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Medical Dictionary


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crowning (krown′ing)
1. Preparation of the natural crown of a tooth and covering the prepared crown with a veneer of suitable dental material (gold or non-precious metal casting, porcelain, plastic, or combinations). 2. That stage of childbirth when the fetal head has negotiated the pelvic outlet and the largest diameter of the head is encircled by the vulvar ring.

CRP
Abbreviation for cAMP receptor protein; C-reactive protein.

CRT
Abbreviation for cathode ray tube.

cruces (kroo′sez)
Plural of crux.

cruciate (kroo′she-at)
Shaped like, or resembling, a cross. [L. cruciatus]

crucible (kroo′si-bl)
A vessel used as a container for reactions or meltings at high temperature. [Mediev. L. crucibulum, a night lamp, later, a melting pot]

crufomate (kroo′fo-mat)
A veterinary anthelmintic.

crunch (krunch)
Sound heard on auscultation of the chest synchronous with cardiac contraction, indicating presence of air in the mediastinum. [onomatopoetic]

cruor (kroo′or)
Coagulated blood. [L. blood (that flows from a wound)]

crura (kroo′ra)
Plural of crus.

crural (kroo′ral)
Relating to the leg or thigh, or to any crus.

crureus (kroo-re′us)
SYN: vastus intermedius (muscle). [Mod. L.]

