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Medical Dictionary


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curage (ku′rij, koo-rahzh′)
Curettage by means of the finger rather than the curet. [Fr. a cleansing]

curare (koo-rah′re)
An extract of various plants, especially Strychnos toxifera, S. castelnaei, S. crevauxii, and Chondodendron tomentosum, that produces nondepolarizing paralysis of skeletal muscle after intravenous injection by blocking transmission at the myoneuronal junction; used clinically ( e.g., as d-tubocurarine chloride, metocurine iodide) to provide muscle relaxation during surgical operations. Often classified by the vessels with which Amazon and Orinoco Indians stored c.. SYN: arrow poison (1) . [S. Am.] calabash c. (packed by Indians in hollow gourds), c. from Strychnos sp.; contains yohimbine, indole, and strychnine-type alkaloids. pot c. (c. stored in clay pots), c. from Chondodendron sp. tube c. (c. stored in bamboo tubes), c. from Chondodendron sp.; contains the alkaloid tubocurarine.

curariform (koo-rar′i-form)
Denoting a drug having an action like curare.

curarimimetic (koo-rar′i-mi-met′ik)
Having a curarelike action.

curarine (ku′ra-ren)
The alkaloid principle of calabash curare.

curarization (ku-rah-ri-za′shun)
Induction of muscular relaxation or paralysis by the administration of curare or related compounds that have the ability to block nerve impulse transmission at the myoneural junction.

curative (kur′a-tiv)
1. That which heals or cures. 2. Tending to heal or cure.

curcumin (kur′koo-min)
A yellow pigment from roots and pods of Curcuma longa; used in liver and bile ailments; found in curry powder; used as an indicator; it inhibits 5-lipoxygenase. SYN: tumeric yellow.

curd (kerd)
The coagulum of milk.

cure (kur)
1. To heal; to make well. 2. A restoration to health. 3. A special method or course of treatment. See dental curing. [L. curo, to care for]

curet
See curette.

curettage (ku-re-tahzh′, koo-)
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for the removal of new growths or other abnormal tissues, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. SYN: curettement. periapical c. 1. removal of a cyst or granuloma from its pathologic bony crypt, utilizing a curette; 2. the removal of tooth fragments and debris from sockets at the time of extraction or subsequent removal of bone sequestra. subgingival c. removal of subgingival calculus, ulcerated epithelial and granulation tissues found in periodontal pockets. SYN: apoxesis. suction c. a form of abortion in which the cervix is dilated if necessary and the products of conception removed by use of a canula attached to a suction source; technique used to complete a spontaneous incomplete abortion or as a form of induced abortion. SYN: dilation and suction.

curette, curet (ku-ret′, koo-)
Instrument in the form of a loop, ring, or scoop with sharpened edges attached to a rod-shaped handle, used for curettage. [Fr.] Hartmann c. a c., cutting on the side, for the removal of adenoids.

curettement (ku-ret′ment, koo-)
SYN: curettage.

curie (C, c, Ci) (ku′re)
A unit of measurement of radioactivity, 3.70 ×1010 disintegrations per second; formerly defined as the radioactivity of the amount of radon in equilibrium with 1 gm. of radium; superseded by the S.I. unit, the becquerel (1 disintegration per second). [Marie (1867–1934) and Pierre (1859–1906) C., French chemists and physicists and Nobel laureates]

curing (kur′ing)
1. The act of accomplishing a cure. 2. A process by which something is prepared for use, as by heating, aging, etc. dental c. the process by which plastic materials become rigid to form a denture base, filling, impression tray, or other appliance.

curium (Cm) (ku′re-um)
An element, atomic no. 96, atomic wt. 247.07, not occurring naturally on earth, but first formed artificially in 1944 by bombarding 239Pu with alpha particles; the most stable of the c. isotopes is 247Cm, with a half-life of 15.6 million years. [see curie]

Curling
Thomas B., English surgeon, 1811–1888. See stress ulcer.

current (ker′rent)
A stream or flow of fluid, air, or electricity. [L. currens, pres. p. of curro, to run] action c. an electrical c. induced in muscle fibers when they are effectively stimulated; normally it is followed by contraction. after-c. aftercurrent. alternating c. (AC) a c. that flows first in one direction then in the other; e.g., 60-cycle c.. anodal c. a c. produced in tissues under the anode when the circuit is closed. ascending c. the direction of c. flow in a nerve when the anode is placed peripheral to the cathode, in contrast to descending c.; the convention used is that c. flows from positive to negative. SYN: centripetal c.. axial c. the central rapidly moving portion of the bloodstream in an artery. centrifugal c. SYN: descending c.. centripetal c. SYN: ascending c.. d'Arsonval c. SYN: high-frequency c.. demarcation c. SYN: c. of injury. descending c. the direction of c. flow in a nerve when the cathode is placed peripheral to the anode, in contrast to ascending c.. SYN: centrifugal c.. direct c. (DC) a c. that flows only in one direction; e.g., that derived from a battery; sometimes referred to as galvanic c.. SEE ALSO: galvanism. electrotonic c. electrotonus. galvanic c. direct c., galvanism (1) . high-frequency c. an alternating electric c. having a frequency of 10,000 or more cycles per second; it produces no muscular contractions and does not affect the sensory nerves. SYN: d'Arsonval c., Tesla c.. c. of injury the c. generated when an injured part of a nerve, muscle, or other excitable tissue is connected through a conductor with the uninjured region; the injured tissue is negative to the uninjured. SYN: demarcation c.. labile c. an electrical c. applied to the body by means of electrodes that are constantly shifted about. Tesla c. SYN: high-frequency c..

Curschmann
Heinrich, German physician, 1846–1910. See C. spirals, under spiral.

curse (kers)
An affliction thought to be invoked by a malevolent spirit. Ondine c. idiopathic central alveolar hypoventilation in which involuntary control of respiration is depressed, but voluntary control of ventilation is not impaired. [Ondine, char. in play by J. Giraudoux, based on Undine, Ger. myth. char.]

