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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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cryoscope (kri′o-skop)
An instrument for measuring the freezing point.

cryoscopy (kri-os′ko-pe)
The determination of the freezing point of a fluid, usually blood or urine, compared with that of distilled water. SYN: algoscopy. [cryo- + G. skopeo, to examine]

cryospasm (kri′o-spazm)
Spasm produced by cold. [cryo- + G. spasmos, convulsion]

cryostat (kri′o-stat)
A freezing chamber. [cryo- + G. statos, standing]

cryosurgery (kri-o-ser′jer-e)
An operation using freezing temperature (achieved by liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide) as an independent agent or in an instrument to destroy tissue.

cryothalamectomy (kri′o-thal-a-mek′to-me)
Destruction of the thalamus by the application of extreme cold. [cryo- + thalamus + G. ektome, excision]

cryotherapy (kri′o-thar′a-pe)
The use of cold in the treatment of disease.

cryotolerant (kri-o-tol′er-ant)
Tolerant of very low temperatures.

crypt (kript) [TA]
A pitlike depression or tubular recess. SYN: crypta [TA] . anal crypts SYN: anal sinuses, under sinus. dental c. the space filled by the dental follicle. enamel c. the narrow, mesenchyme-filled space between the dental ledge and an enamel organ. SYN: enamel niche. crypts of Henle infoldings of conjunctiva. crypts of iris 1. pits near the pupillary margin of the anterior surface of the iris. 2. spaces in the anterior iris stroma through which the aqueous washes with every pupillary movement. crypts of Lieberkühn SYN: intestinal glands, under gland. crypts of Lieberkühn of large intestine SYN: glands of large intestine, under gland. crypts of Lieberkühn of small intestine SYN: glands of small intestine, under gland. lingual c. a pit lined with epithelium in the lingual tonsil. Morgagni crypts SYN: anal sinuses, under sinus. synovial c. a diverticulum of the synovial membrane of a joint. tonsillar c. [TA] one of the variable number of deep recesses that extend into the lingual, palatine, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils from the free surface where they open at the tonsillar fossa. SYN: crypta tonsillaris [TA] .

crypt-
See crypto-.

crypta, pl .cryptae (krip′ta, -te) [TA]
SYN: crypt. [L. fr. G. kryptos, hidden] c. tonsillaris, pl .cryptae tonsillares [TA] SYN: tonsillar crypt.

cryptectomy (krip-tek′to-me)
Excision of a tonsillar or other crypt. [crypt + G. ektome, excision]

cryptenamine acetates, cryptenamine tannates (krip-ten′a-men)
Acetate or tannate salts of alkaloids from a nonaqueous extract of Veratrum viride, containing the hypotensive alkaloids protoveratrines A and B, germitrine, neogermetrine, germerine, germidine, jervine, rubijervine, isorubijervine, and germubide; used as antihypertensive agents. SEE ALSO: protoveratrine A and B.

cryptic (krip′tik)
Hidden; occult; larvate. [G. kryptikos]

cryptitis (krip-ti′tis)
Inflammation of a follicle or glandular tubule, particularly in the colon.

crypto-, crypt-
Hidden, obscure; without apparent cause. [G. kryptos, hidden, concealed]

cryptochrome (krip′to-krom)
Flavoprotein ultraviolet-A receptor involved in circadian rhythm entrainment in plants, insects, and mammals.

cryptococcoma (krip′to-kok-o′ma)
An infectious granuloma, typically in the brain, but also found in the lung and elsewhere, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. [Cryptococcus (genus name) + -oma]

cryptococcosis (krip′to-kok-o′sis)
An acute, subacute, or chronic infection by Cryptococcus neoformans, causing a pulmonary, disseminated, or meningeal mycosis. The pulmonary form may resolve spontaneously in previously normal persons but dissemination to other organs is fatal if untreated; the most common clinical manifestation is meningitis.

Cryptococcus (krip-to-kok′us)
A genus of yeastlike fungi that reproduce by budding. [crypto- + G. kokkos, berry] C. neoformans a species that causes cryptococcosis in humans and other mammals, particularly the cat family. Cells are spherical and reproduce by budding; a prominent feature is a polysaccharide capsule. C. neoformans var. neoformans has a worldwide distribution and can often be isolated from weathered pigeon droppings. C. neoformans var. gattii causes cryptococcosis in subtropical and tropical climates. This variety has been isolated from foliage and litter of species of eucalyptus.

cryptocrystalline (krip-to-kris′ta-len)
Having very minute crystals.

