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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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cystopyelitis (sis′to-pi-el-i′tis)
Inflammation of both the bladder and the pelvis of the kidney. [cysto- + G. pyelos, trough (pelvis), + -itis, inflammation]

cystopyelonephritis (sis-to-pi′el-o-nef-ri′tis)
Inflammation of the bladder, the pelvis of the kidney, and the kidney parenchyma. [cysto- + G. pyelos, trough (pelvis), + nephros, kidney, + -itis, inflammation]

cystorrhaphy (sis-tor′a-fe)
Suture of a wound or defect in the urinary bladder. [cysto- + G. rhaphe, a sewing]

cystorrhea (sis′to-re-a)
A mucous discharge from the bladder. [cysto- + G. rhoia, a flow]

cystosarcoma (sis′to-sar-ko′ma)
A sarcoma in which the formation of cysts or cystlike foci has occurred. c. phyllodes a circumscribed or infiltrating fibroadenomatous tumor that may be partly cystic, of the breast, prostate, or other organs and either benign or malignant; the stroma is cellular and resembles a fibrosarcoma.

cystoscope (sis′to-skop)
A lighted tubular endoscope for examining the interior of the bladder. [cysto- + G. skopeo, to examine]

cystoscopy (sis-tos′ko-pe)
The inspection of the interior of the bladder by means of a cystoscope.

cystospasm (sis′to-spazm)
Bladder spasm; unintentional, painful contraction of the bladder, often without micturition.

cystostomy (sis-tos′to-me)
Creation of an opening into the urinary bladder. SYN: vesicostomy. [cysto- + G. stoma, mouth]

cystotome (sis′to-tom)
1. An instrument for incising the urinary bladder or gallbladder. 2. A surgical instrument used for incising the capsule of a lens. SYN: capsulotome.

cystotomy (sis-tot′o-me)
Incision or puncture into urinary bladder or gallbladder. SYN: vesicotomy. [cysto- + G. tome, incision] suprapubic c. opening into the bladder through an incision or puncture above the symphysis pubis.

cystoureteritis (sis′to-u-re-ter-i′tis)
Inflammation of the bladder and of one or both ureters.

cystoureterogram (sis′to-u-re′ter-o-gram)
Radiographic demonstration of the bladder and ureters.

cystoureterography (sis′to-oo-re′ter-og′ra-fe)
Radiography of the bladder and ureters.

cystourethritis (sis′to-u-re-thri′tis)
Inflammation of the bladder and of the urethra.

cystourethrocele (sis′to-u-re′thro-sel)
Hernia of the urinary bladder and urethra. [cysto- + urethra + G. kele, hernia]

cystourethrogram (sis-to-u-reth′ro-gram)
SYN: voiding c.. micturating c. SYN: voiding c.. retrograde c. a c. performed by injection of contrast via urethral meatus or distal urethra. voiding c. (VCUG) an x-ray image made during voiding and with the bladder and urethra filled with contrast medium to demonstrate the urethra. SYN: c., micturating c., voiding cystogram.

cystourethrography (sis′to-u′re-throg′ra-fe)
Radiography of the bladder and urethra during voiding, following filling of the bladder with a radiopaque contrast medium either by intravenous injection or retrograde catheterization.

cystourethroscope (sis-to-u-re′thro-skop)
An instrument combining the uses of a cystoscope and a urethroscope, whereby both the bladder and urethra can be visually inspected.

Cystoviridae (sis′to-vir′i-de)
Provisional name for a family of monotypic bacterial viruses, the type species of which is phage Φ6. Virions are 86 nm in diameter, isometric, have lipid envelopes, and adsorb to the sides of pili of Pseudomonas species. Capsids are of cubic symmetry, and the genomes are of double-stranded RNA in three pieces (MW 13 × 106). [G. kystis, bladder]

cystyl-aminopeptidase (sis′til-a-mi-no-pep′ti-das)
Oxytocinase;an enzyme that degrades cystine-containing peptides, such as oxytocin.

