|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
dermatitis, pl .dermatitides (der-ma-ti′tis, -tit′i-dez)
Inflammation of the skin. [derm- + G. -itis, inflammation] actinic d. SYN: photodermatitis. d. aestivalis eczema recurring during the summer. allergic contact d. a delayed type IV allergic reaction of the skin with varying degrees of erythema, edema, and vesiculation resulting from cutaneous contact with a specific allergen. SYN: contact allergy. ancylostoma d. SYN: cutaneous larva migrans. d. artefacta self-induced skin lesions resulting from habitual rubbing, scratching or hair-pulling, malingering, or mental disturbance. SYN: factitial d., feigned eruption. atopic d. d. characterized by the distinctive phenomena of atopy, including infantile and flexural eczema. SYN: atopic eczema. berloque d., berlock d. a type of photosensitization resulting in deep brown pigmentation on exposure to sunlight after application of bergamot oil and other essential oils in perfumes and colognes. blastomycetic d., d. blastomycotica cutaneous blastomycosis. bubble gum d. allergic contact d. developing about the lips in children who chew bubble gum; caused by plastics in the gum substance. d. calorica SYN: erythema ab igne. caterpillar d. allergic contact d. caused by the larva of the brown-tail moth, puss caterpillar, gypsy moths, and other caterpillars. SYN: caterpillar rash. chemical d. allergic contact d. or primary irritation d. due to application of chemicals; usually characterized by erythema, edema, and vesiculation of the exposed or contacted site, and in some cases acne or pigmentary disturbances. d. combustionis inflammation of the skin following a burn. contact d. a T lymphocyte–mediated d. (type IV hypersensitivity) resulting from cutaneous contact with a specific allergen (allergic contact d.) or irritant (nonallergic contact d.). SYN: contact hypersensitivity (1) . contagious pustular d. SYN: orf virus. cosmetic d. a cutaneous eruption that results from the application of a cosmetic; due to allergic sensitization or primary irritation. diaper d. colloquially referred to as diaper rash; d. of thighs and buttocks resulting from exposure to urine and feces in infants' diapers. Formerly attributed to ammonia formation; moisture, bacterial growth, and alkalinity may all induce lesions. SEE ALSO: intertrigo. SYN: diaper rash. d. exfoliativa infantum, d. exfoliativa neonatorum a generalized pyoderma accompanied by exfoliative d., with constitutional symptoms, affecting young infants, which may result from atopic d., Leiner disease, or staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. SYN: impetigo neonatorum (1) . exfoliative d. rapidly extending erythema followed in a few days by generalized exfoliation with scaling of the skin and associated in some cases with lymphadenopathy or loss of water and electrolytes; may be a drug reaction or associated with various benign dermatoses, lupus erythematosus, or lymphoma, or be of undetermined cause. SYN: Wilson disease (2) . exudative discoid and lichenoid d. discoid resembling an exudative form of nummular eczema, occurs especially in Jewish males, with oval lesions on the penis, trunk, and face. SYN: Sulzberger-Garbe disease, Sulzberger-Garbe syndrome. factitial d. SYN: d. artefacta. d. gangrenosa infantum a bullous or pustular eruption, of uncertain origin, followed by necrotic ulcers or extensive gangrene in children under 2 years of age; if untreated, death may result from hematogenous infection, such as liver abscess. SYN: disseminated cutaneous gangrene, ecthyma gangrenosum, pemphigus gangrenosus (1) . d. herpetiformis a chronic disease of the skin marked by a symmetric itching eruption of vesicles and papules that occur in groups; relapses are common; associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and IgA together with neutrophils beneath the epidermis of lesional and perilesional skin. SYN: Duhring disease. d. hiemalis SYN: winter itch. infectious eczematoid d. an inflammatory reaction of skin adjacent to the site of a pyogenic infection; e.g., purulent otitis, the area around a colostomy, or intranasal infection; thought to spread by autoinoculation. irritant contact d. skin reactions ranging from erythema and scaling to