Curtis
Arthur H., U.S. gynecologist, 1881–1955. See Fitz-Hugh and C. syndrome.

curvatura, pl .curvaturae (ker′va-too′ra, -too′re)
SYN: curvature. [L.] c. primaria columnae vertebralis [TA] SYN: primary curvature of vertebral column. curvaturae secondariae columnae vertebralis [TA] SYN: secondary curvatures of vertebral column, under curvature. c. ventriculi major [TA] SYN: greater curvature of stomach. c. ventriculi minor [TA] SYN: lesser curvature of stomach.

curvature (ker′va-choor)
A bending or flexure. See angulation. SYN: curvatura. [L. curvatura, fr. curvo, pp. -atus, to bend, curve] angular c. a gibbous deformity, i.e., a sharp angulation of the spine, occurring in Pott disease. SYN: Pott c.. anterior c. c. in which a more distal or cephalad part is deviated anteriorly with respect to the coronal anatomic plane. backward c. c. in which a more distal or cephalad part is deviated posteriorly with respect to the coronal anatomic plane. SYN: posterior c.. gingival c. the rounding of the gum along its line of attachment to the neck of a tooth. greater c. of stomach [TA] the border of the stomach to which the greater omentum is attached. SYN: curvatura ventriculi major [TA] . lateral c. c. in which a more distal part is deviated away from the anatomic sagittal plane, producing valgus alignment. lesser c. of stomach [TA] the right border of the stomach to which the lesser omentum is attached. SYN: curvatura ventriculi minor [TA] . occlusal c. SYN: curve of occlusion. posterior c. SYN: backward c.. Pott c. SYN: angular c.. primary c. of vertebral column [TA] the ventrally concave curve of the fetal vertebral column, retained in the thoracic and sacral regions as the thoracic and sacral kyphoses. SEE ALSO: kyphosis. SYN: curvatura primaria columnae vertebralis [TA] . secondary curvatures of vertebral column [TA] ventrally convex curves of the vertebral column that develop postnatally in the cervical and lumbar regions: the cervical and lumbar lordoses. SEE ALSO: lordosis. SYN: curvaturae secondariae columnae vertebralis [TA] . spinal c. See kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis.

curve (kerv)
1. A nonangular continuous bend or line. 2. A chart or graphic representation, by means of a continuous line connecting individual observations, of the course of a physiologic activity, of the number of cases of a disease in a given period, or of any entity that might be otherwise presented by a table of figures. SYN: chart (2) . [L. curvo, to bend] active length-tension c. the relationship between active isometric tension and preload (rest length) for a contracting muscle. alignment c. the line passing through the center of the teeth laterally in the direction of the c. of the dental arch. anti-Monson c. SYN: reverse c.. Barnes c. a c. corresponding in general with Carus c., being the segment of a circle whose center is the promontory of the sacrum. buccal c. the line of the dental arch from the canine, or cuspid tooth to the third molar. calibration c. the graphic or mathematic relationship between the readings obtained in an analytic process and the quantity of analyte in a calibration. The relationship is often a straight line rather than a c.. Carus c. an imaginary curved line obtained from a mathematical formula, supposed to indicate the outlet of the pelvic canal. SYN: Carus circle. cephalic c. c. conforming to that of the fetal head, used in reference to the shape of obstetrical forceps. characteristic c. sensitometric c. of radiographic film, a plot of the film density versus the logarithm of the relative exposure. SYN: H and D c., Hunter and Driffield c.. compensating c. the anteroposterior and lateral curvature in the alignment of the occluding surfaces and incisal edges of artificial teeth; used to develop balanced occlusion. distribution c. a systematic grouping of data into classes or categories according to the frequency of occurrence of each successive value or ranges of such values, resulting in a graph of a frequency distribution. SYN: frequency c.. dose-response c. a graph showing the relationship between the dose of a drug, infectious agent, etc. and the biological response. dye-dilution c. graph of the serial concentrations (dilutions) of a dye, e.g., Evans blue, following its intravascular or intracardiac injection; useful in the diagnosis of congenital cardiac shunts, measurement of cardiac output, and detection of cardiovalvular incompetence. SYN: indicator-dilution c.. epidemic c. a graph in which the number of new cases of a disease is plotted against an interval of time to describe a specific epidemic or outbreak. flow-volume c. the graph produced by plotting the instantaneous flow of respiratory gas against the simultaneous lung volume, usually during maximal forced expiration. force-velocity c. the relationship between isotonic velocity of shortening and afterload for a contracting muscle. Frank-Starling c. SYN: Starling c.. frequency c. SYN: distribution c.. Friedman c. SYN: partogram. gaussian c. SYN: normal distribution. growth c. a graphic representation of the change in size of an individual or a population over a period of time. H and D c. SYN: characteristic c.. Heidelberger c. SYN: precipitation c.. Hunter and Driffield c. SYN: characteristic c.. indicator-dilution c. SYN: dye-dilution c.. intracardiac pressure c. c. of pressure recorded within the atrium or ventricle (intra-atrial and intraventricular pressure curves). isovolume pressure-flow c. the relationship between transpulmonary pressure and respiratory air flow, expressed as a function of lung volume. labor c. SYN: partogram. logistic c. an S-shaped c. which depicts the growth of a population in an area of fixed limits. milled-in curves SYN: milled-in paths, under path. Monson c. the c. of occlusion in which each cusp and incisal edge touches or conforms to a segment of the surface of a sphere 8 inches in diameter with its center in the region of the glabella. muscle c. SYN: myogram. c. of occlusion 1. a curved surface which makes simultaneous contact with the major portion of the incisal and occlusal prominences of the existing teeth; 2. the c. of a dentition on which the occlusal surfaces lie. SYN: occlusal curvature. passive length-tension c. the relationship between passive tension and preload (rest length) for a muscle at rest. Pleasure c. a c. of occlusion which when viewed in sagittal section conforms to a line that is convex upward except for the last molars. precipitation c. a graph of the quantity of precipitate formed as a function of the quantity of antigen added during the titration of an antibody with an antigen. SYN: Heidelberger c.. Price-Jones c. a distribution c. of the measured diameters of red blood cells; it is to the right of the normal c. ( i.e., indicating larger diameters) in instances of pernicious anemia and other forms in which macrocytes are present, and to the left ( i.e., indicating smaller diameters) in iron deficiency and other forms of microcytic anemia. probability c. a graph of the gaussian (normal) distribution representing relative probabilities. progress c. a graphical representation of a chemical or enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the product concentration or the substrate concentration or the ES binary complex are plotted against time. pulse c. SYN: sphygmogram. receiver operating characteristic c. 1. a plot of percentage true positive versus percentage false positive results, usually in a trial of a diagnostic test. 2. a graphical means of assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons. SYN: ROC c.. reverse c. in dentistry, a c. of occlusion which is convex upward. SYN: anti-Monson c.. ROC c. SYN: receiver operating characteristic c.. c. of Spee the anatomic curvature of the mandibular occlusal plane beginning at the tip of the lower cuspid and following the buccal cusps of the posterior teeth, continuing to the terminal molar. SYN: von Spee c.. Starling c. a graph in which cardiac output or stroke volume is plotted against mean atrial or ventricular end-diastolic pressure; with increasing venous return and atrial pressure the output proportionately increases until further increments overload the heart and the output falls. SYN: Frank-Starling c.. strength-duration c. a graph relating the intensity of an electrical stimulus to the length of time it must flow to be effective. See chronaxie, rheobase. stress-strain c. a c. showing the ratio of deformation to load during the testing of a material in tension. tension c. the direction of the trabeculae in cancellous bone tissue that forms as an adaptation to resist stress. Traube-Hering curves slow oscillations in blood pressure usually extending over several respiratory cycles; related to variations in vasomotor tone; rhythmical variations in blood pressure. SYN: Traube-Hering waves. tuning c. a graph of acoustic threshold intensity at various frequencies for a single neuron. volume-time c. volume of an expelled breath plotted against time. This is the basic c. generated by so-called “simple spirometry.” von Spee c. SYN: c. of Spee. whole-body titration c. a graphic representation of the in vivo changes in hydrogen ion, PaCO2, and bicarbonate which occur in arterial blood in response to primary acid-base disturbances.

