity.

Cooperia (koo-pe′re-a)
A genus of small, slender nematodes (family Trichostrongylidae) inhabiting the small intestine, rarely the abomasum, of ruminants; when fresh they are a bright pink color; they produce serious effects only when present in large numbers. In partly immune animals, these worms become enclosed in nodules in the wall of the intestine; they are less pathogenic in sheep and goats than the trichostrongyles Haemonchus, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongylus. C. bisonis species that occurs in cattle, sheep, bison, and pronghorn antelopes. C. curticei species that occurs in sheep, goats, and wild deer in Europe, although cosmopolitan in distribution. C. fieldingi SYN: C. punctata. C. oncophora species that occurs in cattle and domestic and wild sheep, but rarely in the horse; although worldwide in distribution, it is most common in the northern U.S. and Canada. SYN: Strongylus radiatus, Strongylus ventricosus. C. pectinata species that occurs in cattle, sheep, water buffalo, dromedary camels, and various wild ruminants; it is common in the southern U.S. C. punctata species that occurs mainly in cattle, less commonly in sheep, water buffalo, and several wild ruminants; although worldwide in distribution, it is especially widespread in North America and common in Hawaii. SYN: C. fieldingi. C. spatulata a species that occurs in cattle and sheep in the southern U.S., Kenya, Australia, and Malaysia.

coordinate
1. (ko-or′di-nit)Any of the scales or magnitudes that serve to define the position of a point. 2. (ko-or′di-nat)To perform the act of coordination. [see coordination]

coordination (ko-or′di-na′shun)
The harmonious working together, especially of several muscles or muscle groups in the execution of complicated movements. [L. co-, together, + ordino, pp. -atus, to arrange, fr. ordo (ordin-), arrangement, order]

co-ossification (ko-os′i-fi-ka′shun)
State of being joined by bone formation.

co-ossify (ko-os′i-fi)
To unite into one bone. [L. co-, together, + os, bone, + facio, to make]

copaiba (ko-pi′ba)
The oleoresin of Copaifera officinalis and other species of Copaifera (family Leguminosae), a South American plant; c. oil is used as an expectorant, diuretic, and stimulant. SYN: balsam of c.. [Sp.]

COPD
Abbreviation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cope
Sir Vincent Z., English surgeon, 1881–1974. See C. clamp.

cope (kop)
1. The upper half of a flask in the casting art; hence applicable to the upper or cavity side of a denture flask. 2. An act that enables one to adjust to the environmental circumstances.

copepod (ko′pe-pod)
Any member of the order Copepoda.

Copepoda (ko-pep′o-da)
An order of abundant, free-living, freshwater and marine crustaceans of basic importance in the aquatic food chain in both the marine and freshwater environments; some species are commonly called water fleas. Some are ectoparasites of both cold-blooded and warm-blooded aquatic vertebrates; the parasitic copepods of fish and whales are often highly modified for deep penetration of the skin or for adherence by suckers and hooks ( e.g., the fish lice, Argulus). Certain copepods (Cyclops, Diaptomus) are important as intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum and of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. [G. kope, an oar, + pous (pod-), a foot]

coping (kop′ing)
1. A thin metal covering or cap. 2. An adaptive or otherwise successful method of dealing with individual or environmental situations that involve psychologic or physiologic stress or threat. transfer c. in dentistry, a metallic, acrylic resin or other covering or cap used to position a die in an impression.

copolymer (ko′pol-i-mer)
A polymer in which two or more monomers or base units are combined. c.-1 acetate salt of a mixture of synthetic polypeptides composed of four amino acids; used to reduce the relapse rate with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

copper (Cu) (kop′er)
A metallic element, atomic no. 29, atomic wt. 63.546; several of its salts are used in medicine. A bioelement found in a number of proteins. [L. cuprum, orig. Cyprium, fr. Cyprus, where it was mined] c. arsenite SYN: cupric arsenite. c. bichloride SYN: cupric chloride. c. chloride SYN: cupric chloride. c. citrate SYN: cupric citrate. c. dichloride SYN: cupric chloride. c. sulfate, c. sulphate SYN: cupric sulfate.

copper-64 (64Cu)
Beta and positron emitter with a half-life of 12.82 hr. Used in the study of Wilson disease and in brain scans for tumors.

copper-67 (67Cu)
Beta and gamma emitter with a half-life of 2.580 days.

copperas (kop′er-as)
The impure commercial variety of ferrous sulfate.

copperhead (kop′er-hed)
A poisonous snake of the genus Agkistrodon in the U.S.

copper pennies
SYN: sclerotic bodies, under body.

Coppet
Louis de, French physicist, 1841–1911. See C. law.

coprecipitation (ko′pre-sip-i-ta′shun)
Precipitation of unbound antigen along with an antigen-antibody complex; may occur particularly when a soluble complex is precipitated by a second antibody specific for the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin of the complex.

copremesis (kop-rem′e-sis)
SYN: fecal vomiting. [G. kopros, dung, + emesis]

copro-
Filth, dung, usually used in referring to feces. SEE ALSO: scato-, sterco-. [G. kopros, dung]

coproantibodies (kop′ro-an′ti-bod-ez)
Antibodies found in the intestine and in feces; they probably are formed by plasma cells in the intestinal mucosa and consist chiefly of the IgA class.




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