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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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countershock (kown′ter-shok)
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm.

counterstain (kown′ter-stan)
A second stain of different color, having affinity for tissues, cells, or parts of cells other than those taking the primary stain, used to render more distinct the parts taking the first stain.

countertraction (kown-ter-trak′shun)
The resistance, or back-pull, made to traction or pulling on a limb; e.g., in the case of traction made on the leg, c. may be effected by raising the foot of the bed so that the weight of the body pulls against the weight attached to the limb. SYN: counterextension.

countertransference (kown′ter-trans-fer′ens)
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's transference (often unconscious) to the patient of emotional needs and conflicts from the analyst's past experiences or the analyst's current emotional responses to the manifestation of the patient's transference.

countertransport (kown-ter-tranz′port)
The transport of one substance across a membrane, coupled with the simultaneous transport of another substance across the same membrane in the opposite direction.

coup de sabre (koo-de-sahb′)
Linear scleroderma found over the scalp with scarring alopecia, face, or forehead. [Fr. stroke of a sword]

couple (ku′pl)
To copulate; to perform coitus; said especially of the lower animals.

coupling (kup′ling)
1. Usually the result of the repeated pairing of a normal sinus beat with a ventricular extrasystole. 2. See c. phase. 3. A condition in which one or more products of a reaction are the subsequent reactants (or substrates) of a second reaction. constant c. SYN: fixed c.. fixed c. where several premature beats are seen, the interval between each of them and the preceding normal beat is constant. SYN: constant c.. variable c. where several extrasystoles are seen, the interval between each of them and the preceding sinus beat varies.

Courvoisier
Ludwig G., French surgeon, 1843–1918. See C. law, C. sign, C. gallbladder.

couvade (koo-vahd′)
A primitive custom in certain cultures in which a man develops labor pains while his wife is in labor and then submits to the same postpartum purification rites and taboos. [Fr. couver, to hatch]

Couvelaire
Alexandre, French obstetrician, 1873–1948. See C. uterus.

couvercle (koo-ver′kl)
Rarely used term for an external coagulum, especially a blood clot formed extravascularly. [Fr. cover, lid]

covalent (ko-val′ent)
Denoting an interatomic bond characterized by the sharing of 2, 4, or 6 electrons.

coverage
A measure of the extent to which the services rendered cover the potential need for these services in a community; applied specifically to such services as immunization in developing countries.

covering (kov′er-ing)
A surrounding layer; something that covers or encloses, forming an outer layer. SEE ALSO: tunica. coverings of spermatic cord coverings of the spermatic cord, including external and internal spermatic fasciae, and cremasteric muscle and fascia. SYN: tunicae funiculi spermatici.

coverslip (kuv′er-slip)
SYN: cover glass.

cow (kow)
1. A generator for short-lived isotopes based upon successively eluting or otherwise separating (“milking”) a short-lived radioactive daughter from a longer-lived parent; e.g., 99mTc from 99Mo, 113mIn from 113Sn. 2. The mature female of domestic cattle (genus Bos); also the mature female of certain other animals such as buffalo, elephant, and whale.

Cowden
Surname of the family from which the condition subsequently known as C. disease was first reported.

Cowdry
Edmund Vincent, U.S. cytologist, 1888–1975. See C. type A inclusion bodies, under body, C. type B inclusion bodies, under body.

cowl
See caul.

Cowling rule
See under rule.

Cowper
William, English anatomist, 1666–1709. See C. cyst, C. gland, C. ligament.

cowperian (kow-per′e-an)
Relating to or described by Cowper.

Cox
H.R., U.S. bacteriologist, *1907.

coxa, gen. and pl. coxae (kok′sa, -se) [TA]
1. SYN: hip (1) . 2. SYN: hip joint. [L] c. adducta SYN: c. vara. false c. vara approximation of the head of the femur to the shaft, due not to deformity of the neck of the femur, but to curvature of the shaft. c. magna enlargement and often deformation of the femoral head; usually refers to a sequela of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or osteoarthritis. c. plana SYN: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. c. valga alteration of the angle made by the axis of the femoral neck to the axis of the femoral shaft, so that the angle exceeds 135°; the femoral neck is in more of a straight-line relationship to the shaft of the femur. c. vara alteration of the angle made by the axis of the femoral neck to the axis of the femoral shaft so that the angle is less than 135°; the femoral neck becomes more horizontal. SYN: c. adducta. c. vara luxans c. vara with dislocation of the femoral head.

coxalgia (koks-al′je-a)
SYN: coxodynia. [L. coxa, hip, + G. algos, pain]

Coxiella (kok-se-el′a)
A genus of filterable bacteria (order Rickettsiales) containing small, pleomorphic, rod-shaped or coccoid, Gram-negative cells that occur intracellularly in the cytoplasm of infected cells and possibly extracellularly in infected ticks. These organisms have not been cultivated in cell-free media; they are parasitic on humans and other animals; type species is C. burnetii. C. burnetii a bacterial species that causes Q fever in humans; it is more resistant than other rickettsiae and may be passed via aerosols as well as living vectors. Acute pneumonia and chronic endocarditis are also associated with this species. The type species of the genus C..

coxitis (koks-i′tis)
Inflammation of the hip.

coxodynia (koks-o-din′e-a)
Pain in the hip joint. SYN: coxalgia. [L. coxa, hip, + G. odyne, pain]

coxofemoral (kok-so-fem′o-ral)
Relating to the hip bone and the femur.

coxotuberculosis (koks′o-too-ber-ku-lo′sis)
Tuberculous hip-joint disease.

coxsackievirus (kok-sak′e-vi′rus)
A group of picornaviruses, included in the genus Enterovirus, of icosahedral shape, stable at acid pH, and about 28 nm in diameter, causing myositis, paralysis, and death in young mice, and responsible for a variety of diseases in man, although inapparent infections are common. They are divided antigenically into two groups, A and B, each of which includes a number of serological types, e.g., Enterovirus coxsackie A1 to 24 and Enterovirus coxsackie B1 to 6. Type A viruses cause human herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease; type B viruses cause epidemic pleurodynia; both type viruses may cause aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and pericarditis, and acute onset juvenile diabetes. [Coxsackie, N.Y., where first isolated]

c.p.
Abbreviation for chemically pure.

