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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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diabetogenic (di′a-bet-o-jen′ik, -be-to-jen′ik)
Causing diabetes.

diabetogenous (di′a-be-toj′en-us)
Caused by diabetes.

diabetology (di′a-be-tol′o-je)
The field of medicine concerned with diabetes.

diacele (di′a-sel)
Rarely used term for third ventricle. [G. dia-, through, + koilia, a hollow]

diacetal (di-as′e-tal)
See diacetyl.

diacetate (di-as′e-tat)
1. SYN: acetoacetate. 2. A compound containing two acetate residues.

diacetemia (di-as-e-te′me-a)
A form of acidosis resulting from the presence of acetoacetic (diacetic) acid in the blood.

diacetonuria (di-as′e-to-noo′re-a)
SYN: diaceturia.

diaceturia (di-as-e-too′re-a)
The urinary excretion of acetoacetic (diacetic) acid. SYN: diacetonuria.

diacetyl, diacetal (di-as′e-til, di-as′e-tal)
A yellow liquid, (CH3CO)2, having the pungent odor of quinone and carrying the aromas of coffee, vinegar, butter, and other foods; a byproduct of carbohydrate degradation.

diacetylcholine (di-as′e-til-ko′len)
SYN: succinylcholine.

diacetylmonoxime (DAM) (di-as′e-til-mon-ok′sim)
A 2-oxo-oxime that can reactivate phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase in vitro and in vivo; it penetrates the blood-brain barrier. SImilar to 2-PAM.

diacetylmorphine (di-as′e-til-mor′fen)
SYN: heroin.

diacetyltannic acid (di-as′e-til-tan′ik)
SYN: acetyltannic acid.

diachronic (di-a-kron′ik)
Systematically observed over time in the same subjects throughout as opposed to synchronic or cross-sectional; the inferences are equivalent only where there is strict stability of all elements. [dia- + G. chronos, time]

diacid (di-as′id)
Denoting a substance containing two ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule; more generally, a base capable of combining with two hydrogen ions per molecule.

diaclasis, diaclasia (di-ak′la-sis, di-a-kla′ze-a)
SYN: osteoclasis. [G. diaklasis, a breaking up, fr. dia, through, + klasis, a breaking]

diacrinous (di-ak′ri-nus)
Excreting by simple passage through a gland cell. [G. diakrino, to separate one from another]

diacrisis (di-ak′ri-sis)
SYN: diagnosis. [G. dia-, through, + krisis, a judgment]

diacritic, diacritical (di-a-krit′ik, -krit′i-kal)
Distinguishing; diagnostic; allowing of distinction. [G. diakritikos, able to distinguish]

diactinic (di′ak-tin′ik)
Having the property of transmitting light capable of bringing about chemical reactions. [G. dia, through, + aktis, ray]

diacylglycerol (DAG) (di′as-il-glis′er-ol)
Diglyceride; glycerol with two esterified acyl moieties, either 1,3-d. or 1,2-d.; if the two acyl groups are nonidentical, there are four possible stereoisomers; 1,2-d. is an intermediate in the synthesis of triacylglycerols and of lecithin; also serves as a second messenger in stimulating the activity of protein kinase C. d. acyltransferase an enzyme, in fat biosynthesis, that catalyzes the transfer of an acyl moiety from acyl-CoA to 1,2-d. thus forming free coenzyme A and triacylglycerol. d. lipase SYN: lipoprotein lipase.

diad (di′ad)
1. The transverse tubule and a cisterna in cardiac muscle fibers. 2. SYN: dyad (1) .

diadochocinesia (di-ad′o-ko-si-ne′ze-a)
SYN: diadochokinesia.

diadochokinesia, diadochokinesis (di-ad′o-ko-ki-ne′ze-a, -ki-ne′sis)
The normal power of alternately bringing a limb into opposite positions, as of flexion and extention or of pronation and supination. SYN: diadochocinesia. [G. diadochos, working in turn, + kinesis, movement]

diadochokinetic (di-ad′o-ko-ki-net′ik)
Relating to diadochokinesia.

diagnose (di-ag-nos′)
To make a diagnosis.

