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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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dibucaine (di′boo-kan)
A potent local anesthetic with a long duration of action used by injection or topically on skin or mucous membranes.

dibucaine hydrochloride (di-bu′kan)
A potent local anesthetic (surface and spinal anesthesia).

dibucaine number (DN)
A test for differentiation of one of several forms of atypical pseudocholinesterases that are unable to inactivate succinylcholine at normal rates; based upon percent inhibition of the enzymes by dibucaine, normal enzyme has a DN of 75 and above, heterozygous atypical enzyme has a DN of 40-70, and homozygous atypical enzyme has a DN of less than 20. SEE ALSO: fluoride number.

dibutoline sulfate (di-bu′to-len)
An anticholinergic agent used as a mydriatic, a cycloplegic, and a gastrointestinal antispasmodic.

dibutyl phthalate (di-bu′til thal′at)
An insect repellent.

DIC
Abbreviation for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

dicacodyl (di-kak′o-dil)
SYN: cacodyl.

dicelous (di-se′lus)
Having two cavities or excavations on opposite surfaces. [G. di-, two, + koilos, hollow]

dicentric (di-sen′trik)
Referring to a structural chromosome having two centromeres, an abnormal state.

dicephalous (di-sef′a-lus)
Having two heads.

dicephalus (di-sef′a-lus)
Symmetrical conjoined twins with two separate heads. See conjoined twins, under twin. SYN: bicephalus, diplocephalus. [G. di-, two, + kephale, head] d. diauchenos a d. with separate necks. SYN: derodidymus. d. dipus dibrachius a d. in which there are only two arms and two legs for a body with two axes. d. dipus tetrabrachius a d. with two legs and four separate arms. d. dipus tribrachius a d. with two legs and three arms. d. dipygus SYN: anakatadidymus. See conjoined twins, under twin. d. monauchenos a d. in which union involves the cervical region so that the two heads are on a single neck.

dicheilia, dichilia (di-ki′le-a)
A lip appearing to be double because of the presence of an abnormal fold of mucosa. [G. di-, two, + cheilos, lip]

dicheiria, dichiria (di-ki′re-a)
Complete or incomplete duplication of the hand. SEE ALSO: polydactyly. SYN: diplocheiria, diplochiria. [G. di-, two, + cheir, hand]

Dichelobacter nodosus
SYN: Bacteroides nodosus.

dichloramine-T (di-klor′a-men)
Used as an antiseptic in surgical dressings.

dichloride (di-klor′id)
A compound with a molecule containing two atoms of chlorine to one of another element.

dichlorisone (di-klor′i-son)
A topical antipruritic agent.

dichlorobenzene (di-klor′o-ben′zen)
An insecticide used chiefly as a moth repellent.

dichlorodifluoromethane (di-klor′o-di-floo-ro-meth′an)
An easily liquefiable gas used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant.

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (di-chlor′o-di-fen′il-tri-klor-o-eth′an)
An insecticide that came into prominence during and after World War II. For a time it proved very effective, but insect populations rapidly developed tolerance for it, hence much of its original effectiveness has been lost; general usage is now widely discouraged because of the toxicity that results from the environmental persistence of this agent. SYN: chlorophenothane, dicophane.

di(2-chloroethyl)sulfide
SYN: mustard gas.

dichloroformoxime
SYN: phosgene oxime.

dichlorohydrin (di-klor-o-hi′drin)
A colorless, odorless fluid prepared by heating anhydrous glycerin with sulfur monochloride; a solvent of resins. SYN: dichloroisopropyl alcohol.

2,6-dichloroindophenol (di-klor′o-in-do-fe′nol)
A reagent for the chemical assay of ascorbic acid that depends upon the reducing properties of the latter. It is red in acid solution; in the presence of the vitamin C it undergoes reduction and becomes colorless, the vitamin being oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid. Often misnamed dichlorophenol-indophenol.

dichloroisopropyl alcohol (di-klor′o-is-o-pro′pil)
SYN: dichlorohydrin.

dichlorophen (di-klor′o-fen)
Used topically as a fungicide and bactericide, and internally in the treatment of infections by tapeworms of humans and domestic animals.

dichlorophenarsine hydrochloride (di-klor′o-fen-ar′sen)
(3-Amino-4-Hydroxyphenyl)dichloroarisine hydrochloride, formerly used as an arsenical antisyphilitic.

2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (di′klor-o-fe′nol-in-do-fe′nol)
Misnomer for 2,6-dichloroindophenol.

(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D)
An herbicide, more toxic to broad-leaved dicotyledonous plants (weeds) than to monocotyledonous ones (grains and grass), used with (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid as a constituent of Agent Orange.

dichlorovos (di-klor′o-vos)
SYN: dichlorvos.

dichlorphenamide (di-klor-fen′a-mid)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor with actions similar to those of acetazolamide.

dichlorvos (di-klor′vos)
An anthelmintic in veterinary and human medicine. SYN: dichlorovos.

dichorial, dichorionic (di-ko′re-al, di-ko-re-on′ik)
Showing evidence of two chorions. [G. di-, two, + chorion]

dichotic (di-kot′ik)
1. SYN: dichotomous. 2. Simultaneous presentation of a different sound to each ear.

dichotomous (di-kot′o-mus)
Denoting or characterized by dichotomy. SYN: dichotic (1) .

