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Medical Dictionary


crenocyte (kre′no-sit)
A red blood cell with serrated, notched edges. [L. crena, a notch, + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]

crenocytosis (kre′no-si-to′sis)
The presence of crenocytes in the blood. [crenocyte + G. -osis, condition]

Crenosoma vulpis (kre′no-so-ma vul′pis)
A metastrongyle lungworm species of the fox, wolf, dog, raccoon, and other small carnivores in Europe, Asia, and North America; it occurs in the bronchi, causing bronchitis. [G. krene, a (mineral) spring, + soma, body; L. vulpes, fox]

creophagy, creophagism (kre-of′a-je, kre-of′a-jizm)
Carnivorousness;flesh-eating. [G. kreas, flesh, + phago, to eat]

creosol (kre′o-sol)
A slightly yellowish aromatic liquid distilled from guaiac or from beechwood tar; a constituent of creosote. Cf.:cresol.

creosote (kre′o-sot)
A mixture of phenols (chiefly methyl guaiacol, guaiacol, and creosol) obtained during the distillation of wood-tar, preferably that derived from beechwood; used as a disinfectant and wood preservative. [G. kreas, flesh, + soter, preserver]

crepitant (krep′i-tant)
1. Relating to or characterized by crepitation. 2. Denoting a fine bubbling noise (rale) produced by air entering fluid in lung tissue; heard in pneumonia and in certain other conditions. 3. The sensation imparted to the palpating finger by gas or air in the subcutaneous tissues.

crepitation (krep-i-ta′shun)
1. Crackling; the quality of a fine bubbling sound (rale) that resembles noise heard on rubbing hair between the fingers. 2. The sensation felt on placing the hand over the seat of a fracture when the broken ends of the bone are moved, or over tissue, in which gas gangrene is present. SYN: bony crepitus. 3. Noise or vibration produced by rubbing bone or irregular degenerated cartilage surfaces together as in arthritis and other conditions. SYN: crepitus (1) . [see crepitus]

crepitus (krep′i-tus)
1. SYN: crepitation. 2. A noisy discharge of gas from the intestine. [L. fr. crepo, to rattle] articular c. the grating of a joint, often in association with osteoarthritis. bony c. SYN: crepitation (2) .

crescent (kres′ent)
1. Any figure of the shape of the moon in its first quarter. 2. The figure made by the gray columns or cornua on cross-section of the spinal cord. 3. SYN: malarial c.. [L. cresco, pp. cretus, to grow] articular c. SYN: meniscus lens. Giannuzzi crescents SYN: serous demilunes, under demilune. glomerular c. proliferated epithelial cells partly encircling a renal glomerulus; it occurs in glomerulonephritis. Heidenhain crescents SYN: serous demilunes, under demilune. malarial c. the male or female gametocyte(s) of Plasmodium falciparum, whose presence in human red blood cells is diagnostic of falciparum malaria. SYN: c. (3) , sickle form. myopic c. a white or grayish white crescentic area in the fundus of the eye located on the temporal side of the optic disk; caused by atrophy of the choroid, permitting the sclera to become visible. SYN: myopic conus. sublingual c. the c.-shaped area on the floor of the mouth formed by the lingual wall of the mandible and the adjacent part of the floor of the mouth.

crescentic (kres-sen′tik)
Shaped like a crescent.

crescograph (kres′ko-graf)
A device for recording the degree and rate of growth. [L. cresco, to grow, + G. grapho, to draw or write]

cresol (kre′sol)
A mixture of the three isomeric cresols, o-, m-, and p-c., obtained from coal tar. Its properties are similar to those of phenol, but it is less poisonous; used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. SYN: tricresol.

cresolase (kre′so-las)
SYN: monophenol monooxygenase (1) .

cresol red
An acid-base indicator with a pK value of 8.3; yellow at pH values below 7.4, red above 9.0.

Acronym for calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal motility disorders, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. See C. syndrome.

