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Medical Dictionary


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daltonian (dawl-to′ne-an)
1. Attributed to or described by John Dalton. 2. Pertaining to daltonism.

daltonism (dawl′ton-izm)
A color vision deficiency, especially deuteranomaly or deuteranopia. [J. Dalton]

DALYs
Abbreviation for disability-adjusted life years, under year.

DAM
Abbreviation for diacetylmonoxime.

Dam
C.P. Henrik, Danish biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1895–1976. See D. unit.

dam
1. Any barrier to the flow of fluid. 2. In surgery and dentistry, a sheet of thin rubber arranged so as to shut off the part operated upon from the access of fluid. [A.S. fordemman, to stop up] post d. SYN: posterior palatal seal. rubber d. 1. in surgery, thin strips of rubber used as a surgical drain or barrier; 2. a thin sheet of rubber with holes that is placed over teeth to isolate them from the oral cavity.

damage


Damalinia (dam-a-lin′e-a)
A genus of biting lice containing a number of species found on domestic and wild animals; they are all highly host-specific, one species being confined to each species of mammal. SEE ALSO: Bovicola, Trichodectes.

dammar
A resin resembling copal, obtained from various species of Shorea (family Dipterocarpaceae) in the East Indies; used, dissolved in chloroform, for mounting microscopic specimens. [Hind. damar, resin]

dam methylase
An enzyme responsible for the methylation of adenine residues in specific sequences. SYN: deoxyadenosine methylase.

dAMP
Abbreviation for deoxyadenylic acid.

damp
1. Humid; moist. 2. Atmospheric moisture. 3. Foul air in a mine; air charged with carbon oxides (black or choke d.) or with various explosive hydrocarbon vapors (firedamp).

damping
Bringing a mechanism to rest with minimal oscillation; e.g., in echocardiography, electrical or mechanical loading to reduce duration of echo, transmitter pulse, and transmitter complex. [M.E. damp, poisonous vapor]

Damus-Kaye-Stancel procedure
See under procedure.

Dana
Charles L., U.S. neurologist, 1852–1935. See D. operation, Putnam-D. syndrome.

danazol (da′na-zol)
An anterior pituitary suppressant used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and angioedema.

Dance
Jean B.H., French physician, 1797–1832. See D. sign.

dance (dans)
Involuntary movements related to brain damage. hilar d. vigorous pulmonary arterial pulsations due to increased blood flow, often seen fluoroscopically in patients with congenital left-to-right shunts, especially atrial septal defects. Saint Anthony d., Saint Vitus d., Saint John d. obsolete eponyms for Sydenham chorea.

dander
1. A fine scaling of the skin and scalp. SEE ALSO: dandruff. 2. A normal effluvium of animal hair or coat capable of causing allergic responses in atopic persons.

dandruff (dan′druf)
The presence, in varying amounts, of white or gray scales in the hair of the scalp, due to excessive or normal branny exfoliation of the epidermis. SEE ALSO: seborrheic dermatitis. SYN: pityriasis capitis, scurf, seborrhea sicca (2) .

Dandy
Walter E., U.S. neurosurgeon, 1886–1946. See D. operation, D.-Walker syndrome.

Dane
D.S., 20th century British virologist. See D. particles, under particle.

Dane stain
See under stain.

Danforth
William Clark, U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1878–1949. See D. sign.

Danielssen
Daniel C., Norwegian physician, 1815–1894. See D. disease, D.-Boeck disease.

Danlos
Henri A., French dermatologist, 1844–1912. See Ehlers-D. syndrome.

DANS
Abbreviation for 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonic acid; a green fluorescing compound used in immunohistochemistry to detect antigens.

dansyl (Dns, DNS) (dan′sil)
The 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl radical;a blocking agent for NH2 groups, used in peptide synthesis.

danthron
An anthraquinone laxative. SYN: chrysazine.

dantrolene sodium (dan′tro-len)
A synthetic skeletal muscle relaxant that acts directly on muscle by uncoupling electrical from mechanical events; also, the specific agent for prevention and treatment of malignant hyperthermia.

Danysz
Jan, Polish pathologist in France, 1860–1928. See D. phenomenon.

DAPI
Abbreviation for 4′6-diamidino-2-phenylindole&chmpnt;2HCl, a fluorescent probe for DNA. See D. stain.

dapsone (dap′son)
An antibiotic used in the treatment of leprosy and certain cutaneous diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis, is active against the tubercle bacillus, is used in the treatment of bovine coccidiosis and streptococcal mastitis, and is used as a second-line agent in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a disease common in AIDS patients.

d'Arcet
Jean, French chemist, 1725–1801. See d'Arcet metal.

Darier
Jean F., French dermatologist, 1856–1938. See D. disease, D. sign.

Darkschewitsch, Darkshevich
Liverij O., Russian neurologist, 1858–1925. See nucleus of D..

Darling
Samuel Taylor, U.S. physician in Panama, 1872–1925. See D. disease.