Cyt
Symbol for cytosine.

cyt-
See cyto-.

cytapheresis (si′ta-fe-re′sis)
A procedure in which various cells can be separated from the withdrawn blood and retained, with the plasma and other formed elements retransfused into the donor. [cyt- + G. aphairesis, a withdrawal]

cytarabine (si′tar-a-ben)
SYN: arabinosylcytosine.

cytase (si′tas)
An obsolete term, coined by Metchnikoff, for alexin or complement, which he held to be a digestive secretion of the leukocyte.

-cyte
Suffix meaning cell. [G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]

cytidine (C, Cyd) (si′ti-den)
A major component of ribonucleic acids. SYN: 1-β-d-ribofuranosylcytosine, cytosine ribonucleoside. c. diphosphate choline SYN: c. diphosphocholine. c. phosphate cytidylic acid.

cytidine 5′-diphosphate (CDP)
An ester, at the 5′ position, between cytidine and diphosphoric acid.

cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) (si′ti-den-di′fos-fo-ko′len)
An intermediate in the formation of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and sphingomyelins; formed by the action of cytidine 5′-triphosphate on phosphocholine, linking the choline phosphate group to the α-phosphate of the cytidine 5′-triphosphate to give a pyrophosphate. SYN: activated choline, cytidine diphosphate choline.

cytidine diphosphoglyceride (CDP-glyceride) (si′ti-den di′fos-fo-gli′cer-id)
An intermediate in the formation of phospholipids ( e.g., cardiolipin) formed by the action on CTP and 1,2-diacylglycerols by a cytidyl transferase, releasing CDP-glyceride and pyrophosphate.

cytidine diphosphosugar (CDP-sugar)
An activated form of a sugar.

cytidine 5′-triphosphate (CTP)
An ester, at the 5′ position, between cytidine and triphosphoric acid.

cytidylic acid (si-ti-dil′ik)
Cytidine monophosphate (five are possible, depending on the site of attachment of the phosphate to the ribosyl OH's); a constituent of ribonucleic acids.

cytisine (sit′i-sin)
A toxic selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist; an alkaloid from the seed of Laburnum anagyroides and other Leguminosae. Used in pharmacological studies of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the brain. SYN: baptitoxine.

cyto-, cyt-
A cell. [G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]

cytoanalyzer (si-to-an′a-li-zer)
An electronic optical machine that screens smears containing cells suspected of malignancy. [cyto- + analyzer]

cytoarchitectonics (si′to-ar-ki-tek-ton′iks)
SYN: cytoarchitecture. [cyto- + G. architektonike, architectural]

cytoarchitectural (si-to-ar-ki-tek′chur-al)
Pertaining to cytoarchitecture.

cytoarchitecture (si′to-ar′ki-tek-chur)
The arrangement of cells in a tissue; e.g., the arrangement of nerve-cell bodies in the brain, especially the cerebral cortex. SYN: architectonics, cytoarchitectonics.

cytobiology (si′to-bi-ol′o-je)
SYN: cytology.

cytobiotaxis (si′to-bi-o-tak′sis)
SYN: cytoclesis. [cyto- + G. bios, life, + taxis, arrangement]

cytocentrum (si-to-sen′trum)
A zone of cytoplasm containing one or two centrioles but devoid of other organelles; usually located near the nucleus of a cell. SYN: cell center, central body, centrosome, cinocentrum, kinocentrum, microcentrum. [cyto- + G. kentron, center]

cytochalasins (si-to-kal′a-zinz)
A group of substances derived from molds that disaggregate the microfilaments of the cell and interfere with the division of cytoplasm, inhibit cell movement, and cause extrusion of the nucleus; used for investigations in cell biology. [cyto- + G. chalasis, a relaxing]

cytochemistry (si′to-kem′is-tre)
The study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., often by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods. SYN: histochemistry.