crest (krest) [TA]
1. A ridge, especially a bony ridge. SEE ALSO: crista. 2. The ridge of the neck of a male animal, especially of a stallion or bull. 3. Feathers on the top of a bird's head, or fin rays on the top of a fish's head. SYN: crista [TA] . [L. crista] acoustic c. SYN: ampullary c.. alveolar c. 1. the portion of the alveolar bone extending beyond the periphery of the socket, lying interproximally; 2. the top of the residual alveolar bone. c. of alveolar ridge the top of the alveolar ridge or residual ridge; the highest continuous surface of the ridge, but not necessarily the center of the ridge. ampullary c. [TA] an elevation on the inner surface of the ampulla of each semicircular duct; filaments of the vestibular nerve pass through the crista to reach hair cells on its surface; the hair cells are capped by the cupula, a gelatinous protein-polysaccharide mass. SEE ALSO: neuroepithelium of ampullary c.. SYN: crista ampullaris [TA] , acoustic c., transverse septum (1) . ampullary c. (of semicircular ducts) [TA] crescentic ridge invaginating the lumen of the ampullae of the semicircular ducts bearing sensory epithelium on a base of nerve fibers and connective tissue. SYN: crista ampullaris (ductuum semicircularium) [TA] . anterior lacrimal c. [TA] a vertical ridge on the lateral surface of the frontal process of the maxilla that forms part of the medial rim of the orbit. SYN: crista lacrimalis anterior [TA] . arched c. SYN: arcuate c. of arytenoid cartilage. arcuate c. SYN: arcuate c. of arytenoid cartilage. arcuate c. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the ridge on the anterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage that separates the triangular from the oblong fovea. SYN: crista arcuata cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] , arched c., arcuate c.. articular c. SYN: intermediate sacral c.. basal c. of cochlear duct [TA] sharp extension of the central portion of the spiral ligament that continues as the basilar membrane. SYN: crista basalaris ductus cochlearis [TA] , crista spiralis ductus cochlearis&star, spiral c. of cochlear duct&star. basilar c. of cochlear duct an inward projection of the spiral ligament of the cochlea to which is attached the basilar membrane forming the floor of the cochlear duct. SYN: crista basilaris ductus cochlearis [TA] . c. of body of rib [TA] the sharp inferior margin of the shaft of a rib. SYN: crista corporis costae [TA] . buccinator c. a ridge passing from the base of the coronoid process of the mandible to the region of the last molar tooth; it gives attachment to the mandibular part of the buccinator muscle. SYN: crista buccinatoria. c. of cochlear opening SYN: c. of round window. conchal c. [TA] bony ridge that articulates with, or provides attachment for, the inferior nasal concha. See conchal c. of body of maxilla, conchal c. of palatine bone. SYN: crista conchalis [TA] , turbinated c.. conchal c. of body of maxilla [TA] ridge of the nasal surface of the body of the maxilla that articulates with the inferior nasal concha. SYN: crista conchalis corporis maxillae [TA] . conchal c. of palatine bone [TA] the ridge on the nasal surface of the perpendicular part of the palatine bone to which the inferior nasal concha attaches. SYN: crista conchalis ossis palatini [TA] . deltoid c. SYN: deltoid tuberosity (of humerus). dental c. the maxillary ridge on the aleveolar processes of the maxillary bones in the fetus. SYN: crista dentalis. ethmoidal c. [TA] bony ridge which articulates with, or provides attachment for, any part of the ethmoid bone, especially the middle nasal concha. See ethmoidal c. of maxilla, ethmoidal c. of palatine bone. SYN: crista ethmoidalis [TA] . ethmoidal c. of maxilla [TA] a ridge on the upper part of the nasal surface of the frontal process of the maxilla that gives attachment to the anterior portion of the middle nasal concha. SYN: crista ethmoidalis maxillae [TA] . ethmoidal c. of palatine bone [TA] a ridge on the medial surface of the perpendicular part of the palatine bone to which the middle nasal concha attaches posteriorly. SYN: crista ethmoidalis ossis palatini [TA] . external occipital c. [TA] a ridge extending from the external occipital protuberance to the border of the foramen magnum. SYN: crista occipitalis externa [TA] , linea nuchae mediana. falciform c. SYN: transverse c. of internal acoustic meatus. c. of fenestrae cochleae SYN: c. of round window. frontal c. [TA] a ridge arising at the termination of the sagittal sulcus on the cerebral surface of the frontal bone and ending at the foramen caecum. SYN: crista frontalis [TA] . ganglionic c. SYN: neural c.. gingival c. SYN: gingival margin. gluteal c. SYN: gluteal tuberosity. c. of greater tubercle [TA] the ridge below the greater tubercle of the humerus into which the pectoralis major muscle inserts. SYN: crista tuberculi majoris [TA] , bicipital ridges, pectoral ridge. c. of