crus, gen. cruris, pl .crura (kroos, kroo′ris, -ra) [TA]
1. SYN: leg. 2. Any anatomical structure resembling a leg; usually (in the plural) a pair of diverging bands or elongated masses. SEE ALSO: limb. [L.] ampullary crura of semicircular ducts SYN: ampullary membranous limbs of semicircular ducts, under limb. anterior c. of stapes SYN: anterior limb of stapes. c. anterius capsulae internae [TA] SYN: anterior limb of internal capsule. c. anterius stapedis [TA] SYN: anterior limb of stapes. crura anthelicis SYN: crura of antihelix. crura antihelicis [TA] SYN: crura of antihelix. crura of antihelix [TA] two ridges, inferior and superior, bounding the fossa triangularis, by which the antihelix begins at the upper part of the auricle. SYN: crura antihelicis [TA] , crura anthelicis, leg of antihelix. crura of bony semicircular canals SYN: bony limbs of semicircular canals, under limb. c. breve incudis [TA] SYN: short limb of incus. c. cerebri [TA] specifically, the massive bundle of corticofugal nerve fibers passing longitudinally on the ventral surface of the midbrain on each side of the midline; it consists of fibers descending from the cortex to the tegmentum of the brainstem, pontine gray matter, and spinal cord. SEE ALSO: cerebral peduncle, basis pedunculi. c. clitoridis [TA] SYN: c. of clitoris. c. of clitoris [TA] the continuation on each side of the corpus cavernosum of the clitoris that diverges from the body posteriorly and is attached to the pubic arch. SYN: c. clitoridis [TA] . common c. of semicircular ducts SYN: common membranous limb of semicircular ducts. c. corporis cavernosi penis SYN: c. of penis. c. dextrum diaphragmatis [TA] SYN: right c. of diaphragm. c. dextrum fasciculi atrioventricularis [TA] SYN: right bundle of atrioventricular bundle. SEE ALSO: atrioventricular bundle. c. fornicis [TA] that part of the fornix that rises in a forward curve behind the thalamus to continue forward as the body for fornix ventral to the corpus callosum. SYN: c. of fornix [TA] , posterior pillar of fornix. c. of fornix [TA] SYN: c. fornicis. c. helicis [TA] SYN: c. of helix. c. of helix [TA] a transverse ridge continuing backward from the helix of the auricle, dividing the concha into an upper portion (cymba) and a lower portion (cavity of concha). SYN: c. helicis [TA] , crista helicis, limb of helix. c. inferius marginis falciformis hiatus sapheni inferior horn of falciform margin of saphenous opening. lateral c. limb or leglike portion of a structure, farthest from midline. SYN: c. laterale, lateral limb. c. laterale SYN: lateral c.. c. laterale anuli inguinalis superficialis [TA] SYN: lateral c. of the superficial inguinal ring. c. laterale cartilaginis alaris majoris [TA] SYN: lateral c. of the major alar cartilage of the nose. lateral c. of facial canal laterally placed, posteriorly directed second portion of the horizontal part of the facial canal. See horizontal part of facial canal. SYN: lateral c. of horizontal part of the facial canal. lateral c. of horizontal part of the facial canal SYN: lateral c. of facial canal. See horizontal part of facial canal. lateral c. of the major alar cartilage of the nose [TA] portion of cartilage extending laterally and posteriorly in a winglike fashion, supporting the wing of the nose and keeping the nostril patent. SYN: c. laterale cartilaginis alaris majoris [TA] . lateral c. of the superficial inguinal ring [TA] portion of the external oblique aponeurosis that passes lateral to the superficial inguinal ring blending into the inguinal ligament and forming the lateral boundary of the ring. SYN: c. laterale anuli inguinalis superficialis [TA] . left c. of atrioventricular bundle SYN: left bundle of atrioventricular bundle. left c. of diaphragm [TA] the muscular origin of the diaphragm from the upper two or three lumbar vertebrae that ascends to the left of the aorta to reach the central tendon. SYN: c. sinistrum diaphragmatis [TA] . long c. of incus SYN: long limb of incus. c. longum incudis [TA] SYN: long limb of incus. medial c. [TA] limb or leglike portion of a structure closest to the midline. SYN: c. mediale [TA] , medial limb. c. mediale [TA] SYN: medial c.. c. mediale anuli inguinalis superficialis [TA] SYN: medial c. of the superficial inguinal ring. c. mediale cartilaginis alaris majoris [TA] SYN: medial c. of major alar cartilage of nose. medial c. of facial canal medially placed, anteriorly directed first portion of the horizontal part of the facial canal. See horizontal part of facial canal. SYN: medial c. of the horizontal part of the facial canal. medial c. of the horizontal part of the facial canal SYN: medial c. of facial canal. See horizontal part of facial canal. medial c. of major alar cartilage of nose [TA] portion of cartilage that forms the anterioinferior portion of the cartilaginous septum between nostrils. SYN: c. mediale cartilaginis alaris majoris [TA] . medial c. of the superficial inguinal ring [TA] portion of the external oblique aponeurosis which passes medial to the superficial inguinal ring forming the medial boundary of the ring. SYN: c. mediale anuli inguinalis superficialis [TA] . crura membranacea ampullaria ductuum semicircularium [TA] SYN: ampullary membranous limbs of semicircular ducts, under limb. c. membranaceum commune ductuum semicircularium [TA] SYN: common membranous limb of semicircular ducts. c. membranaceum simplex ductus semicircularis [TA] SYN: simple membranous limb of semicircular duct. crura ossea canalium semicircularium SYN: bony limbs of semicircular canals, under limb. c. penis [TA] SYN: c. of penis. c. of penis [TA] the posterior, tapering portion of the corpus cavernosum penis which diverges from its contralateral partner to be attached to the ischiopubic ramus. SYN: c. penis [TA] , c. corporis cavernosi penis. posterior c. of stapes SYN: posterior limb of stapes. c. posterius capsulae internae [TA] SYN: posterior limb of internal capsule. c. posterius stapedis [TA] SYN: posterior limb of stapes. right c. of atrioventricular bundle SYN: right bundle of atrioventricular bundle. right c. of diaphragm [TA] the muscular origin of the diaphragm from the bodies of the upper three or four lumbar vertebrae that passes upward to the right of the aorta toward the central tendon; the esophageal hiatus is a parting of the fibers of the right c. to allow passage of the esophagus. SYN: c. dextrum diaphragmatis [TA] . short c. of incus SYN: short limb of incus. simple c. of semicircular duct SYN: simple membranous limb of semicircular duct. c. sinistrum diaphragmatis [TA] SYN: left c. of diaphragm. c. sinistrum fasciculi atrioventricularis SYN: left bundle of atrioventricular bundle. SEE ALSO: atrioventricular bundle. c. superius marginis falciformis hiatus sapheni SYN: superior horn of falciform margin of saphenous opening.