Curvularia (ker-vu-la′re-a)
A genus of dark-colored fungi that grow rapidly on culture media. Generally regarded as contaminants, two species, C. lunata and C. geniculata, are among the species capable of producing mycetoma in humans, keratomycosis, sinusitis, and phaeohyphomycosis.

Cushing
Harvey W., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1869–1939. See C. basophilism, C. disease, C. syndrome, C. syndrome medicamentosus, C. effect, C. phenomenon, C. response, C. pituitary basophilism.

Cushing
Hayward W., U.S. surgeon, 1854–1934. See C. suture.

cushingoid (kush′ing-oyd)
Resembling the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease or syndrome: moon facies, buffalo hump obesity, striations, adiposity, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis, usually due to exogenous corticosteroids.

cushion (kush′un)
In anatomy, any structure resembling a pad or c.. anal cushions vascular prominences formed by clusters of normally sacculated veins of the superior rectal venous plexus, fed by arteriovenous anastomoses that cause their engorgement, and which are usually found to lie laterally on the left and antero- and posterolaterally on the right side of the anal canal. SYN: cavernous bodies of anal canal, corpora cavernosa recti, hemorrhoidal cushions, threshold pads of anal canal. atrioventricular canal cushions a pair of mounds of embryonic connective tissue covered by endothelium, bulging into the embryonic atrioventricular canal; located one dorsally and one ventrally, they grow together and fuse with each other and with the lower edge of the septum primum, dividing the originally single canal into right and left atrioventricular orifices. SYN: endocardial cushions. endocardial cushions SYN: atrioventricular canal cushions. c. of epiglottis SYN: epiglottic tubercle. eustachian c. SYN: torus tubarius. hemorrhoidal cushions SYN: anal cushions. levator c. SYN: torus levatorius. Passavant c. SYN: Passavant ridge. pharyngoesophageal cushions venous plexuses on the anterior and posterior walls of the pharyngoesophageal junction. SYN: pharyngoesophageal pads. sucking c. SYN: buccal fat-pad.

cusp (kusp) [TA]
1. In dentistry, a conical elevation arising on the surface of a tooth from an independent calcification center. SEE ALSO: dental tubercle. 2. A leaflet of one of the heart's valves. SYN: cuspis [TA] . [L. cuspis, point] anterior c. of left atrioventricular valve anterior c. of mitral valve. anterior c. of mitral valve [TA] the ventrally placed and larger of the two leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the left atrioventricular orifice; it attaches to the septal aspect of the orifice. SYN: cuspis anterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] , anterior c. of left atrioventricular valve&star, cuspis anterior valvae mitralis&star. anterior c. of right atrioventricular valve anterior c. of tricuspid valve. anterior c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the largest and most ventrally placed of the three leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the right atrioventricular orifice. SYN: cuspis anterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , anterior c. of right atrioventricular valve&star, cuspis anterior valvae tricuspidalis&star. c. of Carabelli a fifth c. found on the maxillary first molars, usually located lingual to the mesiolingual c.. posterior c. of left atrioventricular valve posterior c. of mitral valve. posterior c. of mitral valve [TA] the dorsally placed and smaller of the two leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the left atrioventricular orifice; it attaches to the mural aspect of the orifice. SYN: cuspis posterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] , cuspis posterior valvae mitralis&star, posterior c. of left atrioventricular valve&star. posterior c. of right atrioventricular valve posterior c. of tricuspid valve. posterior c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the medium-sized and most dorsally placed of the three leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the right atrioventricular orifice. SYN: cuspis posterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , cuspis posterior valvae tricuspidalis&star, posterior c. of right atrioventricular valve&star. semilunar c. one of the three semilunar segments serving as the three cusps of a valve preventing regurgitation at the beginning of the aorta; a similar valve guards the entrance of the pulmonary trunk; the segments are named, respectively, anterior, right, and left in the pulmonary valve, and posterior, right, and left in the aortic valve. septal c. of right atrioventricular valve septal c. of tricuspid valve. septal c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the leaflet of the tricuspid valve located adjacent to the interventricular septum. SYN: cuspis septalis valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , cuspis septalis valvae tricuspidalis&star, septal c. of right atrioventricular valve&star. talon c. an anomalous c. that projects lingually from the cingulum of permanent incisors. [Eng. claw, heel, fr. O.Fr., fr. L. talus, ankle] c. of tooth [TA] an elevation or mound on the crown of a tooth making up a part of the occlusal surface. SYN: cuspis dentis [TA] , cuspis coronae.