diagnosis (di-ag-no′sis)
The determination of the nature of a disease, injury, or congenital defect. SYN: diacrisis. [G. d., a deciding] antenatal d. SYN: prenatal d.. clinical d. a d. made from a study of the signs and symptoms of a disease. differential d. the determination of which of two or more diseases with similar symptoms is the one from which the patient is suffering, by a systematic comparison and contrasting of the clinical findings. SYN: differentiation (2) . d. by exclusion a d. made by excluding those diseases to which only some of the patient's symptoms might belong, leaving one disease as the most likely d., although no definitive tests or findings establish that d.. laboratory d. a d. made by a chemical, microscopic, microbiologic, immunologic, or pathologic study of secretions, discharges, blood, or tissue. neonatal d. systematic evaluation of the newborn for evidence of disease or malformations, and the conclusion reached. pathologic d. a d., sometimes postmortem, made from an anatomic and/or histologic study of the lesions present. physical d. 1. a d. made by means of physical examination of the patient. 2. the process of a physical examination. prenatal d. d. utilizing procedures available for the recognition of diseases and malformations in utero, and the conclusion reached. SYN: antenatal d..

diagnostic (di-ag-nos′tik)
1. Relating to or aiding in diagnosis. 2. Establishing or confirming a diagnosis.

diagnostician (di′ag-nos-tish′an)
One who is skilled in making diagnoses; formerly, a name for specialists in internal medicine.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
A system of classification, published by the American Psychiatric Association, that divides recognized mental disorders into clearly defined categories based on sets of objective criteria. Representing a majority view (rather than a consensus) of hundreds of contributors and consultants, DSM is widely recognized as a diagnostic standard and widely used for reporting, coding, and statistical purposes.The first edition (1952), based on the sixth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-6), was intended to promote uniformity in the naming and reporting of psychiatric disorders. It contained definitions of all named disorders, but no sets of diagnostic criteria. While its classification of mental disorders showed the influence of Freudian psychoanalysis, its nomenclature (e.g., depressive reaction, anxiety reaction, schizophrenic reaction) reflected the theories of Adolf Meyer (1866–1950). The second edition (DSM-II, 1968) preserved the psychoanalytic orientation but dropped the “reaction” terminology. The third edition (DSM-III, 1980) abandoned much of the rigidly psychodynamic thinking of the earlier editions and, for the first time, provided explicit diagnostic criteria and introduced a multiaxial system whereby different aspects of a patient's condition could be separately assessed. Briefly stated, the axes are I, clinical disorders; II, personality disorders and mental retardation; III, general medical disorders; IV, psychosocial and environmental stressors; and V, overall level of functioning. A revised version of the third edition (DSM-IIIR, 1987) incorporated a number of improvements and clarifications. The fourth edition (DSM-IV) appeared in May, 1994. It follows its two predecessors closely in general outline, and like them is coordinated with and partly derived from ICD-9. For many observers, the most significant change in DSM-IV is the renaming of the category formerly called “Organic Mental Syndromes and Disorders” as “Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders,” a shift in terminology intended to avoid the implication that mental disorders in other categories are not organic.

diagram
A simple, graphic depiction of an idea or object. Dieuaide d. SYN: triaxial reference system. flow d. a d. composed of blocks connected by arrows representing steps in a process such as decision analysis. Venn d. pictorial representation of the extent to which two or more quantities or concepts are mutually inclusive and exclusive.

diakinesis (di′a-ki-ne′sis)
Final stage of prophase in meiosis I, in which the chiasmata present during the diplotene stage disappear, the chromosomes continue to shorten, and the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear. [G. dia, through, + kinesis, movement]

dial (di′al, dil)
A clock face or instrument resembling a clock face. [L. dies, day] astigmatic d. a diagram of radiating lines, used to test for astigmatism.

Dialister (di-al-is′ter)
An obsolete name for a genus of bacteria, the type species of which, D. pneumosintes, is now placed in the genus Bacteroides.

diallyl (di-al′il)
A compound containing two allyl groups.

dialysance (di-al′i-sans)
The number of milliliters of blood completely cleared of any substance by an artificial kidney or by peritoneal dialysis in a unit of time; conventional clearance formulas are expressed as mm/min. [fr. dialysis]

dialysate (di-al′i-sat)
That part of a mixture that passes through a dialyzing membrane; the material that does not pass through is referred to as the retentate. SYN: diffusate.