crus I (kroos)
SYN: superior semilunar lobule.

crus II (kroos)
SYN: inferior semilunar lobule.

crush (krush)
1. To squeeze injuriously between two hard bodies. 2. A bruise or contusion from pressure between two solid bodies. [O.Fr. cruisir]

crusotomy (kroos-ot′o-me)
A mesencephalic pyramidal tractotomy. [L. crus, leg, + G. tome, incision]

crust (krust)
1. A hard outer layer or covering; cutaneous crusts are often formed by dried serum or pus on the surface of a ruptured blister or pustule. 2. A scab. SYN: crusta. [L. crusta] milk c. SYN: crusta lactea.

crusta, pl .crustae (krus′ta, -te)
SYN: crust. [L.] c. inflammatoria SYN: buffy coat. c. lactea seborrhea of the scalp in an infant. SYN: milk crust. c. phlogistica SYN: buffy coat.

Crustacea (krus-ta′she-a)
A very large class of aquatic animals (phylum Arthropoda) with a chitinous exoskeleton and jointed appendages; e.g., the crab, lobster, crayfish, shrimp, isopods, ostracods, and amphipods. Some, such as certain copepods, are parasitic; others serve as intermediate hosts for parasitic worms which cause disease in humans and various other vertebrates. SEE ALSO: Copepoda. [L. crusta, a crust]

crutch (krutch)
A device used singly or in pairs to assist in walking when the act is impaired by a lower extremity (or trunk) disability; it transfers all or part of weight-bearing to the upper extremity. [A. S. cryce]

Cruveilhier
Jean, French pathologist and anatomist, 1791–1874. See C. fascia, C. fossa, fossa navicularis C., C. joint, C. ligaments, under ligament, C. plexus, C.-Baumgarten disease, C.-Baumgarten murmur, C.-Baumgarten sign, C.-Baumgarten syndrome.

crux, pl .cruces (kruks, kroo′sez)
A junction or crossing. SYN: cross (1) . [L.] c. of heart the zone of junction of the septa and walls of the four chambers of the heart. SYN: cross (2) . cruces pilorum [TA] SYN: hair crosses, under cross.

Cruz
Oswaldo, Brazilian physician, 1872–1917. See Chagas-C. disease, C. trypanosomiasis.

cry-
See cryo-.

cryalgesia (kri-al-je′ze-a)
Pain caused by cold. [G. kryos, cold, + algos, pain]

cryanesthesia (kri′an-es-the′ze-a)
Inability to perceive cold. [G. kryos, cold, + an- priv. + aisthesis, sensation]

cryesthesia (kri-es-the′ze-a)
1. A subjective sensation of cold. 2. Sensitiveness to cold. [G. kryos, cold, + aisthesis, sensation]

cry for help
Telephone calls, notes left in conspicuous places, and other behaviors that communicate extreme distress and possible consideration of suicide.

crymo-
Cold. SEE ALSO: cryo-, psychro-. [G. krymos, cold]

crymophilic (kri-mo-fil′ik)
Preferring cold; denoting microorganisms which thrive best at low temperatures. SYN: cryophilic. [crymo- + G. philos, fond]

crymophylactic (kri′mo-fi-lak′tik)
Resistant to cold, said of certain microorganisms that are not destroyed even by freezing temperatures. SYN: cryophylactic. [crymo- + G. phylaxis, a guarding against]

cryo-, cry-
Cold. SEE ALSO: crymo-, psychro-. [G. kryos, cold]

cryoanesthesia (kri′o-an-es-the′ze-a)
Localized application of cold as a means of producing regional anesthesia. SYN: refrigeration anesthesia.

cryobiology (kri′o-bi-ol′o-je)
The study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms.

cryocautery (kri′o-kaw′ter-e)
Any substance, such as liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide snow, or a low temperature instrument, the application of which causes destruction of tissue by freezing. SYN: cold cautery.

cryoconization (kri′o-kon-i-za′shun)
Freezing of a cone of endocervical tissue in vivo with a cryoprobe.