necrotic burns resulting from nonimmunologic damage by chemicals in contact with the skin immediately or repeatedly. mango d. a perioral contact d. resulting from sensitization to the resinous coating on the peel of the mango fruit. meadow d., meadow grass d. a photoallergic reaction to contact with a plant containing furocoumarin in which the bizarre configuration of the eruption is that of the streaky pattern of the plant contact; often occurs after sunbathing. d. medicamentosa SYN: drug eruption. nickel d. allergic d. due to contact with, or in some cases ingestion of, nickel or other metals containing nickel ( e.g., stainless steel). d. nodosa a papular eruption on the legs, related to onchocerciasis (q.v.). d. nodularis necrotica a recurrent eruption of vesicles, papules, and papulonecrotic lesions on the buttocks and extensor surfaces of the extremities, accompanied by fever, sore throat, diarrhea, and eosinophilia; probably a variant of vasculitis, it can be of varying and increasing severity and duration and can occasionally involve the heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. SYN: Werther disease. nummular d. SYN: nummular eczema. papular d. of pregnancy intensely pruritic papular eruption of torso and extremities occurring throughout pregnancy, with no systemic toxicity; may be similar to pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. d. pediculoides ventricosus SYN: straw itch. primary irritant d. a frequently cumulative reaction of irritation on exposure of the skin to substances which are toxic to epidermal or connective tissue cells; lesions are usually erythematous and papular, but can be purulent or necrotic, depending on the nature of the toxic material applied. proliferative d. SYN: dermatophilosis. rat mite d. an eruption of wheals, papules, or vesicles caused by the rat mite. d. repens SYN: pustulosis palmaris et plantaris. [L. creeping] rhus d. contact d. caused by cutaneous exposure to urushiol from species of Toxicodendron (Rhus), such as poison ivy, oak, or sumac. sandal strap d. allergic contact on the dorsal surfaces of the feet, caused by synthetic rubber sandal straps or additives to natural rubber. schistosomal d. a sensitization response to repeated cutaneous invasion by cercariae of bird, mammal, or human schistosomes. SYN: swimmer's itch, water itch (2) . seborrheic d., d. seborrheica a common scaly macular eruption that occurs primarily on the face, scalp (dandruff), and other areas of increased sebaceous gland secretion, especially during infancy and after puberty; the lesions are covered with a slightly adherent oily scale. Effectiveness of treatment with betaconazole supports an etiologic role for Pityrosporum ovale infection. SYN: seborrheic eczema, Unna disease. solar d. a d. in photosensitive persons caused by exposure to the sun's rays. stasis d. erythema and scaling of the lower extremities due to impaired venous circulation, seen commonly in older women or secondary to deep vein thrombosis, the latter with rapid onset and swelling. subcorneal pustular d. SYN: subcorneal pustular dermatosis. traumatic d. any d. caused by an irritant substance or by a physical agent. d. vegetans a benign fungating granulomatous mass caused by chronic pyogenic infection. SYN: pyoderma vegetans.
See derm-. [G. derma, skin]
Associated skin disease and arthritis. lipoid d. a multicentric reticulohistiocytosis.
A genus of flies (family Oestridae) found in tropical America. [dermato- + G. bios, way of living] D. cyaniventris SYN: D. hominis. D. hominis a large, blue, brown-winged species whose larvae develop in open boillike lesions in the skin of humans, many domestic animals, and some fowl. It is a very serious and damaging cattle parasite and frequently attacks small children in Central and South America. Its eggs are laid on the legs or abdomen of another insect, such as the mosquito; the eggs later hatch, when stimulated by warmth or other factors, to release the botfly larvae on the skin of the mosquito's bloodmeal host, and the larvae quickly invade the skin to initiate myiasis. SYN: D. cyaniventris, human botfly, skin botflies, warble botfly.
Infection of humans and animals with larvae of the fly Dermatobia hominis. SYN: human botfly myiasis.
Inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous connective tissue.
A congenital or acquired condition characterized by deficient elastic fibers of the skin, which may hang in folds; vascular anomalies may be present; inheritance is either autosomal dominant or recessive, the latter sometimes in association with pulmonary emphysema and diverticula of the alimentary tract or bladder. The dominant form is caused by mutation in the elastin gene (ELN) on 7q. There is also an X-linked form that is due to mutation in the Menkes gene (MNK), encoding copper-transporting ATPase on Xq. SYN: cutis laxa, generalized elastolysis, loose skin. [conjunctiva + G. chalasis, a loosening]
An occupational dermatitis caused by local irritation from dust. [dermato- + G. konis, dust, + -osis, condition]
A cyst of the skin.
SYN: dermatalgia. [dermato- + G. odyne, pain]
A slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries, with scattered hemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages. The following terms are considered by some to be synonymous with, and by others to be varieties of, d.: sclerosing hemangioma (2), fibrous histiocytoma, nodular subepidermal fibrosis. SYN: fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing hemangioma (2) .
dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (der′ma-to-fi′bro-sar-ko′ma pro-too′ber-ans)
A relatively slowly growing dermal neoplasm consisting of one or several firm nodules that are usually covered by dark red-blue skin, which tends to be fixed to the palpable masses; histologically, the neoplasm resembles a cellular dermatofibroma with a pronounced storiform pattern; metastases are unusual, but the incidence of recurrence is fairly high. pigmented d. an uncommon variant of d. containing heavily pigmented dendritic melanocytes scattered between spindle cells of the tumor. SYN: Bednar tumor, storiform neurofibroma.
dermatofibrosis lenticularis disseminata (der′ma-to-fi-bro′sis len-tik-u-la′ris di-sem-i-na′ta) [MIM*166700]
Small papules or discs of increased dermal elastic tissue appearing in early life; when osteopoikilosis is also present, the condition is called osteodermatopoikilosis or Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome; autosomal dominant inheritance.
1. The configurations of the characteristic ridge patterns of the volar surfaces of the skin; in the human hand, the distal segment of each digit has three types of configurations: whorl, loop, and arch. SEE ALSO: fingerprint. 2. The science or study of these configurations or patterns. [dermato- + glyphe, carved work]
The linear wheal made in the skin in dermatographism.
A form of urticaria in which whealing occurs in the site and in the configuration of application of stroking (pressure, friction) of the skin. The resulting white line response appears early in flares of atopic dermatitis. SYN: autographism, factitious urticaria, skin writing. [dermato- + G. grapho, to write]
1. Resembling skin. SYN: dermoid (1) . 2. SYN: dermal.
A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous diseases and related systemic diseases.
The branch of medicine concerned with the study of the skin, diseases of the skin, and the relationship of cutaneous lesions to systemic disease. [dermato- + G. logos, study]
Loosening of the skin or atrophy of the skin by disease; erroneously used as a synonym for cutis laxa. SYN: dermolysis. [dermato- + G. lysis, a loosening]
A circumscribed thickening or hypertrophy of the skin. [dermato- + G. -oma, tumor]
1. An instrument for cutting thin sections of epidermis/dermis for grafting, or excising small lesions. 2. The dorsolateral part of an embryonic somite. SYN: cutis plate. 3. The area of skin supplied by cutaneous branches from a single spinal nerve; neighboring dermatomes can overlap. SYN: dermatomal distribution, dermatomic area. [dermato- + G. tome, a cutting]
Congenital or acquired defect in which the skin hangs in folds; may be part of a syndrome or may occur in isolation as cutis laxa, dermatochalasis, or dermatolysis. [dermato- + G. megas, large]
A metameric area of the embryonic integument. [dermato- + G. meros, part]
Fungus infection of the skin caused by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other fungi. Cf.:dermatophytosis. d. pedis SYN: tinea pedis.