cytochrome (si′to-krom)
A class of hemoprotein whose principal biologic function is electron and/or hydrogen transport by virtue of a reversible valency change of the heme iron. Cytochromes are classified in four groups (a, b, c, and d) according to spectrochemical characteristics; many variants exist, particularly among bacteria and in green plants and algae, one being a variant of the c type c. called c. f. The mitochondrial system of cytochromes provides electron transport through c. c oxidase to molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor (respiration). [cyto- + G. chroma, color]

cytochrome aa3
SYN: cytochrome c oxidase.

cytochrome b
A cytochrome of the respiratory chain. A deficiency of this cytochrome leads to chronic granulomatous disease.

cytochrome b5
A cytochrome in the endoplasmic reticulum that acts with a number of oxygenases; a deficiency of this cytochrome results in a form of hereditary methemoglobinemia.

cytochrome b5 reductase
A flavoenzyme catalyzing the reduction of 2ferricytochrome b5 to 2ferrocytochrome b5 at the expense of NADH; has a role in fatty acid desaturation; a deficiency can lead to hereditary methemoglobinemia (type I, only observed in erythrocyte cytosol; type II, deficiency in all tissues; type III, deficiency in all hematopoetic cells).

cytochrome c
The mobile cytochrome that transports electrons from Complex III to Complex IV of the respiratory chain.

cytochrome cd
SYN: cytochrome oxidase (Pseudomonas).

cytochrome c3 hydrogenase
A hydrogenase enzyme catalyzing reduction of 2ferricytochrome c3 by H2 to 2ferrocytochrome c3 and 2H+.

cytochrome c oxidase
A cytochrome of the a type, containing copper, that catalyzes the oxidation of 4ferrocytochrome c by molecular oxygen to 4ferricytochrome c and 2H2O. A part of Complex IV of the respiratory chain. A deficiency of one or more of the polypeptides of this complex results in neuronal loss in brain leading to psychomotor retardation and neurodegenerative disease. SYN: cytochrome aa3, indophenol oxidase, indophenolase.

cytochrome c reductase
SYN: NADH dehydrogenase.

cytochrome c2 reductase
SYN: NADPH-cytochrome c2 reductase.

cytochrome oxidase (Pseudomonas)
An enzyme with action identical to that of cytochrome c oxidase, but acting on ferrocytochrome c2. SYN: cytochrome cd.

cytochrome P-450SCC
Cholesterol monooxygenase (side chain cleaving). [450 nm, the absorption maximum that the reduced cytochrome complexed with carbon monoxide exhibits]

cytochrome peroxidase
A hemoprotein enzyme catalyzing the reaction between H2O2 and 2ferrocytochrome c to yield 2ferricytochrome c and 2H2O.

cytochrome reductase
SYN: NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase.

cytochylema (si′to-ki-le′ma)
The more fluid portion of the cytoplasm. [cyto- + G. chylos, juice]

cytocidal (si-to-si′dal)
Causing the death of cells. [cyto- + L. caedo, to kill]

cytocide (si′to-sid)
An agent that is destructive to cells. [cyto- + L. caedo, to kill]

cytoclasis (si-tok′la-sis)
Fragmentation of cells. [cyto- + G. klasis, a breaking]

cytoclastic (si-to-klas′tik)
Relating to cytoclasis.

cytoclesis (si-to-kle′sis)
The influence of one cell on another. SYN: biotaxis (2) , cytobiotaxis. [cyto- + G. klesis, a call]

cytocuprein (si-to-koo′pre-in)
Former terms for copper-containing proteins found in human erythrocytes and other tissues. See superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin. SYN: cerebrocuprein, erythrocuprein, hemocuprein, hepatocuprein.

cytocyst (si′to-sist)
Rarely used term for the bladderlike remains of the red blood cell or tissue cell that encloses a mature schizont. [cyto- + G. kystis, bladder]

cytodiagnosis (si′to-di-ag-no′sis)
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid.

cytodieresis (si′to-di-er′e-sis)
SYN: cytokinesis. [cyto- + G. diairesis, division]

cytogene (si′to-jen)
SYN: plasmagene.

cytogenesis (si-to-jen′e-sis)
The origin and development of cells. [cyto- + G. genesis, origin]




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