cryoextraction (kri′o-ek-strak′shun)
Removal of cataracts by the adhesion of a freezing probe to the lens; now rarely done.

cryoextractor (kri′o-ek-strak′tor, -tor)
An instrument, artificially cooled, for extraction of the lens by freezing contact.

cryofibrinogen (kri′o-fi-brin′o-jen)
An abnormal type of fibrinogen very rarely found in human plasma; it is precipitated upon cooling, but redissolves when warmed to room temperature.

cryofibrinogenemia (kri′o-fi-brin′o-je-ne′me-breve;a)
The presence in the blood of cryofibrinogens.

cryofluorane (kri-o-flor′an)
Used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant; may be irritating to the respiratory tract and mildly narcotic.

cryofracture (kri′o-frak′choor)
SYN: freeze fracture. [cryo- + fracture]

cryogen (kri′o-jen)
A freezing substance used to produce very low temperatures.

cryogenic (kri-o-jen′ik)
1. Denoting or characteristic of a cryogen. 2. Relating to cryogenics.

cryogenics (kri-o-jen′iks)
The science concerned with the production and effects of very low temperatures, particularly temperatures in the range of liquid helium (<4.25 K). [cryo- + G. -gen, producing]

cryoglobulinemia (kri′o-glob′u-li-ne′me-a)
The presence of abnormal quantities of cryoglobulin in the blood plasma.

cryoglobulins (kri-o-glob′u-linz)
1. Abnormal plasma proteins (paraproteins), now grouped with gamma globulins, characterized by precipitating, gelling, or crystallizing when serum or solutions of them are cooled; distinguished from Bence Jones proteins by their larger molecular weight (approximately 200,000 compared with 35,000–50,000); they may appear in patients with multiple myeloma. 2. Any globulin that forms a gel or flocculent precipitate on cooling.

cryohydrate (kri-o-hi′drat)
A eutectic system of a salt and water.

cryohypophysectomy (kri′o-hi-pof′i-sek′to-me)
Destruction of hypophysis by the application of extreme cold. [cryo- + hypophysis + G. ektome, excision]

cryolysis (kri-ol′i-sis)
Destruction by cold. [cryo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

cryometer (kri-om′e-ter)
A device for measuring very low temperatures. [cryo- + G. metron, measure]

cryopallidectomy (kri′o-pal-i-dek′to-me)
Destruction of the globus pallidus by the application of extreme cold. [cryo- + globus pallidus + G. ektome, excision]

cryopathy (kri-op′a-the)
A morbid condition in which exposure to cold is an important factor. SYN: frigorism. [cryo- + G. pathos, suffering]

cryopexy (kri′o-pek-se)
In retinal detachment surgery, sealing the sensory retina to the pigment epithelium and choroid by a freezing probe applied to the sclera. [cryo- + G. pexis, a fixing in place]

cryophilic (kri-o-fil′ik)
SYN: crymophilic. [cryo- + G. philos, fond]

cryophylactic (kri′o-fi-lak′tik)
SYN: crymophylactic.

cryoprecipitate (kri′o-pre-sip′i-tat)
Precipitate that forms when soluble material is cooled, especially with reference to the precipitate that forms in normal blood plasma which has been subjected to cold precipitation and which is rich in factor VIII.

cryoprecipitation (kri′o-pre-sip-i-ta′shun)
The process of forming a cryoprecipitate from solution.

cryopreservation (kri′o-pres-er-va′shun)
Maintenance of the viability of excised tissues or organs at extremely low temperatures.

cryoprobe (kri′o-prob)
An instrument used in cryosurgery to apply extreme cold to a selected area. [cryo- + L. probo, to test]

cryoprostatectomy (kri′o-pros-ta-tek′to-me)
Destruction of the prostate gland by freezing, utilizing a specially designed cryoprobe. [cryo- + L. prostata, prostate, + G. ektome, excision]

cryoprotein (kri-o-pro′ten)
A protein that precipitates from solution when cooled and redissolves upon warming.

cryopulvinectomy (kri′o-pul-vi-nek′to-me)
Destruction of the pulvinar by the application of extreme cold. [cryo- + pulvinar + G. ektome, excision]




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