Cryptocystis trichodectis (krip-to-sis′tis tri-ko-dek′tis)
Name formerly applied to the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, named for the cysticercoids found in the dog louse, Trichodectes. [crypto- + G. kystis, bladder; tricho- + G. dektes, a beggar]

cryptodidymus (krip′to-did′i-mus)
Conjoined twins, with the poorly developed parasitic twin concealed within the larger autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [crypto- + G. didymos, twin]

Cryptogamia (krip-to-gam′e-a)
A montaxonomic division of the plant kingdom containing all forms of plant life that do not reproduce by means of seeds; included are the algae, bacteria, fungi, lichens, mosses, liverworts, ferns, horsetails, and club mosses. [crypto- + G. gamos, marriage]

cryptogenic (krip-to-jen′ik)
Of obscure, indeterminate etiology or origin, in contrast to phanerogenic. [crypto- + G. genesis, origin]

cryptolith (krip′to-lith)
A concretion in a gland follicle. [crypto- + G. lithos, stone]

cryptomenorrhea (krip′to-men-o-re′a)
Occurrence each month of the general symptoms of the menses without any flow of blood, as in cases of imperforate hymen. [crypto- + G. men, month, + rhoia, flow]

cryptophthalmus, cryptophthalmia (krip-tof-thal′mus, -thal′me-a)
Congenital absence of eyelids, with the skin passing continuously from the forehead onto the cheek over a rudimentary eye. [crypto- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

cryptopodia (krip-to-po′de-a)
A swelling of the lower part of the leg and the foot, in such a manner that there is great distortion and the sole seems to be a flattened pad. [crypto- + G. pous, foot]

cryptopyrrole (krip-to-pir′ol)
3-Ethyl-2,4-dimethylpyrrole;one of the pyrrole derivatives obtained by the drastic reduction of heme.

cryptorchid (krip-tor′kid)
Relating to or characterized by cryptorchism. [crypto- + G. orchis, testis]

cryptorchidism (krip-tor′ki-dizm)
SYN: cryptorchism.

cryptorchism (krip-tor′kizm)
Failure of one or both of the testes to descend. SYN: cryptorchidism.

cryptoscope (krip′to-skop)
Obsolete term for a simple x-ray fluoroscope. [G. kryptos, something hidden, + skopeo, to examine]

cryptosporidiosis (krip′to-spo-rid-e-o′sis)
An enteric disease caused by waterborne protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium; characterized pathologically by villous atrophy and fusion and clinically by diarrhea in humans, calves, lambs, and other animals; disease in immunocompetent persons is manifest as a self-limiting diarrhea, whereas in immunocompromised persons it is manifest as a prolonged severe diarrhea that can be fatal.

Cryptosporidium (krip′to-spo-rid′e-um)
A genus of coccidian sporozoans (family Cryptosporiidae, suborder Eimeriina) that are important pathogens of calves and other domestic animals, and common opportunistic parasites of humans that flourish under conditions of compromised immune function; can cause self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent persons. C. parvum sporozoan species that is an important cause of neonatal diarrhea in calves and lambs; causes mild, self-limiting to severe, chronic diarrhea in humans.

Cryptostroma corticale (krip-to-stro′ma kor-ti-ka′le)
A species of fungus that is a common allergen, growing profusely under the bark of stacked maple logs; handlers who inhale the massive number of spores may develop pneumonitic as well as allergic reactions, including maple bark disease. [crypto- + G. stroma, bed]

cryptotia (krip-to′she-a)
A rare abnormality in which the superior portion of the auricle is hidden under the scalp. [crypto- + G. otos, ear]

cryptoxanthin (krip-to-zan′thin)
(3R)-β,β-Caroten-3-ol; β-caroten-3-ol;carotenoid (specifically, a xanthophyll) yielding 1 mol of vitamin A per mole. Found in many fruits and berries.

cryptozoite (krip′to-zo′it)
The exoerythrocyte stage of the malarial organism that develops directly from the sporozoite inoculated by the infected mosquito; development of the first generation of merozoites in vertebrate host tissues occurs in the liver parenchyma. [crypto- + G. zoe, life]

cryptozygous (krip-toz′i-gus, -to-zi′gus)
Having a narrow face compared with the width of the cranium, so that, when the skull is viewed from above, the zygomatic arches are not visible. [crypto- + G. zygon, yoke]