CPAP
Abbreviation for continuous positive airway pressure.

CPEO
Acronym for chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

C-peptide
The 30-amino-acid chain that connects the A and B chains of insulin in proinsulin; removed in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. SYN: C chain.

CPK
Abbreviation for creatine phosphokinase.

CPM
Abbreviation for continuous passive motion.

cpm
Abbreviation for counts per minute.

CPPD
Abbreviation for calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.

CPPV
Abbreviation for continuous positive pressure ventilation.

CPR
Abbreviation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

cps
Abbreviation for cycles per second.

CR
Abbreviation for conditioned reflex; crown-rump length; computed radiography.

Cr
1. Symbol for chromium. 2. Abbreviation for creatinine.

crab (krab)
1. A crustacean, many varieties of which are edible. 2. An insect, the c. louse, Pthirus pubis.

Crabtree
Herbert G., 20th century English physician and biochemist. See C. effect.

crack (krak)
1. A fissure. 2. See c. cocaine. [slang] lacquer cracks breaks in Bruch membrane seen in pathologic myopia.

crackle (krak′l)
SYN: rale. [echoic]

cradle (kra′dl)
A frame used to keep bedclothes from coming in contact with a patient. [M.E. cradel]

Crafoord
Clarence, Swedish thoracic surgeon, 1899–1984. See C. clamp.

Craigia (kra′ge-a)
Obsolete generic term for a group of amebae now recognized as Entamoeba. [C. Craig]

Cramer
Friedrich, German surgeon, 1847–1903. See C. wire splint.

cramp (kramp)
1. A painful muscle spasm caused by prolonged tetanic contraction. 2. A localized muscle spasm related to occupational use, qualified according to the occupation of the sufferer; e.g., seamstress's c., writer's c.. [M.E. crampe, fr. O.Fr., fr. Germanic] heat cramps muscle spasms induced by severe exertion in intense heat, accompanied by considerable pain; sometimes related to salt deficiency, hyperventilation, or overindulgence in alcohol. SYN: myalgia thermica. intermittent c. SYN: tetany. miner's cramps cramps caused by excessive salt loss through perspiration. SYN: stoker's cramps. musician's c. an occupational dystonia, affecting those who play on musical instruments, and named usually according to the instrument played upon. pianist's c., piano-player's c. an occupational dystonia affecting the muscles of the fingers and forearms in piano players. seamstress's c. an occupational dystonia occurring in the fingers of women who sew. shaving c. an occupational dystonia affecting the hands and fingers of barbers. stoker's cramps SYN: miner's cramps. tailor's c. an occupational dystonia affecting the forearms and hands of tailors. typist's c. an occupational dystonia affecting chiefly the long flexor muscles of the hands of typists. violinist's c. a occupational dystonia affecting the digits of the fingering hand, or sometimes the bowing arm, in violin players. waiter's c. an occupational dystonia characterized by spasm of the muscles of the back and dominant arm in persons who wait tables. watchmaker's c. an occupational dystonia characterized by spasm of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle from holding the lens to the eye and spasm of the muscles of the hand from performing the delicate movements of watch repairing. writer's c. an occupation dystonia affecting chiefly the muscles of the thumb and two adjoining fingers of the writing hand, induced by excessive use of a writing instrument. SYN: dysgraphia (2) , graphospasm, scrivener's palsy.

Crampton
Sir Philip, Irish surgeon, 1777–1858. See C. line, C. muscle.

Crampton
Charles Ward, U.S. physician, *1877. See C. test.

Crandall
Barbara F., U.S. physician. See C. syndrome.

crani-
See cranio-.

crania (kra′ne-a)
Plural of cranium.

craniad (kra′ne-ad)
Situated nearer the head in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of caudad. SEE ALSO: superior.

cranial (kra′ne-al)
1. [TA] Relating to the cranium or head. SYN: cranialis [TA] , cephalic. SEE ALSO: cephalad. 2. SYN: superior (2) .

cranialis (kra-ne-a′lis) [TA]
SYN: cranial (1) .

craniamphitomy (kra-ne-am-fit′o-me)
A decompression operation in which the entire circumference of the calvarium is divided. [G. kranion, skull, + amphi, around, + tome, cutting]

Craniata (kra-ne-a′ta)
SYN: Vertebrata. [Mediev. L. cranium, fr. G. kranion, skull]

craniectomy (kra′ne-ek′to-me)
Excision of a portion of the skull, without replacement of the bone, e.g., subtemporal or suboccipital. [G. kranion, skull, + ektome, excision] linear c. excision of a strip of cranium containing a prematurely fused suture.

cranio-, crani-
The cranium. Cf.:cerebro-. [G. kranion, skull]

cranio-aural (kra′ne-o-aw′ral)
Relating to the skull and the ear.

craniocele (kra′ne-o-sel)
SYN: encephalocele. [cranio- + G. kele, hernia]

craniocerebral (kra′ne-o-ser′e-bral)
Relating to the skull and the brain.




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