cuspad (kus′pad)
In a direction toward the cusp of a tooth. [L. ad, to]

cuspal (kus′pal)
Pertaining to a cusp.

cuspid (kus′pid)
1. Having but one cusp. SYN: cuspidate. 2. SYN: canine tooth. [L. cuspis, point]

cuspidate (kus′pi-dat)
SYN: cuspid (1) .

cuspis, pl .cuspides (kus′pis, kus′pi-dez) [TA]
SYN: cusp. [L. a point] c. anterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: anterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. anterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] SYN: anterior cusp of mitral valve. c. anterior valvae mitralis anterior cusp of mitral valve. c. anterior valvae tricuspidalis anterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. coronae SYN: cusp of tooth, cusp of tooth. c. dentis [TA] SYN: cusp of tooth. c. posterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: posterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. posterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] SYN: posterior cusp of mitral valve. c. posterior valvae mitralis posterior cusp of mitral valve. c. posterior valvae tricuspidalis posterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. septalis valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: septal cusp of tricuspid valve. c. septalis valvae tricuspidalis septal cusp of tricuspid valve.

cusum (koo′sum)
Acronym for cumulative sum of a series of measurements; used primarily in Great Britain.

cut (kut)
1. In molecular biology, a hydrolytic cleavage of two opposing phosphodiester bonds in a double-stranded nucleic acid. Cf.:nick. 2. To sever or divide. 3. To separate into fractions. 4. An informal term for a fraction.

cutaneomucosal (ku-ta′ne-o-mu-ko′sal)
SYN: mucocutaneous.

cutaneous (ku-ta′ne-us)
Relating to the skin. [L. cutis, skin]

cutch (kutch)
SYN: catechu nigrum.

cutdown (kut′down)
Dissection of a vein or artery for insertion of a cannula or needle for the administration of intravenous fluids or medication or for measurement of pressure. SYN: venostomy.

Cuterebra (ku-te-re′bra)
A genus of botflies with large blue or black bumble-bee-like adults, whose larvae most commonly infest rodents and lagomorphs (hares and rabbits); the larvae develop into large spiny grubs, usually in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the neck. Similar grubs, probably of other species, are not uncommon in cats and are sometimes found in dogs and in humans. [L. cutis, skin, + terebro, to bore, fr. terebra, an auger]

cuticle (ku′ti-kl)
1. An outer thin layer, usually horny in nature. SYN: cuticula (1) . 2. The layer, chitinous in some invertebrates, which occurs on the surface of epithelial cells. 3. SYN: epidermis. [L. cuticula, dim. of cutis, skin] acquired c., acquired enamel c. SYN: acquired pellicle. dental c. SYN: enamel c.. enamel c. the primary enamel c., consisting of two extremely thin layers (the inner one clear and structureless, the outer one cellular), covering the entire crown of newly erupted teeth and subsequently abraded by mastication; it is evident microscopically as an amorphous material between the attachment epithelium and the tooth. SYN: adamantine membrane, cuticula dentis, dental c., membrana adamantina, Nasmyth c., Nasmyth membrane, skin of teeth. c. of hair SYN: cuticula pili. c. of nail the exposed distal prolongation of the corneal layer of the deep surface of the proximal nail fold (eponychium (2)), seen as a thin &dquor;skin&dquor; overlapping and adherent to the body of the nail at its proximal portion (the area of the lunula). It is formed as a remnant of the eponychium (1) which otherwise degenerates by the eighth month of pregnancy. Nasmyth c. SYN: enamel c.. posteruption c. SYN: acquired pellicle. c. of root sheath SYN: cuticula vaginae folliculi pili.

cuticula, pl .cuticulae (ku-tik′u-la, -le)
1. [NA] SYN: cuticle (1) . 2. SYN: epidermis. [L. cuticle] c. 2 c. dentis SYN: enamel cuticle. c. pili a layer of overlapping shinglelike cells that invest the hair cortex and serve to enclose the cortical cells of the hair and lock the hair shaft in its follicle. SYN: cuticle of hair. c. vaginae folliculi pili cuticle of overlapping shinglelike cells lining the follicle of the hair. SYN: cuticle of root sheath.

cutin (ku′tin)
A specially prepared, thin, animal membrane used as a protective covering for wounded surfaces. [L. cutis, skin]

cutis (ku′tis) [TA]
SYN: skin. [L.] c. anserina contraction of the arrectores pilorum produced by cold, fear, or other stimulus, causing the follicular orifices to become prominent. SYN: goose flesh, gooseflesh. c. laxa [MIM*123700] SYN: dermatochalasis. c. marmorata a normal, physiologic, pink, marblelike mottling of the skin in infants, persisting abnormally in some children on exposure to cold. c. marmorata telangiectatica congenita capillary-venous cutaneous malformation with “marbled” appearance. SYN: Van Lohuizen syndrome. c. rhomboidalis nuchae geometric furrowed configurations of the skin of the back of the neck as a result of prolonged exposure to sunlight with solar elastosis. c. vera SYN: dermis. c. verticis gyrata a congenital condition in which the skin of the scalp is hypertrophied and thrown into folds forming anterior to posterior furrows; it may be a component of pachydermoperiostosis.

cutization (ku-ti-za′shun)
The transition from mucous membrane to skin at the mucocutaneous margins.

cutpoint (kut′poynt)
Arbitrary value on an ordinal scale such as blood pressure, beyond which values are regarded as clinically abnormal.