dialysis (di-al′i-sis)
1. A form of filtration to separate crystalloid from colloid substances (or smaller molecules from larger ones) in a solution by interposing a semipermeable membrane between the solution and dialyzing fluid; the crystalloid (smaller) substances pass through the membrane into the dialyzing fluid on the other side, the colloids do not. 2. The separation of substances across a semipermeable membrane on the basis of particle size and/or concentration gradients. 3. A method of artificial kidney function. [G. a separation, fr. dialyo, to separate] continuous ambulatory peritoneal d. (CAPD) method of peritoneal d. performed in ambulatory patients with influx and efflux of dialysate during normal activities. equilibrium d. in immunology, a method for determination of association constants for hapten-antibody reactions in a system in which the hapten (dialyzable) and antibody (nondialyzable) solutions are separated by semipermeable membranes. Since at equilibrium the quantity of free hapten will be the same in the two compartments, quantitative determinations can be made of hapten-bound antibody, free antibody, and free hapten. extracorporeal d. hemodialysis performed through an apparatus outside the body. peritoneal d. removal from the body of soluble substances and water by transfer across the peritoneum, utilizing a d. solution which is intermittently introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity; transfer of diffusable solutes and water between the blood and the peritoneal cavity depends on the concentration gradient between the two fluid compartments. d. retinae congenital or traumatic separation of the peripheral sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium at the ora serrata, often causing a retinal detachment. SYN: retinodialysis.

dialyze (di′a-liz)
To perform dialysis; to separate a substance from a solution by means of dialysis.

dialyzer (di′a-li-zer)
The apparatus for performing dialysis; a membrane used in dialysis.

diamagnetic (di′a-mag-net′ik)
Having the property of diamagnetism.

diamagnetism (di-a-mag′ne-tizm)
The property displayed by substances that have a very small negative magnetic susceptibility, given by molecules in which all electrons are paired; an unpaired electron yields a magnetic movement, hence the molecule containing such exhibits paramagnetism.

di-amelia (di-a-me′le-a)
Absence of two limbs.

diameter (di-am′e-ter)
1. A straight line connecting two opposite points on the surface of a more or less spherical or cylindrical body, or at the boundary of an opening or foramen, passing through the center of such body or opening. 2. The distance measured along such a line. [G. diametros, fr. dia, through, + metron, measure] anteroposterior d. of the pelvic inlet SYN: median conjugate. biparietal d. the d. of the fetal head between the two parietal eminences. buccolingual d. the d. of the crown of a tooth measured from the buccal to the lingual surfaces. conjugate d. of pelvic inlet SYN: median conjugate. conjugate d. of pelvic outlet SYN: straight conjugate. diagonal conjugate d. SYN: diagonal conjugate. external conjugate d. SYN: external conjugate. d. obliqua [TA] SYN: oblique d.. oblique d. [TA] a measurement across the pelvic inlet from the sacroiliac joint of one side to the opposite iliopectineal eminence. SYN: d. obliqua [TA] . obstetric conjugate d. SYN: true conjugate. occipitofrontal d. the d. of the fetal head from the external occipital protuberance to the most prominent point of the frontal bone in the midline. occipitomental d. the d. of the fetal head from the external occipital protuberance to the midpoint of the chin. posterior sagittal d. distance from the sacrococcygeal junction to the middle of an imaginary line running between the left and right ischial tuberosities. suboccipitobregmatic d. the d. of the fetal head from the lowest posterior point of the occipital bone to the center of the anterior fontanelle. total end-diastolic d. (TEDD) cross sectional d. of the left ventricle including the septum and posterior wall thicknesses in diastole. total end-systolic d. (TESD) cross sectional d. of the left ventricle including the septum and posterior wall thicknesses in systole. trachelobregmatic d. the d. of the fetal head from the middle of the anterior fontanelle to the neck. d. transversa [TA] SYN: transverse d.. transverse d. [TA] the transverse d. of the pelvic inlet, measured between the terminal lines. SYN: d. transversa [TA] . zygomatic d. the extreme breadth of the skull at the zygomatic arches.

diamide (di′am-id, -id)
A compound containing two amide groups.

diamidines (di-am′i-denz)
A group of compounds containing two amidine groups; e.g., stilbamidine, propamidine.

diamine (di′a-men, -min)
An organic compound containing two amine groups per molecule; e.g., ethylenediamine, NH2CH2CH2NH2. d. oxidase SYN: amine oxidase (copper-containing), amine oxidase (flavin-containing).

diamniotic (di-am-ne-ot′ik)
Exhibiting two amniotic sacs.