crystal (kris′tal)
A solid of regular shape and, for a given compound, characteristic angles, formed when an element or compound solidifies slowly enough, as a result either of freezing from the liquid form or of precipitating out of solution, to allow the individual molecules to take up regular positions with respect to one another. [G. krystallos, clear ice, c.] asthma crystals SYN: Charcot-Leyden crystals. blood crystals SYN: hematoidin. Böttcher crystals small crystals observed microscopically in prostatic fluid that is treated with a drop or two of 1% solution of ammonium phosphate. Charcot-Leyden crystals crystals in the shape of elongated double pyramids, formed from eosinophils, found in the sputum in bronchial asthma and in other exudates or transudates containing eosinophils. SYN: asthma crystals, Charcot-Neumann crystals, Charcot-Robin crystals, Leyden crystals. Charcot-Neumann crystals SYN: Charcot-Leyden crystals. Charcot-Robin crystals SYN: Charcot-Leyden crystals. chiral c. an enantiomorphic, dysymmetric, optically active c.. chlorohemin crystals SYN: Teichmann crystals. clathrate c. latticelike arrangement of molecules of one substance surrounding molecules of another substance. ear crystals SYN: otoliths. Florence crystals brown rhombic crystals formed at the interface between a drop of Lugol solution and a drop of fluid that contains semen; not a specific test for the latter. hematoidin crystals SYN: hematoidin. hydrate c. one of several possible microstructural arrangements of water molecules based on intermolecular forces; suggested as being involved in the mode of action of inhalation anesthetics. knife-rest c. a c. of ammoniomagnesium phosphate found in alkaline urine. Leyden crystals SYN: Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lubarsch crystals intracellular crystals in the testis resembling sperm crystals. sperm c., spermin c. a c. of spermin phosphate found in the semen; possibly identical to Böttcher crystals. Teichmann crystals rhombic crystals of hemin; used in microscopic detection of blood. See hemin. SYN: chlorohemin crystals. thorn apple crystals ammonium urate crystals in the shape of rounded bodies with many projecting points. twin c. two crystals that have grown together along a common face. Virchow crystals yellow-brown, amber, or burnt orange crystals of hematoidin, frequently observed in extravasated blood in tissues. whetstone crystals xanthine crystals occasionally observed in urine.

crystallin (kris′ta-lin)
One of several water-soluble proteins found in the lens of the eye; alpha (an embryonic single protein), beta, and gamma varieties (based on precipitibility) are known. Reptiles and birds have a δ-crystalline as well. ε-C. is identical with lactate dehydrogenase. gamma c. the least rapidly mobile form of c. on electrophoresis.

crystalline (kris′ta-len)
1. Clear; transparent. 2. Relating to a crystal or crystals.

crystallization (kris′tal-i-za′shun)
Assumption of a crystalline form when a vapor or liquid becomes solidified, or a solute precipitates from solution.

crystallogram (kris′ta-lo-gram)
A photograph produced when x-rays are diffracted by a crystal. [G. krystallos, crystal, + gramma, something written]

crystallography (kris-tal-log′ra-fe)
The study of the shape and atomic structure of crystals.

crystalloid (kris′tal-oyd)
1. Resembling a crystal, or being such. 2. A body that in solution can pass through a semipermeable membrane, as distinguished from a colloid, which cannot do so. Charcot-Böttcher crystalloids spindle-shaped crystalloids 10–25 μm long, found in human Sertoli cells. Reinke crystalloids rod-shaped crystal-like structures with pointed or rounded ends present in the interstitial cells of the testis (Leydig cells) and ovary.

crystallophobia (kris′tal-o-fo′be-a)
SYN: hyalophobia. [G. krystallon, crystal, + phobos, fear]

crystalluria (kris-ta-loo′re-a)
The excretion of crystalline materials in the urine.

crystal violet (kris′tal) [C.I. 42555]
A compound that has been used in the external treatment of burns, wounds, and fungal infections of skin and mucous membranes, and internally for pinworm and certain fluke infections; used also as a stain for chromatin, amyloid, platelets in blood, fibrin, and neuroglia, and to differentiate among bacteria. SYN: methylrosaniline chloride.

Cs
Symbol for cesium.

CSD
Abbreviation for catscratch disease.

C-section
See cesarean section.

CSF
Abbreviation for cerebrospinal fluid; colony-stimulating factors, under factor.

CSI
Abbreviation for Calculus Surface Index.

CT
Abbreviation for computed tomography. dynamic C. SYN: dynamic computed tomography. helical C. SYN: spiral computed tomography. spiral C. SYN: spiral computed tomography.

CTD
Abbreviation for cumulative trauma disorders, under disorder.

Ctenocephalides (te-no-se-fal′i-dez)
A genus of fleas. C. canis (dog flea) and C. felis (cat flea) are nearly universal ectoparasites of household pets; will attack humans when starving owing to absence of pets. [G. ktenodes, like a cockle, + kephale, head]

CTL
Abbreviation for cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

CTP
Abbreviation for cytidine 5′-triphosphate.

Cu
Symbol for copper.

67Cu
Symbol for copper-67.

64Cu
Symbol for copper-64.

cubeb (ku′beb)
The dried unripe, nearly full-grown fruit of Piper cubeba (family Piperaceae), a climbing plant of the West Indies, used as stimulant, carminative, and local irritant; c. oil has been used as a mild urinary antiseptic. [Ar. and Hindu, kababa]

cubital (ku′bi-tal)
Relating to the elbow or to the ulna.




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