SYN: leiomyoma cutis. [dermato- + G. mys, muscle, + -oma, tumor]
A progressive condition characterized by symmetric proximal muscular weakness with elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes and a skin rash, typically a purplish-red erythema on the face, and edema of the eyelids and periorbital tissue; affected muscle tissue shows degeneration of fibers with a chronic inflammatory reaction; occurs in children and adults, and in the latter may be associated with visceral cancer or other disorders of connective tissue. [dermato- + G. mys, muscle, + -itis, inflammation]
Any cutaneous eruption due to emotional stimuli.
The science of the nomenclature and classification of diseases of the skin. [dermato- + G. nosos, disease, + logos, treatise]
SYN: dermatopathy. d. pigmentosa reticularis SYN: livedo reticularis.
Histopathology of the skin and subcutis, and study of the causes of skin disease.
Any disease of the skin. SYN: dermatopathia. [dermato- + G. pathos, suffering]
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (der-ma-tof-a-goy′dez ter-o-ni-si′nus)
A common species of cosmopolitan mites found in house dust and a common contributory cause of atopic asthma. [dermato- + G. phago, to eat; ptero- + G. nysso, to prick, stab]
An infectious exudative dermatitis of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and other animals (occasionally humans) caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis; severe (sometimes fatal) d. is seen in cattle in Africa and the Caribbean, invariably in association with Amblyomma variegatum tick infestations. SYN: proliferative dermatitis, streptothrichosis, streptotrichiasis, streptotrichosis.
Dermatophilus congolensis (der-ma-tof′i-lus kon-go-len′sis)
A species of motile, nonacid fast, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that is the etiologic agent of dermatophilosis; also causes proliferative dermatitis. [dermato- + G. philos, fond]
Morbid fear of acquiring a skin disease. [dermatosis + G. phobos, fear]
Protection of the skin against potentially harmful agents; e.g., infection, excessive sunlight, noxious agents. [dermato- + G. phylaxis, protection]
A fungus that causes superficial infections of the skin, hair, and/or nails, i.e., keratinized tissues. Species of Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton are regarded as dermatophytes, but causative agents of tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, and cutaneous candidiasis are not so classified. [dermato- + G. phyton, plant]
An allergic manifestation of dermatophytosis at a site distant from that of the primary fungous infection. The lesions, usually small vesicles on the hands and/or arms, are devoid of the fungus and may become extensive, covering wide areas of the body and causing extreme discomfort to the patient. SEE ALSO: -id (1) , id reaction.
An infection of the hair, skin, or nails caused by any one of the dermatophytes. The lesions may occur at any site on the body and, on the skin, are characterized by erythema, small papular vesicles, fissures, and scaling. Common sites of infection are the feet (tinea pedis), nails (onychomycosis), and scalp (tinea capitis). Cf.:dermatomycosis.
SYN: acrodynia (2) .
