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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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costiform (kos′ti-form)
Rib-shaped. [L. costa, rib, + forma, form]

costive (kos′tiv)
Pertaining to or causing constipation. [contraction from L. constipo, to press together]

costiveness (kos′tiv-ness)
SYN: constipation.

costo-
The ribs. [L. costa, rib]

costocentral (kos-to-sen′tral)
SYN: costovertebral.

costochondral (kos-to-kon′dral)
Relating to the costal cartilages. SYN: chondrocostal.

costochondritis (kos′to-kon-dri′tis)
Inflammation of one or more costal cartilages, characterized by local tenderness and pain of the anterior chest wall that may radiate, but without the local swelling typical of Tietze syndrome. SYN: costal chondritis. [costo- + G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation]

costoclavicular (kos-to-kla-vik′u-lar)
Relating to the ribs and the clavicle.

costocoracoid (kos-to-kor′a-koyd)
Relating to the ribs and the coracoid process of the scapula.

costogenic (kos-to-jen′ik)
Arising from a rib.

costoinferior (kos-to-in-fer′e-or)
Relating to the lower ribs.

costoscapular (kos-to-skap′u-lar)
Relating to the ribs and the scapula.

costoscapularis (kos-to-skap-u-la′ris)
SYN: serratus anterior (muscle).

costosternal (kos-to-ster′nal)
Pertaining to the ribs and the sternum.

costosternoplasty (kos-to-ster′no-plas-te)
Operation to correct a malformation of the anterior chest wall. [costo- + G. sternon, chest, + plastos, formed]

costosuperior (kos-to-soo-per′e-or)
Relating to the upper ribs.

costotome (kos′to-tom)
An instrument, knife or shears, designed for cutting through a rib.

costotomy (kos-tot′o-me)
Division of a rib. [costo- + G. tome, a cutting]

costotransverse (kos-to-trans-vers′)
Relating to the ribs and the transverse processes of the vertebrae articulating with them. SYN: transversocostal.

costotransversectomy (kos′to-tranz-ver-sek′to-me)
Excision of a proximal portion of a rib and the articulating transverse process.

costovertebral (kos-to-ver′te-bral)
Relating to the ribs and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae with which they articulate. SYN: costocentral, vertebrocostal (1) .

costoxiphoid (kos-to-zi′foyd)
Relating to the ribs and the xiphoid cartilage of the sternum.

cosubstrate (ko-sub′strat)
The second or other substrate of a multisubstrate enzyme; often, specifically refers to the coenzyme.

cosyntropin (ko-sin-tro′pin)
α1-24- or β1–24-Corticotropin;a synthetic corticotrophic agent, comprising the first 24 amino acyl residues of human ACTH, which sequence is found in several other species and which retains the full biologic activity of the complete ACTH; the remaining 15 residues differ among species and confer specific immunologic properties. SYN: tetracosactide, tetracosactin.

Cotard
Jules, French neurologist, 1840–1887. See C. syndrome.

cotarnine (ko-tar′nen)
An alkaloidal principle, C12H15NO4, derived from narcotine by oxidation; an astringent. [anagram of narcotine]

COTe
Abbreviation of cathodal opening tetanus.

cotinine (ko′ti-nen)
One of the major detoxication products of nicotine; eliminated rapidly and completely by the kidneys. [anagram of nicotine]

cotranslational (ko′tranz-la′shun-al)
Any process involving the maturation or delivery of a protein that occurs during the process of translation.

cotransport (ko-trans′port)
The transport of one substance across a membrane, coupled with the simultaneous transport of another substance across the same membrane in the same direction.

Cotte
Gaston, French surgeon, 1879–1951. See C. operation.