curage (ku′rij, koo-rahzh′)
Curettage by means of the finger rather than the curet. [Fr. a cleansing]

curare (koo-rah′re)
An extract of various plants, especially Strychnos toxifera, S. castelnaei, S. crevauxii, and Chondodendron tomentosum, that produces nondepolarizing paralysis of skeletal muscle after intravenous injection by blocking transmission at the myoneuronal junction; used clinically ( e.g., as d-tubocurarine chloride, metocurine iodide) to provide muscle relaxation during surgical operations. Often classified by the vessels with which Amazon and Orinoco Indians stored c.. SYN: arrow poison (1) . [S. Am.] calabash c. (packed by Indians in hollow gourds), c. from Strychnos sp.; contains yohimbine, indole, and strychnine-type alkaloids. pot c. (c. stored in clay pots), c. from Chondodendron sp. tube c. (c. stored in bamboo tubes), c. from Chondodendron sp.; contains the alkaloid tubocurarine.

curariform (koo-rar′i-form)
Denoting a drug having an action like curare.

curarimimetic (koo-rar′i-mi-met′ik)
Having a curarelike action.

curarine (ku′ra-ren)
The alkaloid principle of calabash curare.

curarization (ku-rah-ri-za′shun)
Induction of muscular relaxation or paralysis by the administration of curare or related compounds that have the ability to block nerve impulse transmission at the myoneural junction.

curative (kur′a-tiv)
1. That which heals or cures. 2. Tending to heal or cure.

curcumin (kur′koo-min)
A yellow pigment from roots and pods of Curcuma longa; used in liver and bile ailments; found in curry powder; used as an indicator; it inhibits 5-lipoxygenase. SYN: tumeric yellow.

curd (kerd)
The coagulum of milk.

cure (kur)
1. To heal; to make well. 2. A restoration to health. 3. A special method or course of treatment. See dental curing. [L. curo, to care for]

curet
See curette.

curettage (ku-re-tahzh′, koo-)
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for the removal of new growths or other abnormal tissues, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. SYN: curettement. periapical c. 1. removal of a cyst or granuloma from its pathologic bony crypt, utilizing a curette; 2. the removal of tooth fragments and debris from sockets at the time of extraction or subsequent removal of bone sequestra. subgingival c. removal of subgingival calculus, ulcerated epithelial and granulation tissues found in periodontal pockets. SYN: apoxesis. suction c. a form of abortion in which the cervix is dilated if necessary and the products of conception removed by use of a canula attached to a suction source; technique used to complete a spontaneous incomplete abortion or as a form of induced abortion. SYN: dilation and suction.

curette, curet (ku-ret′, koo-)
Instrument in the form of a loop, ring, or scoop with sharpened edges attached to a rod-shaped handle, used for curettage. [Fr.] Hartmann c. a c., cutting on the side, for the removal of adenoids.

curettement (ku-ret′ment, koo-)
SYN: curettage.

curie (C, c, Ci) (ku′re)
A unit of measurement of radioactivity, 3.70 ×1010 disintegrations per second; formerly defined as the radioactivity of the amount of radon in equilibrium with 1 gm. of radium; superseded by the S.I. unit, the becquerel (1 disintegration per second). [Marie (1867–1934) and Pierre (1859–1906) C., French chemists and physicists and Nobel laureates]

curing (kur′ing)
1. The act of accomplishing a cure. 2. A process by which something is prepared for use, as by heating, aging, etc. dental c. the process by which plastic materials become rigid to form a denture base, filling, impression tray, or other appliance.

curium (Cm) (ku′re-um)
An element, atomic no. 96, atomic wt. 247.07, not occurring naturally on earth, but first formed artificially in 1944 by bombarding 239Pu with alpha particles; the most stable of the c. isotopes is 247Cm, with a half-life of 15.6 million years. [see curie]

Curling
Thomas B., English surgeon, 1811–1888. See stress ulcer.

current (ker′rent)
A stream or flow of fluid, air, or electricity. [L. currens, pres. p. of curro, to run] action c. an electrical c. induced in muscle fibers when they are effectively stimulated; normally it is followed by contraction. after-c. aftercurrent. alternating c. (AC) a c. that flows first in one direction then in the other; e.g., 60-cycle c.. anodal c. a c. produced in tissues under the anode when the circuit is closed. ascending c. the direction of c. flow in a nerve when the anode is placed peripheral to the cathode, in contrast to descending c.; the convention used is that c. flows from positive to negative. SYN: centripetal c.. axial c. the central rapidly moving portion of the bloodstream in an artery. centrifugal c. SYN: descending c.. centripetal c. SYN: ascending c.. d'Arsonval c. SYN: high-frequency c.. demarcation c. SYN: c. of injury. descending c. the direction of c. flow in a nerve when the cathode is placed peripheral to the anode, in contrast to ascending c.. SYN: centrifugal c.. direct c. (DC) a c. that flows only in one direction; e.g., that derived from a battery; sometimes referred to as galvanic c.. SEE ALSO: galvanism. electrotonic c. electrotonus. galvanic c. direct c., galvanism (1) . high-frequency c. an alternating electric c. having a frequency of 10,000 or more cycles per second; it produces no muscular contractions and does not affect the sensory nerves. SYN: d'Arsonval c., Tesla c.. c. of injury the c. generated when an injured part of a nerve, muscle, or other excitable tissue is connected through a conductor with the uninjured region; the injured tissue is negative to the uninjured. SYN: demarcation c.. labile c. an electrical c. applied to the body by means of electrodes that are constantly shifted about. Tesla c. SYN: high-frequency c..

Curschmann
Heinrich, German physician, 1846–1910. See C. spirals, under spiral.

curse (kers)
An affliction thought to be invoked by a malevolent spirit. Ondine c. idiopathic central alveolar hypoventilation in which involuntary control of respiration is depressed, but voluntary control of ventilation is not impaired. [Ondine, char. in play by J. Giraudoux, based on Undine, Ger. myth. char.]