Darrow red
A basic oxazin dye used as a substitute for cresyl violet acetate in the staining of Nissl substance. [Mary A. Darrow, U.S. stain technologist, 1894–1973]

d'Arsonval
Jacques Arsène, French biophysicist, 1851–1940. See d'Arsonval current, d'Arsonval galvanometer.

dartoic, dartoid (dar-to′ik, dar′toyd)
Resembling tunica dartos in its slow involuntary contractions. [G. dartos, flayed]

dartos (dar′tos)
See d. fascia. [G. skinned or flayed, fr. dero, to skin] d. muliebris a very thin layer of smooth muscle in the integument of the labia majora; less well-developed than the tunica d. of the scrotum.

Darwin
Charles R., English biologist and evolutionist, 1809–1882. See darwinian ear, darwinian evolution, darwinian reflex, darwinian theory, darwinian tubercle.

darwinian (dar-win′e-an)
Relating to or ascribed to Darwin.

Dasyprocta (das′e-prok′ta)
A genus of rodents of the guinea pig family, a reservoir host of Trypanosoma cruzi. SYN: agouti. [G. dasyproktos, having hairy buttocks]

data
Multiple facts (usually but not necessarily empirical) used as a basis for inference, testing, models, etc. The word is plural and takes a plural verb.

data processing
Conversion of crude information into usable or storable form; statistical analysis of data by a computer program.

datum (da′tum)
An individual piece of information used in a scholarly field. [L., given, fr. do, pp. d., to give]

Datura (da-too′ra)
A genus of solanaceous plants. Several species (D. arborea, D. fastuosa, D. ferox, and D. sanguinea) are used in Brazil, India, and Peru to produce unconsciousness. The seeds contain hyoscine (scopolamine), an alkaloid with an anticholinergic action similar to that of atropine. [Hind.] D. metel D. fastuosa L. var. alba; a species that contains scopolamine as its chief alkaloid and traces of hyoscyamine and atropine. D. stramonium a species that is the main source of stramonium. SYN: Jamestown weed, jimson weed, stink weed, thorn apple.

daturine (da-too′rin, -ren)
SYN: hyoscyamine.

Daubenton, D'Aubenton
Louis J.M., French physician, 1716–1799. See D. angle, D. line, D. plane.

daughter (daw′ter)
In nuclear medicine, an isotope that is the disintegration product of a radionuclide. See d. isotope, radionuclide generator. [O.E. dohtor] DES (diethylstilbestrol) d. the d. of a woman who received diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy; DES daughters are at risk of deformity, adenosis, and other epithelial changes of the vagina and cervix, including clear cell adenocarcinoma.

daunomycin (daw-no-mi′sin)
SYN: daunorubicin.

daunorubicin (daw-no-roo′bi-sin)
An antibiotic of the rhodomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces peucetius; used in the treatment of acute leukemia; also used in cytogenetics to produce Q-type chromosome bands. SYN: daunomycin.

Davidoff
M. von, German histologist, &dag;1904. See D. cells, under cell.

Davidson
Edward C., U.S. surgeon, 1894–1933. See D. syringe.

Daviel
Jacques, French oculist, 1693–1762. See D. operation, D. spoon.

Davies
J.N.P., U.S. pathologist, *1915. See D. disease.

Davis
John Staige, U.S. surgeon, 1872–1946. See D. graft, Crowe-D. mouth gag.

Davis
Hallowell, U.S. physiologist, 1896–1992. See D. battery model of transduction.

Davis
David M., U.S. urologist, *1886.

Davis interlocking sound
See under sound.

Dawson
James R., U.S. pathologist, *1908. See D. encephalitis.

Day
Richard H., U.S. physician, 1813–1892. See D. test.

Day
Richard L., U.S. pediatrician, *1905. See Riley-D. syndrome.

dazzling
The consequence of illumination too intense for adaptation by the eye; in contrast to glare, d. is alleviated by appropriate tinted glasses.

dB, db
Abbreviation for decibel.

DBP
Abbreviation for vitamin D–binding protein.

DC
Abbreviation for direct current.

D & C
Abbreviation for dilation and curettage.

D.C.
Abbreviation for Doctor of Chiropractic.

dCMP
Abbreviation for deoxycytidylic acid.

DDA
Abbreviation for dideoxyadenosine.

DDI
Abbreviation for dideoxyinosine.

d-dimer (di′mer)
A covalently cross-linked degradation product released from the cross-linked fibrin polymer during plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis; laboratory measurements of this product made using latex bead or ELISA assays can be used to identify the presence of fibrinolysis.

D.D.S.
Abbreviation for Doctor of Dental Surgery.

DDT
Abbreviation for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.

D & E
Abbreviation for dilation and evacuation. 2. Abbreviation for dilation and extraction

de-
1. Away from, cessation, without; sometimes has an intensive force. 2. For names with this prefix not found here, see under the principal part of the name. [L. de, from, away]

deacidification (de-a-sid′i-fi-ka′shun)
The removal or neutralization of acid.

deactivation (de-ak-ti-va′shun)
The process of rendering or of becoming inactive.




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