head of rib [TA] the ridge that separates the superior and inferior articular surfaces of the head of a rib. SYN: crista capitis costae [TA] . iliac c. [TA] the long, curved upper border of the wing of the ilium. SYN: crista iliaca [TA] . incisor c. the front part of the nasal c. of the palatine process of the maxilla. infratemporal c. of greater wing of sphenoid [TA] a rough ridge marking the angle of union of the temporal and infratemporal surfaces of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. SYN: crista infratemporalis alaris majoris ossis sphenoidalis [TA] , pterygoid ridge of sphenoid bone. inguinal c. an elevation in the body wall of the embryo at the internal opening of the inguinal canal; part of the gubernaculum testis develops within it. intermediate sacral c. [TA] crests formed by the fusion of articular processes of all the sacral vertebrae. SYN: crista sacralis medialis [TA] , articular c., crista sacralis intermedia. internal occipital c. [TA] a ridge running from the internal occipital protuberance to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum, giving attachment to the falx cerebelli. SYN: crista occipitalis interna [TA] . interosseous c. SYN: interosseous border. intertrochanteric c. [TA] the rounded ridge that connects the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur posteriorly and marks the junction of the neck and shaft of the bone. SYN: crista intertrochanterica [TA] , trochanteric c.. interureteric c. [TA] a fold of mucous membrane extending from the orifice of the ureter of one side to that of the other side. SYN: plica interureterica [TA] , bar of bladder, interureteric fold, Mercier bar, plica ureterica, torus uretericus, ureteric fold. lateral epicondylar c. SYN: lateral supraepicondylar ridge. lateral sacral c. [TA] crests which are rough ridges lying lateral to the sacral foramina; they represent the fused transverse processes of sacral vertebrae. SYN: crista sacralis lateralis [TA] . lateral supracondylar c. SYN: lateral supraepicondylar ridge. c. of lesser tubercle [TA] the ridge below the lesser tubercle of the humerus into which the teres major muscle inserts. SYN: crista tuberculi minoris [TA] , bicipital ridges. marginal c. of tooth [TA] the rounded borders that form the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surface of a tooth. SYN: crista marginalis dentis [TA] , marginal ridge. medial epicondylar c. SYN: medial supraepicondylar ridge. medial c. of fibula [TA] a ridge of bone, on the posterior surface of the fibula, separating the attachment of the posterior tibial muscle from that of the flexor hallucis longus and soleus muscles. SYN: crista medialis fibulae [TA] . medial supracondylar c. SYN: medial supraepicondylar ridge. median sacral c. [TA] an unpaired c. formed by the fused spinous processes of the upper four sacral vertebrae. SYN: crista sacralis mediana [TA] . crests of nail bed crests of nail matrix [TA] the numerous longitudinal ridges of the nail bed distal to the lunula. SYN: cristae matricis unguis. nasal c. [TA] the midline ridge in the floor of the nasal cavity, formed by the union of the paired maxillae and palatine bones; the vomer attaches to the c.. SYN: crista nasalis [TA] , semicrista incisiva. nasal c. of horizontal plate of palatine bone [TA] superiorly (nasally) directed bony c., formed at the meeting of the horizontal processes of the right and left palatine bones, for attachment of the nasal septum. SYN: crista nasalis laminae horizontalis ossis palatini [TA] . nasal c. of palatine process of maxilla [TA] superiorly (nasally) directed bony c., formed at the meeting of the palatine processes of the right and left maxillae, for attachment of the nasal septum. SYN: crista nasalis processus palatini maxillae [TA] . c. of neck of rib [TA] the sharp upper margin of the neck of a rib. SYN: crista colli costae [TA] . neural c. neuroectodermal cells that originate in the dorsal aspect of the neural folds or neural tube; these cells leave the neural tube or folds and differentiate into various cell types including dorsal-root ganglion cells, autonomic ganglion cells, the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, Schwann cells, sensory ganglia cells of cranial nerves, 5, 9, and 10, part of the meninges, or integumentary pigment cells. SYN: ganglion ridge, ganglionic c.. obturator c. [TA] a ridge that extends from the pubic tubercle to the acetabular notch, giving attachment to the pubofemoral ligament of the hip joint. SYN: crista obturatoria [TA] . c. of palatine bone, palatine c. SYN: palatine c. of horizontal process of palatine bone. palatine c. of horizontal process of palatine bone [TA] a transverse ridge near the posterior border of the bony palate, located on the inferior surface of the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. SYN: crista palatina laminae horizontalis ossis palatini [TA] , c. of palatine