Cotton
Frank A., U.S. chemist, *1930. See C. effect.

cotton (kot′un)
The white, fluffy, fibrous covering of the seeds of a plant of the genus Gossypium (family Malvaceae); used extensively in surgical dressings. [Ar. qútun] absorbent c. c. from which all fatty matter has been extracted, so that it readily takes up fluids. purified c. absorbent c. in which the hairs of the seed of varieties of Gossypium and other allied species are freed from adhering impurities, deprived of fatty matter, bleached, and sterilized; used for tampons, etc. soluble gun c. SYN: pyroxylin. styptic c. absorbent c. wet with a dilute solution of ferric chloride, and then dried; applied locally as a hemostatic.

cottonpox (kot′un-poks)
Obsolete name for variola minor.

cottonseed oil (kot′un-sed)
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of cultivated plants of various varieties of Gossypium hirsutum or of other species of Gossypium (family Malvaceae); a solvent.

Cotunnius, Cotugno
Domenico, Italian anatomist, 1736–1822. See C. aqueduct, C. canal, C. liquid, C. space, aqueductus cotunnii, liquor cotunnii.

cotyle (kot′i-le)
1. Any cup-shaped structure. 2. SYN: acetabulum. [G. kotyle, anything hollow, the cup or socket of a joint]

cotyledon (kot-i-le′don)
1. See maternal c., fetal c.. 2. In plants, a seed leaf, the first leaf to grow from a seed. 3. A placental unit. See maternal c.. [G. kotyledon, any cup-shaped hollow] fetal c. a unit of the fetal placenta supplied by the vessels of a stem villus; several such cotyledons may occur between two placental septa; traditionally called embryologists' c.. maternal c. a unit of the placenta made up of trophoblastic cells, fibrous tissue, and abundant blood vessels, which is visible grossly on the maternal surface as an irregularly shaped lobe circumscribed by a deep cleft and made up of a stem villus with numerous branching free villi and anchoring villi; placental vessels in the chorionic plate supply the stem villus and its branches, allowing gas and metabolite exchange across the trophoblastic layer with maternal blood in the intervillous space; traditionally called clinicians' c..

Cotylogonimus (kot-i-lo-gon′i-mus)
A group of heterophyid flukes, now properly included in the genus Heterophyes. [G. kotyle, cup, + gonimos, productive]

cotyloid (kot′i-loyd)
1. Cup-shaped; cuplike. 2. Relating to the c. cavity or acetabulum. [G. kotyle, a small cup, + eidos, appearance]

cough (kawf)
1. A sudden explosive forcing of air through the glottis, occurring immediately on opening the previously closed glottis, excited by mechanical or chemical irritation of the trachea or bronchi or by pressure from adjacent structures. 2. To force air through the glottis by a series of expiratory efforts. [echoic] aneurysmal c. c. due to impingement of an aortic aneurysm on the recurrent laryngeal nerve or other nearby structures. brassy c. loud metallic barking c. associated with subglottic edema. habit c. a persistent c. due to a tic or to psychological causes. privet c. an allergic c., occurring in China during May and June, supposed to be caused by inhalation of the pollen of a species of privet (Lingustrum); it is analogous to the laurel fever seen in New England. reflex c. a c. excited reflexly by irritation in some distant part, as the ear or the stomach. weaver's c. term for c., dyspnea, and sense of constriction of the chest, caused in persons working with mildewed yarns. whooping c. SYN: pertussis.

coulomb (C, Q) (koo-lom′)
The unit of electrical charge, equal to 3 × 109 electrostatic units; the quantity of electricity delivered by a current of 1 A in 1 s equal to 1/96,485 faraday. [CA de C., Fr. physicist, 1736–1806]

coumaranone (koo-mar′a-non)
3(2H)-Benzofuranone;the basis of many plant products; e.g., aurone.

coumaric anhydride (koo-ma′rik)
SYN: coumarin.

coumarin (koo′ma-rin)
1. A general descriptive term applied to anticoagulants and other drugs derived from dicumarol, a component of the Tonka bean. 2. A fragrant neutral principle obtained from the Tonka bean, Dypterix odorata, and made synthetically from salicylic aldehyde; it is used to disguise unpleasant odors. SYN: coumaric anhydride, cumarin. [coumarou, native name of Tonka bean]

coumetarol (koo-met′a-rol)
An oral anticoagulant. SYN: cumetharol, cumethoxaethane.