Hemorrhage from or into the skin. [dermato- + G. rhegnymi, to break forth]
An excessive secretion of the sebaceous or sweat glands of the skin. [dermato- + G. rhoia, flow]
Rupture of the skin; e.g., as is seen in striae cutis distensae or in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. [dermato- + G. rhexis, rupture]
Inspection of the skin, usually with the aid of a lens or by epiluminescence microscopy, (q.v.). [dermato- + G. skopeo, to view]
dermatosis, pl .dermatoses (der-ma-to′sis, -sez)
Nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous abnormality or eruption. [dermato- + G. -osis, condition] acute febrile neutrophilic d. a rare d., predominant in women, of rapid onset and characterized by plaquelike lesions, usually multiple, on the face, neck, and upper extremities, accompanied by conjunctivitis, mucosal lesions, fever, malaise, arthralgia, and peripheral blood neutrophilia in many cases; biopsy reveals polymorphonuclear infiltrate of the dermis; rapid remission occurs with systemic steroid therapy. SYN: Sweet disease. ashy d. SYN: erythema dyschromicum perstans. Bowen precancerous d. SYN: Bowen disease. chronic bullous d. of childhood a rare, self-limiting bullous disease, chiefly of the trunk, perioral, and pelvic areas, with onset in the first decade, successively less severe recurrences, and total remission at adolescence; linear epidermal basement membrane zone deposit of IgA is found in involved and in normal skin. SYN: linear IgA bullous disease in children. dermolytic bullous d. SYN: epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica. digitate d. See parapsoriasis en plaque. SYN: small plaque parapsoriasis. juvenile plantar d. a painful dermatitis, occurring primarily in children, that causes the plantar skin to appear glazed and fissured; may be associated with hyperhidrosis. lichenoid d. any chronic skin eruption, characterized clinically by induration and thickening of the skin with accentuation of skin markings, and microscopically by a bandlike lymphocytic infiltration of the papillary dermis. d. medicamentosa SYN: drug eruption. d. papulosa nigra dark brown papular lesions, observed in blacks, on the face and upper trunk; histologically and clinically, they resemble seborrheic keratoses. pigmented purpuric lichenoid d. an eruption comprised of lichenoid papules variously pigmented from the hemosiderin of the associated purpura; found on the legs, usually in men over 40 years of age. SYN: Gougerot and Blum disease. progressive pigmentary d. chronic purpura, especially of the legs in men, spreading to form red-brown patches and puncta described as cayenne pepper spots; associated microscopically with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, diapedesis, and hemosiderosis. SYN: Schamberg fever. radiation d. skin changes at the site of ionizing radiation, particularly erythema in the acute stage, temporary or permanent epilation, and chronic changes in the epidermis and dermis resembling actinic keratosis, from which squamous cell carcinoma may develop. subcorneal pustular d. a pruritic chronic annular eruption of sterile vesicles and pustules beneath the stratum corneum. SYN: Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, subcorneal pustular dermatitis. transient acantholytic d. a pruritic papular eruption, with histologic suprabasal acantholysis, of the chest, with scattered lesions of the back and lateral aspects of the extremities, lasting from a few weeks to several months; seen predominantly in males over 40. SYN: Grover disease.
Treatment of skin diseases.
An uncontrollable impulse to pinch and bruise the skin. [dermato- + G. thlasis, a bruising]
Having an affinity for the skin. SYN: dermotropic. [dermato- + G. trope, a turning]
An animal parasite of the skin. [dermato- + G. zoon, animal]
dermatozoonosis (der′ma-to-zo-o-no′sis, -zo-on′o-sis)
Infestation of the skin by an animal parasite. [dermato- + G. zoon, animal, + nosos, disease]
dermatrophia, dermatrophy (der-ma-tro′fe-a, der-mat′ro-fe)
Atrophy or thinning of the skin.
Rarely used term for subcutaneous administration of remedies. [derm- + G. enchysis, a pouring in]
A layer of skin composed of a superficial thin layer that interdigitates with the epidermis, the stratum papillare, and the stratum reticulare; it contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and nerve endings, glands, and, except for glabrous skin, hair follicles. SYN: corium&star, cutis vera. [G. derma, skin]
See derm-. [G. derma, skin]
A bacterial genus of nonmotile, non–spore-bearing Gram-positive rods, recovered on human skin. D. hominis has been associated with positive blood cultures.
One of the mesodermal cells from which the dermis is developed. [dermo- + G. blastos, germ]
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is buried in the integument of the autosite. [dermo- + G. kyma, fetus]
1. SYN: dermatoid (1) . 2. SYN: d. cyst. [dermo- + G. eidos, resemblance] inclusion d. SYN: epidermal cyst.
Rarely used term for operative removal of a dermoid cyst. [dermoid + G. ektome, excision]
Pertaining to any application or illness which may cause necrosis of the skin.
SYN: dermatopathy. diabetic d. small macules and papules of the extensor surfaces of the extremities, most commonly the shins of diabetics, which become atrophic, hyperpigmented, and occasionally undergo ulceration with scarring; may be a manifestation of microangiopathy.
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