Curtis
Arthur H., U.S. gynecologist, 1881–1955. See Fitz-Hugh and C. syndrome.

curvatura, pl .curvaturae (ker′va-too′ra, -too′re)
SYN: curvature. [L.] c. primaria columnae vertebralis [TA] SYN: primary curvature of vertebral column. curvaturae secondariae columnae vertebralis [TA] SYN: secondary curvatures of vertebral column, under curvature. c. ventriculi major [TA] SYN: greater curvature of stomach. c. ventriculi minor [TA] SYN: lesser curvature of stomach.

curvature (ker′va-choor)
A bending or flexure. See angulation. SYN: curvatura. [L. curvatura, fr. curvo, pp. -atus, to bend, curve] angular c. a gibbous deformity, i.e., a sharp angulation of the spine, occurring in Pott disease. SYN: Pott c.. anterior c. c. in which a more distal or cephalad part is deviated anteriorly with respect to the coronal anatomic plane. backward c. c. in which a more distal or cephalad part is deviated posteriorly with respect to the coronal anatomic plane. SYN: posterior c.. gingival c. the rounding of the gum along its line of attachment to the neck of a tooth. greater c. of stomach [TA] the border of the stomach to which the greater omentum is attached. SYN: curvatura ventriculi major [TA] . lateral c. c. in which a more distal part is deviated away from the anatomic sagittal plane, producing valgus alignment. lesser c. of stomach [TA] the right border of the stomach to which the lesser omentum is attached. SYN: curvatura ventriculi minor [TA] . occlusal c. SYN: curve of occlusion. posterior c. SYN: backward c.. Pott c. SYN: angular c.. primary c. of vertebral column [TA] the ventrally concave curve of the fetal vertebral column, retained in the thoracic and sacral regions as the thoracic and sacral kyphoses. SEE ALSO: kyphosis. SYN: curvatura primaria columnae vertebralis [TA] . secondary curvatures of vertebral column [TA] ventrally convex curves of the vertebral column that develop postnatally in the cervical and lumbar regions: the cervical and lumbar lordoses. SEE ALSO: lordosis. SYN: curvaturae secondariae columnae vertebralis [TA] . spinal c. See kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis.

curve (kerv)
1. A nonangular continuous bend or line. 2. A chart or graphic representation, by means of a continuous line connecting individual observations, of the course of a physiologic activity, of the number of cases of a disease in a given period, or of any entity that might be otherwise presented by a table of figures. SYN: chart (2) . [L. curvo, to bend] active length-tension c. the relationship between active isometric tension and preload (rest length) for a contracting muscle. alignment c. the line passing through the center of the teeth laterally in the direction of the c. of the dental arch. anti-Monson c. SYN: reverse c.. Barnes c. a c. corresponding in general with Carus c., being the segment of a circle whose center is the promontory of the sacrum. buccal c. the line of the dental arch from the canine, or cuspid tooth to the third molar. calibration c. the graphic or mathematic relationship between the readings obtained in an analytic process and the quantity of analyte in a calibration. The relationship is often a straight line rather than a c.. Carus c. an imaginary curved line obtained from a mathematical formula, supposed to indicate the outlet of the pelvic canal. SYN: Carus circle. cephalic c. c. conforming to that of the fetal head, used in reference to the shape of obstetrical forceps. characteristic c. sensitometric c. of radiographic film, a plot of the film density versus the logarithm of the relative exposure. SYN: H and D c., Hunter and Driffield c.. compensating c. the anteroposterior and lateral curvature in the alignment of the occluding surfaces and incisal edges of artificial teeth; used to develop balanced occlusion. distribution c. a systematic grouping of data into classes or categories according to the frequency of occurrence of each successive value or ranges of such values, resulting in a graph of a frequency distribution. SYN: frequency c.. dose-response c. a graph showing the relationship between the dose of a drug, infectious agent, etc. and the biological response. dye-dilution c. graph of the serial concentrations (dilutions) of a dye, e.g., Evans blue, following its intravascular or intracardiac injection; useful in the diagnosis of congenital cardiac shunts, measurement of cardiac output, and detection of cardiovalvular incompetence. SYN: indicator-dilution c.. epidemic c. a graph in which the number of new cases of a disease is plotted against an interval of time to describe a specific epidemic or outbreak. flow-volume c. the graph produced by plotting the instantaneous flow of respiratory gas against the simultaneous lung volume, usually during maximal forced expiration. force-velocity c. the relationship between isotonic velocity of shortening and afterload for a contracting muscle. Frank-Starling c. SYN: Starling c.. frequency c. SYN: distribution c.. Friedman c. SYN: partogram. gaussian c. SYN: normal distribution. growth c. a graphic representation of the change in size of an individual or a population over a period of time. H and D c. SYN: characteristic c.. Heidelberger c. SYN: precipitation c.. Hunter and Driffield c. SYN: characteristic c.. indicator-dilution c. SYN: dye-dilution c.. intracardiac pressure c. c. of pressure recorded within the atrium or ventricle (intra-atrial and intraventricular pressure curves). isovolume pressure-flow c. the relationship between transpulmonary pressure and respiratory air flow, expressed as a function of lung volume. labor c. SYN: partogram. logistic c. an S-shaped c. which depicts the growth of a population in an area of fixed limits. milled-in curves SYN: milled-in paths, under path. Monson c. the c. of occlusion in which each cusp and incisal edge touches or conforms to a segment of the surface of a sphere 8 inches in diameter with its center in the region of the glabella. muscle c. SYN: myogram. c. of occlusion 1. a curved surface which makes simultaneous contact with the major portion of the incisal and occlusal prominences of the existing teeth; 2. the c. of a dentition on which the occlusal surfaces lie. SYN: occlusal curvature. passive length-tension c. the relationship between passive tension and preload (rest length) for a muscle at rest. Pleasure c. a c. of occlusion which when viewed in sagittal section conforms to a line that is convex upward except for the last molars. precipitation c. a graph of the quantity of precipitate formed as a function of the quantity of antigen added during the titration of an antibody with an antigen. SYN: Heidelberger c.. Price-Jones c. a distribution c. of the measured diameters of red blood cells; it is to the right of the normal c. ( i.e., indicating larger diameters) in instances of pernicious anemia and other forms in which macrocytes are present, and to the left ( i.e., indicating smaller diameters) in iron deficiency and other forms of microcytic anemia. probability c. a graph of the gaussian (normal) distribution representing relative probabilities. progress c. a graphical representation of a chemical or enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the product concentration or the substrate concentration or the ES binary complex are plotted against time. pulse c. SYN: sphygmogram. receiver operating characteristic c. 1. a plot of percentage true positive versus percentage false positive results, usually in a trial of a diagnostic test. 2. a graphical means of assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons. SYN: ROC c.. reverse c. in dentistry, a c. of occlusion which is convex upward. SYN: anti-Monson c.. ROC c. SYN: receiver operating characteristic c.. c. of Spee the anatomic curvature of the mandibular occlusal plane beginning at the tip of the lower cuspid and following the buccal cusps of the posterior teeth, continuing to the terminal molar. SYN: von Spee c.. Starling c. a graph in which cardiac output or stroke volume is plotted against mean atrial or ventricular end-diastolic pressure; with increasing venous return and atrial pressure the output proportionately increases until further increments overload the heart and the output falls. SYN: Frank-Starling c.. strength-duration c. a graph relating the intensity of an electrical stimulus to the length of time it must flow to be effective. See chronaxie, rheobase. stress-strain c. a c. showing the ratio of deformation to load during the testing of a material in tension. tension c. the direction of the trabeculae in cancellous bone tissue that forms as an adaptation to resist stress. Traube-Hering curves slow oscillations in blood pressure usually extending over several respiratory cycles; related to variations in vasomotor tone; rhythmical variations in blood pressure. SYN: Traube-Hering waves. tuning c. a graph of acoustic threshold intensity at various frequencies for a single neuron. volume-time c. volume of an expelled breath plotted against time. This is the basic c. generated by so-called “simple spirometry.” von Spee c. SYN: c. of Spee. whole-body titration c. a graphic representation of the in vivo changes in hydrogen ion, PaCO2, and bicarbonate which occur in arterial blood in response to primary acid-base disturbances.