Councilman
William T., U.S. pathologist, 1854–1933. See C. body.

Councilmania (kown-sil-man′e-a)
Obsolete generic term for a group of amebae now recognized as Entamoeba. [W. Councilman]

counseling (kown′sel-ing)
A professional relationship and activity in which one person endeavors to help another to understand and to solve his or her adjustment problems; the giving of advice, opinion, and instruction to direct the judgment or conduct of another. See psychotherapy. [L. consilium, deliberation] genetic c. the process whereby an expert in genetic disorders provides information about risk and clinical burden of a disorder or disorders to patients or relatives in families with genetic disorders as an aid to making informed and responsible decisions about marriage, children, early diagnosis, and prognosis. marital c. the process whereby a trained counselor assists married couples to resolve problems that arise and trouble them in their relationship; husband and wife are seen by the same counselor in separate and joint c. sessions focusing on immediate family problems. pastoral c. the use of psychotherapeutic methods by members of the clergy, members of a religious community, and/or lay therapists for parishioners seeking help with personal problems.

count (kownt)
1. A reckoning, enumeration, or accounting. 2. To enumerate or score. Addis c. a quantitative enumeration of the red blood c., white blood c., and casts in a 12-hr urine specimen; used to follow the progress of known renal disease. Arneth c. the percentage distribution of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, based on the number of lobes in the nuclei (from 1 to 5). SEE ALSO: Arneth index. blood c. blood c.. CD4/CD8 c. The ratio of helper-inducer T lymphocytes to cytotoxic-suppressor T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. T-cell subset analysis is performed by flow cytometry of lymphocytes after incubation with fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies to the CD4 surface antigen found on helper-inducer T cells and the CD8 surface antigen found on cytotoxic-suppressor T cells. In healthy persons, the CD4/CD8 ratio ranges between 1.6 and 2.2. epidermal ridge c. an index of the frequency of sweat pores on the fingertips by enumeration along a set of arbitrarily defined lines; a classic example of a galtonian trait determined almost exclusively by genetic factors. filament-nonfilament c. a differential c. of the number of neutrophils showing nuclear division and those showing no such division. total cell c. number of cells in a given area or volume. viable cell c. number of cells in a given area or volume that are thriving.

counter (kown′ter)
A device that counts, usually scintillations. automated differential leukocyte c. an instrument using digital imaging or cytochemical techniques to differentiate leukocytes. electronic cell c. an automatic blood cell c. in which cells passing through an aperture alter resistance and are counted as voltage pulses, or in which cells passing through a flow cell deflect light; some types of c. are capable of multiple simultaneous measurements on each blood sample; e.g., leukocyte count, red cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell indices. Geiger-Müller c. an instrument for measuring radioactivity by counting the emission of radioactive particles; it consists of a metallic cylinder, negatively charged, in a tube containing a fine, positively charged wire at its center; radiations produce ionization of the gas molecules between the cylinder and the wire and result in an electrical discharge independent of the energy of the impinging particle or ray. proportional c. a Geiger-Müller c. operating in the voltage range and under conditions in which pulse height is proportional to the energy of the particles or rays being counted, thus making discrimination between particles or rays of different energies possible. scintillation c. an instrument used for the detection of radioactivity; the radiation is absorbed by a scintillator (a crystal or a compound, such as POPOP, in solution) which results in minute flashes of light that are detected by a photocathode. The resultant electron emission is amplified by a photomultiplier and an amplifier. SYN: scintillometer, spinthariscope. well c. a scintillation crystal shaped with a central hole to receive a small sample, plus associated detector and electronics. whole-body c. shielding and instrumentation, usually involving more than one detector, designed to evaluate the total-body burden of various gamma-emitting nuclides.