dichotomy (di-kot′o-me)
Division into two parts. [G. dichotomia, a cutting in two, fr. dicha, in two, + tome, a cutting]

dichroic (di-kro′ik)
Relating to dichroism.

dichroism (di′kro-izm)
The property of seeming to be differently colored when viewed from emitted light and from transmitted light. [G. di-, two, + chroa, color] circular d. (CD) the change from circular polarization to elliptical polarization of monochromatic, circularly polarized light in the immediate vicinity of the absorption band of the substance through which the light passes. SEE ALSO: Cotton effect.

dichromat (di′kro-mat)
An individual with dichromatism.

dichromate (di-kro′mat)
A compound containing the radical Cr2O7&dbond;.

dichromatic (di-kro-mat′ik)
1. Having or exhibiting two colors. 2. Relating to dichromatism (2).

dichromatism (di-kro′ma-tizm)
1. The state of being dichromatic (1). 2. The abnormality of color vision in which only two of the three retinal cone pigments are present, as in protanopia, deuteranopia, and tritanopia. SYN: dichromatopsia. [G. di-, two, + chroma, color]

dichromatopsia (di-kro-ma-top′se-a)
SYN: dichromatism (2) . [G. di-, two, + chroma, color, + opsis, vision]

dichromic (di-kro′mik)
Having, or relating to, two colors.

dichromophil, dichromophile (di-kro′mo-fil, di-kro′mo-fil)
Taking a double stain; denoting a tissue or cell taking both acid and basic dyes in different parts. [G. di-, two, + chroma, color, + philos, fond]

Dick
George Frederick, U.S. internist, 1881–1967. See D. method, D. test, D. test toxin.

Dick
Gladys R.H., U.S. internist, 1881–1963. See D. method, D. test, D. test toxin.

Dickens
Frank, British biochemist, *1899. See D. shunt, Warburg-Lipmann-D.-Horecker shunt.

diclofenac (di-clo′fén-ák)
One of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis; also used in osteoarthritis and other conditions. Acts by preventing prostaglandin synthesis.

dicloxacillin sodium (di-klok-sa-sil′in)
A semisynthetic penicillin resistant to penicillinase.

DICOM
Abbreviation for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, a joint standard of the American College of Radiology and National Equipment Manufacturers Association; specifies entities (or objects) and functions (or services) to allow communication between various image sources and other computer devices, such as archives or workstations.

dicophane (di′ko-fan)
SYN: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.

dicoria (di-ko′re-a)
SYN: diplocoria. [G. di-, two, + kore, pupil]

dicotyledon
Plant (shrub, herb, or tree) whose seeds consist of two cotyledons, i.e., the primary or rudimentary leaf of the embryo of seed plants.

dicrocoeliosis (di′kro-se-li-o′sis)
Infection of animals and, rarely, humans with trematodes of the genus Dicrocoelium.

Dicrocoelium (dik-ro-se′le-um)
A genus of digenetic trematodes inhabiting the bile ducts and gallbladder of herbivores. The species D. dentriticum (lancet fluke) is rarely found in humans, but is an important parasite of sheep in some localities. [G. dikroos, forked, + koilia, belly]

dicrotic (di-krot′ik)
Relating to dicrotism. [G. dikrotos, double-beating]

dicrotism (di′kro-tizm)
That form of the pulse in which a double beat can be appreciated at any arterial pulse for each beat of the heart; due to accentuation of the dicrotic wave. [G. di-, two, + krotos, a beat]

dicta- (dik′ta)
Prefix used to signify two hundred. [G.]

dictyoma (dik-te-o′ma)
A benign tumor of the ciliary epithelium with a netlike structure resembling embryonic retina. [G. dikyton, net (retina), + -oma, tumor]

dictyosome (dik′te-o-som)
SYN: Golgi apparatus. [G. diktyon, net, + -some]

dictyotene (dik′te-o-ten)
The state of meiosis at which the oocyte is arrested during the several years between late fetal life and menarche. [G. diktyon, net, + tainia, band]

dicumarol (di-koo′ma-rol)
An anticoagulant that inhibits the formation of prothrombin in the liver. Acts as an antagonist of vitamin K; discovered as the causative agent in spoiled hay, which produced bleeding in cattle (sweet clover disease). SYN: bishydroxycoumarin.

dicyclomine hydrochloride (di-si′klo-men)
An anticholinergic agent.

dicysteine (di-sis′ten)
SYN: cystine.

didactic (di-dak′tik)
Instructive; denoting medical teaching by lectures or textbooks, as distinguished from clinical demonstrations with patients or laboratory exercises. [G. didaktikos, fr. didasko, to teach]

didactylism (di-dak′ti-lizm)
Congenital condition of having only two fingers on a hand or two toes on a foot. [G. di-, two, + daktylos, finger or toe]

didelphic (di-del′fik)
Having or relating to a double uterus. [G. di-, two, + delphys, womb]

Didelphis (di-del′fis)
A genus of marsupials, commonly called opossums, that serve as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi. D. marsupialis is the common North American variety; D. paraguayensis is a South American form. [G. di-, two, + delphys, womb]

dideoxyadenosine (DDA) (di′de-oks′e-a-den′o-sen)
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of AIDS, similar to DDC.

dideoxycytidine (di′-de-ok′-se-si′-ti-den)
Pyrimidine nucleoside analog with antiviral activity; used in the treatment of AIDS.




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