Curvularia (ker-vu-la′re-a)
A genus of dark-colored fungi that grow rapidly on culture media. Generally regarded as contaminants, two species, C. lunata and C. geniculata, are among the species capable of producing mycetoma in humans, keratomycosis, sinusitis, and phaeohyphomycosis.

Cushing
Harvey W., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1869–1939. See C. basophilism, C. disease, C. syndrome, C. syndrome medicamentosus, C. effect, C. phenomenon, C. response, C. pituitary basophilism.

Cushing
Hayward W., U.S. surgeon, 1854–1934. See C. suture.

cushingoid (kush′ing-oyd)
Resembling the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease or syndrome: moon facies, buffalo hump obesity, striations, adiposity, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis, usually due to exogenous corticosteroids.

cushion (kush′un)
In anatomy, any structure resembling a pad or c.. anal cushions vascular prominences formed by clusters of normally sacculated veins of the superior rectal venous plexus, fed by arteriovenous anastomoses that cause their engorgement, and which are usually found to lie laterally on the left and antero- and posterolaterally on the right side of the anal canal. SYN: cavernous bodies of anal canal, corpora cavernosa recti, hemorrhoidal cushions, threshold pads of anal canal. atrioventricular canal cushions a pair of mounds of embryonic connective tissue covered by endothelium, bulging into the embryonic atrioventricular canal; located one dorsally and one ventrally, they grow together and fuse with each other and with the lower edge of the septum primum, dividing the originally single canal into right and left atrioventricular orifices. SYN: endocardial cushions. endocardial cushions SYN: atrioventricular canal cushions. c. of epiglottis SYN: epiglottic tubercle. eustachian c. SYN: torus tubarius. hemorrhoidal cushions SYN: anal cushions. levator c. SYN: torus levatorius. Passavant c. SYN: Passavant ridge. pharyngoesophageal cushions venous plexuses on the anterior and posterior walls of the pharyngoesophageal junction. SYN: pharyngoesophageal pads. sucking c. SYN: buccal fat-pad.

cusp (kusp) [TA]
1. In dentistry, a conical elevation arising on the surface of a tooth from an independent calcification center. SEE ALSO: dental tubercle. 2. A leaflet of one of the heart's valves. SYN: cuspis [TA] . [L. cuspis, point] anterior c. of left atrioventricular valve anterior c. of mitral valve. anterior c. of mitral valve [TA] the ventrally placed and larger of the two leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the left atrioventricular orifice; it attaches to the septal aspect of the orifice. SYN: cuspis anterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] , anterior c. of left atrioventricular valve&star, cuspis anterior valvae mitralis&star. anterior c. of right atrioventricular valve anterior c. of tricuspid valve. anterior c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the largest and most ventrally placed of the three leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the right atrioventricular orifice. SYN: cuspis anterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , anterior c. of right atrioventricular valve&star, cuspis anterior valvae tricuspidalis&star. c. of Carabelli a fifth c. found on the maxillary first molars, usually located lingual to the mesiolingual c.. posterior c. of left atrioventricular valve posterior c. of mitral valve. posterior c. of mitral valve [TA] the dorsally placed and smaller of the two leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the left atrioventricular orifice; it attaches to the mural aspect of the orifice. SYN: cuspis posterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] , cuspis posterior valvae mitralis&star, posterior c. of left atrioventricular valve&star. posterior c. of right atrioventricular valve posterior c. of tricuspid valve. posterior c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the medium-sized and most dorsally placed of the three leaflets that come together during ventricular systole to close the right atrioventricular orifice. SYN: cuspis posterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , cuspis posterior valvae tricuspidalis&star, posterior c. of right atrioventricular valve&star. semilunar c. one of the three semilunar segments serving as the three cusps of a valve preventing regurgitation at the beginning of the aorta; a similar valve guards the entrance of the pulmonary trunk; the segments are named, respectively, anterior, right, and left in the pulmonary valve, and posterior, right, and left in the aortic valve. septal c. of right atrioventricular valve septal c. of tricuspid valve. septal c. of tricuspid valve [TA] the leaflet of the tricuspid valve located adjacent to the interventricular septum. SYN: cuspis septalis valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] , cuspis septalis valvae tricuspidalis&star, septal c. of right atrioventricular valve&star. talon c. an anomalous c. that projects lingually from the cingulum of permanent incisors. [Eng. claw, heel, fr. O.Fr., fr. L. talus, ankle] c. of tooth [TA] an elevation or mound on the crown of a tooth making up a part of the occlusal surface. SYN: cuspis dentis [TA] , cuspis coronae.