bone, palatine c., crista palatina. c. of petrous part of temporal bone SYN: superior border of petrous part of temporal bone. c. of petrous temporal bone SYN: superior border of petrous part of temporal bone. posterior lacrimal c. [TA] a vertical ridge on the orbital surface of the lacrimal bone that, together with the anterior lacrimal c., bounds the fossa for the lacrimal sac. SYN: crista lacrimalis posterior [TA] . pubic c. [TA] the rough anterior border of the body of the pubis, continuous laterally with the pubic tubercle. SYN: crista pubica [TA] . c. of round window [TA] the edge of the opening of the cochlear window to which the secondary tympanic membrane is attached. SYN: crista fenestrae cochleae [TA] , c. of cochlear opening, c. of fenestrae cochleae. sacral c. [TA] one of three rough irregular ridges on the posterior surface of the sacrum; median sacral c.; lateral sacral crests. SYN: crista sacralis [TA] . sagittal c. a prominent ridge along the sagittal suture of the skull, present in some animals as a result of temporal muscle development. c. of scapular spine the posterior subcutaneous border of the spine of the scapula that expands in its medial part into a smooth triangular area. sphenoidal c. [TA] a vertical ridge in the midline of the anterior surface of the sphenoid bone that articulates with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. SYN: crista sphenoidalis [TA] . spiral c. SYN: spiral ligament of cochlear duct. spiral c. of cochlear duct basal c. of cochlear duct. c. of supinator muscle SYN: supinator c. (of ulna). supinator c. (of ulna) [TA] the proximal part of the interosseous border of the ulna from which a portion of the supinator muscle takes origin. SYN: crista musculi supinatoris ulnae [TA] , c. of supinator muscle. supramastoid c. [TA] the ridge that forms the posterior root of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. SYN: crista supramastoidea [TA] . suprastyloid c. of radius [TA] lateral border of the distal radius leading to the styloid process; site of insertion of the brachioradialis muscle. SYN: crista suprastyloidea radii [TA] . supraventricular c. [TA] the internal muscular ridge that separates the conus arteriosus from the remaining part of the cavity of the right ventricle of the heart. SYN: crista supraventricularis [TA] . temporal c. of mandible [TA] ridge along anteromedial aspect of the coronoid process and upper ramus of the mandible into which the temporalis muscle inserts. SYN: crista temporalis mandibulae [TA] . terminal c. SYN: crista terminalis of right atrium. tibial c. SYN: anterior border of tibia. transverse c. 1. SYN: transverse c. of internal acoustic meatus. 2. SYN: crista transversalis. transverse c. of internal acoustic meatus [TA] a horizontal ridge that divides the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus into a superior and an inferior area. In the former are the introitus of the facial canal and openings for the branches of the vestibular nerve to the utricle and to the ampullae of the anterior and lateral semicircular canals. In the latter are openings for the cochlear nerve, and for branches of the vestibular nerve to the saccule and to the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal. SYN: crista transversa meatus acustici interni [TA] , falciform c., transverse c. (1) . triangular c. SYN: crista triangularis. trigeminal c. that part of the cranial neural c. from which part of the ganglion of the fifth cranial nerve develops. trochanteric c. SYN: intertrochanteric c.. turbinated c. SYN: conchal c.. urethral c. [TA] longitudinal mucosal fold in the dorsal wall of the urethra. See urethral c. of female, urethral c. of male. SYN: crista urethralis [TA] . urethral c. of female [TA] a conspicuous longitudinal fold of mucosa on the posterior wall of the urethra. SYN: crista urethralis femininae [TA] . urethral c. of male [TA] a longitudinal fold on the posterior wall of the urethra extending from the uvula of the bladder through the prostatic urethra; prominent in its midportion is the seminal colliculus. SYN: crista urethralis masculinae [TA] , crista phallica. vertical c. of internal acoustic meatus [TA] bony ridge of the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus separating the superior vestibular area from the facial area above the more prominent transverse c., and the inferior vestibular area from the cochlear area below the transverse c.. SYN: crista verticalis meatus acustici interni [TA] . vestibular c. [TA] an oblique ridge on the inner wall of the vestibule of the labyrinth, bounding the spherical recess above and posteriorly. SYN: crista vestibuli [TA] , c. of vestibule. c. of vestibule SYN: vestibular c.. vomerine c. of choana [TA] the concave posterior border of the vomer and overlying respiratory epithelium that forms the medial boundary of and separates the right and left choanae. SYN: crista choanalis vomeris [TA] .