Diamond
Louis K., U.S. physician, 1902–1995. See D.-Blackfan anemia, D.-Blackfan syndrome, Gardner-D. syndrome, Shwachman-D. syndrome.

diamthazole dihydrochloride (di-am′tha-zol)
An antifungal agent for topical use. SYN: dimazole dihydrochloride.

diandry, diandria (di′an-dre, di-an′dre-a)
The phenomenon in which a single ovum is fertilized by a diploid sperm and hence produces a triploid fetus. Cf.:digyny. [di- + G. andros, male]

dianoetic (di′a-no-et′ik)
Of or pertaining to reason or other intellectual functions. [G. dia, through, + noeo, to think]

diapause (di′a-pawz)
A period of biological quiescence or dormancy with decreased metabolism; an interval in which development is arrested or greatly slowed. [dia- + G. pausis, pause] embryonic d. a d. in the course of embryogenesis; postulated to occur in instances of double parturition and possibly of delayed implantation.

diapedesis (di′a-pe-de′sis)
The passage of blood, or any of its formed elements, through the intact walls of blood vessels. SYN: migration (2) . [G. dia, through, + pedesis, a leaping]

diaphanography (di-a-fa-nog′ra-fe)
Examination of a body part by transillumination, especially for the detection of breast cancer. [G. diaphanes, transparent, + grapho, to write]

diaphanoscope (di-af′a-no-skop)
An instrument for illuminating the interior of a cavity to determine the translucency of its walls. SYN: polyscope. [G. diaphanes, transparent, + skopeo, to examine]

diaphanoscopy (di-af-a-nos′ko-pe)
Examination of a cavity with a diaphanoscope.

diaphemetric (di′a-fe-met′rik)
Relating to the determination of the degree of tactile sensibility. [G. dia, through, + haphe, touch, + metron, measure]

diaphen hydrochloride (di′a-fen)
An antihistaminic agent with anticholinergic properties.

diaphorase (di-af′or-as)
Originally, a series of flavoproteins with reductase activity in mitochondria; now dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase.

diaphoresis (di′a-fo-re′sis)
SYN: perspiration (1) . [G. d., fr. dia, through, + phoreo, to carry]

diaphoretic (di-a-fo-ret′ik)
1. Relating to, or causing, perspiration. 2. An agent that increases perspiration.

diaphragm (di′a-fram)
1. The musculomembranous partition between the abdominal and thoracic cavities. SYN: diaphragma (2) [TA] , interseptum, midriff, phren (1) . 2. A thin disk pierced with an opening, used in a microscope, camera, or other optical instrument in order to shut out the marginal rays of light, thus giving a more direct illumination. 3. A flexible ring covered with a dome-shaped sheet of elastic material used in the vagina to prevent pregnancy. 4. In radiography, a grid (2) or a lead sheet with an aperture. See collimator. [G. diaphragma] aperture d. a metal device that limits the area of the beam emerging from an x-ray tube. Bucky d. in radiography, a d. with a moving grid that avoids grid shadows. SYN: Potter-Bucky d.. d. of mouth SYN: mylohyoid (muscle). pelvic d. the paired levator ani and coccygeus muscles together with the fascia above and below them. SYN: d. of pelvis, diaphragma pelvis. d. of pelvis SYN: pelvic d.. Potter-Bucky d. SYN: Bucky d.. d. sellae SYN: diaphragma sellae. sellar d. diaphragma sellae. d. of sella turcica SYN: diaphragma sellae. urogenital d. an obsolete concept of a trilaminar, triangular sheet of muscle and fascia spanning the ischiopubic rami; composed of the sphincter urethrae and the deep transverse perineal muscles (which were said to be flat muscles forming a continuous sheet), plus the perineal membrane below and a superior fascia of the d. above. Evidence of the latter is lacking. The muscle-containing space between the fascial structures was formerly referred to as the deep perineal space. The terms urogenital d. and deep perineal space are not recognized by Terminologia Anatomica due to more accurate understanding of the morphology, especially of the sphincter urethrae. SYN: diaphragma urogenitale.

diaphragma, pl .diaphragmata (di-a-frag′ma, -frag′ma-ta) [TA]
1. A thin partition separating adjacent regions. 2. SYN: diaphragm (1) . [G. d., a partition wall, midriff] d. oris SYN: mylohyoid (muscle). d. pelvis SYN: pelvic diaphragm. d. sellae [TA] a fold of dura mater extending transversely across the sella turcica and roofing over the hypophyseal fossa; it is perforated in its center for the passage of the infundibulum. SYN: sellar diaphragm&star, diaphragm of sella turcica, diaphragm sellae, tentorium of hypophysis. d. urogenitale SYN: urogenital diaphragm.

diaphragmalgia (di′a-frag-mal′je-a)
Rarely used term for a pain in the diaphragm. SYN: diaphragmodynia. [diaphragm + G. algos, pain]




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