cuspad (kus′pad)
In a direction toward the cusp of a tooth. [L. ad, to]

cuspal (kus′pal)
Pertaining to a cusp.

cuspid (kus′pid)
1. Having but one cusp. SYN: cuspidate. 2. SYN: canine tooth. [L. cuspis, point]

cuspidate (kus′pi-dat)
SYN: cuspid (1) .

cuspis, pl .cuspides (kus′pis, kus′pi-dez) [TA]
SYN: cusp. [L. a point] c. anterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: anterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. anterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] SYN: anterior cusp of mitral valve. c. anterior valvae mitralis anterior cusp of mitral valve. c. anterior valvae tricuspidalis anterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. coronae SYN: cusp of tooth, cusp of tooth. c. dentis [TA] SYN: cusp of tooth. c. posterior valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: posterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. posterior valvae atrioventricularis sinistrae [TA] SYN: posterior cusp of mitral valve. c. posterior valvae mitralis posterior cusp of mitral valve. c. posterior valvae tricuspidalis posterior cusp of tricuspid valve. c. septalis valvae atrioventricularis dextrae [TA] SYN: septal cusp of tricuspid valve. c. septalis valvae tricuspidalis septal cusp of tricuspid valve.

cusum (koo′sum)
Acronym for cumulative sum of a series of measurements; used primarily in Great Britain.

cut (kut)
1. In molecular biology, a hydrolytic cleavage of two opposing phosphodiester bonds in a double-stranded nucleic acid. Cf.:nick. 2. To sever or divide. 3. To separate into fractions. 4. An informal term for a fraction.

cutaneomucosal (ku-ta′ne-o-mu-ko′sal)
SYN: mucocutaneous.

cutaneous (ku-ta′ne-us)
Relating to the skin. [L. cutis, skin]

cutch (kutch)
SYN: catechu nigrum.

cutdown (kut′down)
Dissection of a vein or artery for insertion of a cannula or needle for the administration of intravenous fluids or medication or for measurement of pressure. SYN: venostomy.

Cuterebra (ku-te-re′bra)
A genus of botflies with large blue or black bumble-bee-like adults, whose larvae most commonly infest rodents and lagomorphs (hares and rabbits); the larvae develop into large spiny grubs, usually in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the neck. Similar grubs, probably of other species, are not uncommon in cats and are sometimes found in dogs and in humans. [L. cutis, skin, + terebro, to bore, fr. terebra, an auger]

cuticle (ku′ti-kl)
1. An outer thin layer, usually horny in nature. SYN: cuticula (1) . 2. The layer, chitinous in some invertebrates, which occurs on the surface of epithelial cells. 3. SYN: epidermis. [L. cuticula, dim. of cutis, skin] acquired c., acquired enamel c. SYN: acquired pellicle. dental c. SYN: enamel c.. enamel c. the primary enamel c., consisting of two extremely thin layers (the inner one clear and structureless, the outer one cellular), covering the entire crown of newly erupted teeth and subsequently abraded by mastication; it is evident microscopically as an amorphous material between the attachment epithelium and the tooth. SYN: adamantine membrane, cuticula dentis, dental c., membrana adamantina, Nasmyth c., Nasmyth membrane, skin of teeth. c. of hair SYN: cuticula pili. c. of nail the exposed distal prolongation of the corneal layer of the deep surface of the proximal nail fold (eponychium (2)), seen as a thin &dquor;skin&dquor; overlapping and adherent to the body of the nail at its proximal portion (the area of the lunula). It is formed as a remnant of the eponychium (1) which otherwise degenerates by the eighth month of pregnancy. Nasmyth c. SYN: enamel c.. posteruption c. SYN: acquired pellicle. c. of root sheath SYN: cuticula vaginae folliculi pili.

cuticula, pl .cuticulae (ku-tik′u-la, -le)
1. [NA] SYN: cuticle (1) . 2. SYN: epidermis. [L. cuticle] c. 2 c. dentis SYN: enamel cuticle. c. pili a layer of overlapping shinglelike cells that invest the hair cortex and serve to enclose the cortical cells of the hair and lock the hair shaft in its follicle. SYN: cuticle of hair. c. vaginae folliculi pili cuticle of overlapping shinglelike cells lining the follicle of the hair. SYN: cuticle of root sheath.

cutin (ku′tin)
A specially prepared, thin, animal membrane used as a protective covering for wounded surfaces. [L. cutis, skin]

cutis (ku′tis) [TA]
SYN: skin. [L.] c. anserina contraction of the arrectores pilorum produced by cold, fear, or other stimulus, causing the follicular orifices to become prominent. SYN: goose flesh, gooseflesh. c. laxa [MIM*123700] SYN: dermatochalasis. c. marmorata a normal, physiologic, pink, marblelike mottling of the skin in infants, persisting abnormally in some children on exposure to cold. c. marmorata telangiectatica congenita capillary-venous cutaneous malformation with “marbled” appearance. SYN: Van Lohuizen syndrome. c. rhomboidalis nuchae geometric furrowed configurations of the skin of the back of the neck as a result of prolonged exposure to sunlight with solar elastosis. c. vera SYN: dermis. c. verticis gyrata a congenital condition in which the skin of the scalp is hypertrophied and thrown into folds forming anterior to posterior furrows; it may be a component of pachydermoperiostosis.

cutization (ku-ti-za′shun)
The transition from mucous membrane to skin at the mucocutaneous margins.

cutpoint (kut′poynt)
Arbitrary value on an ordinal scale such as blood pressure, beyond which values are regarded as clinically abnormal.

cuvet, cuvette (koo-vet′)
A small container or cup in which solutions are placed for photometric analysis.

cuvette (koo-vet′)
A small container or cup in which solutions are placed for photometric analysis.




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