cresta (kres′ta)
A small membranous organelle characteristic of certain flagellate protozoa, located near the pelta and seen in the living organism as an independently moving structure. [L. crispus, trembling]

cresylate (kres′i-lat)
A salt of cresylic acid, or cresol.

cresyl blue, cresyl blue brilliant (kres′il) [C.I. 51010]
A basic oxazin dye used for staining the reticulum in young erythrocytes (reticulocytes); also used in vital staining and as a selective stain for gastric surface epithelial mucin and other acid mucopolysaccharides.

cresyl echt, cresyl fast violet
A metachromatic basic oxazin dye, closely related to cresyl violet acetate and used for the same purposes.

cresyl violet acetate
A metachromatic basic oxazin dye, used as a stain for nuclei and Nissl substance; related to German derived dye known as cresyl echt violet or cresyl fast violet.

creta (kre′ta)
SYN: calcium carbonate. [L. orig. adj. fr. C., Crete, i.e. Cretan earth, chalk]

cretin (kre′tin)
An individual exhibiting cretinism. [Fr. crétin]

cretinism (kre′tin-izm)
Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism. See infantile hypothyroidism.

cretinistic (kre′tin-is-tik)
SYN: cretinous.

cretinoid (kre′tin-oyd)
Resembling a cretin; presenting symptoms similar to those of cretinism.

cretinous (kre′tin-us)
Relating to cretinism or a cretin; affected with cretinism. SYN: cretinistic.

Hans Gerhard, German neuropsychiatrist, 1885–1964. See C.-Jakob disease.

crevice (krev′is)
A crack or small fissure, especially in a solid substance. [Fr. crevasse] gingival c. SYN: gingival sulcus.

crevicular (kre-vik′u-lar)
1. Relating to any crevice. 2. In dentistry, relating especially to the gingival crevice or sulcus.

Abbreviation for corticotropin-releasing factor.

Abbreviation for corticotropin-releasing hormone.

cribra (kri′bra, krib′ra)
Plural of cribrum.

cribrate (krib′rat)
SYN: cribriform.

cribration (kri-bra′shun)
1. Sifting; passing through a sieve. 2. The condition of being cribrate or numerously pitted or punctured.

cribriform (krib′ri-form) [TA]
Sievelike; containing many perforations. SYN: cribrate, polyporous. [L. cribrum, a sieve, + forma, form]

cribrum, pl .cribra (kri′brum, krib′rum; -bra, -ra)
SYN: cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. [L. a sieve]

Cricetinae (kri-se′ti-ne)
A subfamily of rodents (family Muridae) that includes hamsters and native American rats.

Cricetulus (kri-se′tu-lus)
One of four genera of hamsters; C. griseus, the striped hamster native to Europe and Asia, is a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis.

Cricetus (kri-se′tus)
One of four genera of hamsters; C. c. is used extensively as a research animal.

Francis H.C., British biochemist and Nobel laureate, *1916. See Watson-C. helix.

cricoarytenoid (kri′ko-ar-i-te′noyd)
Relating to the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages.

cricoarytenoideus (kri′ko-ar-i-te-noy′de-us)
See lateral cricoarytenoid (muscle), posterior cricoarytenoid (muscle).

cricoid (kri′koyd)
Ring-shaped;denoting the c. cartilage. [L. cricoideus, fr. G. krikos, a ring, + eidos, form]

cricoidynia (kri′koy-din′e-a)
Pain in the cricoid. [cricoid + G. odyne, pain]

cricopharyngeal (kri′ko-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the cricoid cartilage and the pharynx; a part of the inferior constrictor muscle of the pharynx. See inferior constrictor (muscle) of pharynx.

cricothyroid (kri-ko-thi′royd)
Relating to the cricoid and thyroid cartilages.

cricothyroideus (kri′ko-thi-roy′de-us)
See cricothyroid muscle.

cricothyroidotomy (kri′ko-thi-roy-dot′o-me)
SYN: cricothyrotomy.

cricothyrotomy (kri′ko-thi-rot′o-me)
Incision through the skin and cricothyroid membrane for relief of respiratory obstruction; used prior to or in place of tracheotomy in certain emergency respiratory obstructions. SEE ALSO: coniotomy. SYN: cricothyroidotomy, inferior laryngotomy, intercricothyrotomy. [cricoid + thyroid + G. tome, incision]

cricotomy (kri-kot′o-me)
Division of the cricoid cartilage, as in cricoid split, to enlarge the subglottic airway. [cricoid + G. tome, incision]

John F., U.S. physician, *1919. See C.-Najjar disease, C.-Najjar syndrome.

George W., U.S. surgeon, 1864–1943. See C. clamp.

criminology (krim-i-nol′o-je)
The branch of science concerned with the physical and mental characteristics and behavior of criminals. [L. crimen, crime, + G. logos, study]

crinin (krin′in)
Old term for a substance that will stimulate the production of secretions by specific glands. [G. krino, to secrete, + -in]

crinogenic (krin-o-jen′ik)
Causing secretion; stimulating a gland to increased function. [G. krino, to separate, + -gen, to produce]

crinophagy (krin-of′a-je)
Disposal of excess secretory granules by lysosomes.


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