counter-
Opposite, opposed, against. SEE ALSO: contra-. [L. contra, against]

counterbalancing (kown-ter-bal′an-sing)
A procedure in behavorial research for distributing unwanted but unavoidable influences equally among the different experimental conditions or subjects.

counterconditioning (kown′ter-kon-dish′un-ing)
Any of a group of specific behavior therapy techniques in which a second conditioned response ( e.g., approaching or even touching a snake) is introduced for the express purpose of counteracting or nullifying a previously conditioned or learned response (fear and avoidance of snakes).

countercurrent (kown′ter-ker′ent)
1. Flowing in an opposite direction. 2. A current flowing in a direction opposite to another current.

countercurrent exchanger
A system in which heat or chemicals passively diffuse across a membrane separating two c. streams so that at each end the fluid leaving along one side of the membrane nearly resembles, in temperature or composition, the fluid entering the other; e.g., the venae comites in the arms serve as a c. exchanger, the arterial blood serving to rewarm the cooler venous blood.

countercurrent multiplier
A system in which energy is used to transport material across a membrane separating two c. tubes connected at one end to form a hairpin shape; by this means a concentration can be achieved in the fluid in the hairpin bend, relative to the inflow and outflow fluids, that is much greater than the transport mechanism could produce between the two sides of the membrane at any point; e.g., the nephronic loops in the renal medulla act as countercurrent multipliers.

counterdie (kown′ter-di)
The reverse image of a die, usually made of a softer and lower fusing metal than the die.

counterextension (kown′ter-eks-ten′shun)
SYN: countertraction.

counterimmunoelectrophoresis (kown′ter-im′u-no-e-lek′tro-for-e′-sis)
A modification of immunoelectrophoresis in which antigen ( e.g., serum containing hepatitis B virus) is placed in wells cut in the sheet of agar gel toward the cathode, and antiserum is placed in wells toward the anode; antigen and antibody, moving in opposite directions, form precipitates in the area between the cells where they meet in concentrations of optimal proportions.

counterincision (kown′ter-in-sizh′un)
A second incision in the region of a primary incision designed to take tension off the primary closure.

counterinvestment (kown′ter-in-vest′ment)
SYN: anticathexis.

counterirritant (kown-ter-ir′i-tant)
1. An agent that causes irritation or a mild inflammation of the skin in order to relieve symptoms of a deep-seated inflammatory process. 2. Relating to or producing counterirritation. Enhances blood flow to affected area.

counterirritation (kown′ter-ir-i-ta′shun)
Irritation or mild inflammation (redness, vesication, or pustulation) of the skin excited for the purpose of relieving symptoms of an inflammation of the deeper structures.

counteropening (kown′ter-o-pen-ing)
A second opening made at the dependent part of an abscess or other cavity containing fluid, which is not draining satisfactorily through a previous opening. SYN: contraaperture, counterpuncture.

counterphobic (kown-ter-fo′bik)
1. Denoting a state of actual preference, on the part of a phobic person, for the very situation of which that person is afraid. 2. Opposed to the phobic impulse, as in c. mastery of a feared action by repeated engagement in the action.

counterpulsation (kown′ter-pul-sa′shun)
A means of assisting the failing heart by automatically removing arterial blood just before and during ventricular ejection and returning it to the circulation during diastole; a balloon catheter is inserted into the aorta and activated by an automatic mechanism triggered by the ECG. intra-aortic balloon c. rhythmic inflation and deflation of a catheter-borne balloon placed in the aorta distal to the aortic valve to facilitate ejection during systole and to limit regurgitation during diastole by the appropriate application of pressures. Usually an emergency treatment for cardiogenic shock or for intractable angina.

counterpuncture (kown′ter-punk-choor)
SYN: counteropening.




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