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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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diflunisal (di-floo′ni-saul)
A salicyclic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic actions used in chronic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

digametic (di-ga-met′ik)
SYN: heterogametic.

digastric (di-gas′trik)
1. Having two bellies; denoting especially a muscle with two fleshy parts separated by an intervening tendinous part. SYN: biventral. See d. (muscle). 2. Relating to the d. muscle; denoting a fossa or groove with which it is in relation and a nerve supplying its posterior belly. SYN: digastricus (1) . [G. di-, two, + gaster, belly]

digastricus (di-gas′tri-kus)
1. SYN: digastric. 2. Denoting the musculus d.. [L.]

Digenea (di-je′ne-a)
Subclass of parasitic flatworms (class Trematoda) characterized by a complex life cycle involving developmental multiplying stages in a mollusk intermediate host, an adult stage in a vertebrate, and often involving an additional transport host or an additional intermediate host; includes all of the common flukes of humans and other mammals. [G. di-, two, + genesis, generation]

digenesis (di-jen′e-sis)
Reproduction in distinctive patterns in alternate generations, as seen in the nonsexual (invertebrate) and the sexual (vertebrate) cycles of digenetic trematode parasites. [G. di-, two, + G. genesis, generation]

digenetic (di-je-net′ik)
1. Pertaining to or characterized by digenesis. SYN: heteroxenous. 2. Pertaining to the d. fluke.

DiGeorge
Angelo M., U.S. pediatrician, *1921. See D. syndrome.

digest
1. (di-jest′, di-)To soften by moisture and heat. 2. (di-jest′, di-)To hydrolyze or break up into simpler chemical compounds by means of hydrolyzing enzymes or chemical action, as in the action of the secretions of the alimentary tract upon food. 3. (di′jest)The materials resulting from digestion or hydrolysis. [L. digero, pp. -gestus, to force apart, divide, dissolve]

digestant (di-jes′tant, di-)
1. Aiding digestion. 2. An agent that favors or assists the process of digestion. SYN: digestive (2) .

digestion (di-jes′chun, di-)
1. The process of making a digest. 2. The mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic process whereby ingested food is converted into material suitable for assimilation for synthesis of tissues or liberation of energy. [L. digestio. See digest] buccal d. that part of d. carried on in the mouth; E.G., the action of salivary amylases. duodenal d. that part of d. carried on in the duodenum. gastric d. that part of d., chiefly of the proteins, carried on in the stomach by the enzymes of the gastric juice. SYN: peptic d.. intercellular d. d. in a cavity by means of secretions from the surrounding cells, such as occurs in the metazoa. intestinal d. that part of d. carried on in the intestine; it affects all the foodstuffs: starches, fats, and proteins. intracellular d. d. within the boundaries of a cell, such as occurs in the protozoa and in phagocytes. pancreatic d. d. in the intestine by the enzymes of the pancreatic juice. peptic d. SYN: gastric d.. primary d. d. in the alimentary tract. salivary d. the conversion of starch into sugar by the action of salivary amylase. secondary d. the change in the chyle effected by the action of the cells of the body, whereby the final products of d. are assimilated in the process of metabolism.

digestive (di-jes′tiv, di-)
1. Relating to digestion. 2. SYN: digestant (2) .

digit (dij′it) [TA]
A finger or toe. SEE ALSO: finger, toe. SYN: digitus [TA] , dactyl, dactylus. [L. digitus] binary d. SYN: bit. clubbed d. clubbing. digits of foot toe. primary d. of foot SYN: great toe I.

digital (dij′i-tal)
Relating to or resembling a digit or digits or an impression made by them; based on numeric methodology.

digitalin (dij-i-tal′in)
A standardized mixture of digitalis glycosides used as a cardiotonic in the treatment of congestive heart failure. crystalline d. SYN: digitoxin.

Digitalis (dij-i-tal′is, -ta′lis)
A genus of perennial flowering plants of the family Schrophulariaceae. D. lanata, a European species, and D. purpurea, purple foxglove, are the main sources of cardioactive steroid glycosides used in the treatment of certain heart diseases, especially congestive heart failure; also used to treat tachyarrhythmias of atrial origin. SYN: foxglove. [L. d., relating to the fingers; in allusion to the fingerlike flowers]

digitalism (dij′i-tal-izm)
The symptoms caused by digitalis poisoning or overdosage.

digitalization (dij′i-tal-i-za′shun)
Administration of digitalis by any one of a number of schedules until sufficient amounts are present in the body to produce the desired therapeutic effects.

digitate (dij′i-tat)
Marked by a number of fingerlike processes or impressions. [L. digitatus, having fingers, fr. digitus, finger]

digitation (dij-i-ta′shun)
A process resembling a finger. [Mod. L. digitatio]

digitationes hippocampi (dij-i-ta-she-o′nez hip-o-kam′pe)
SYN: foot of hippocampus. [Mod. L. pl. of digitatio]

digiti (dij′i-ti)
Plural of digitus. [L.]

digitin (dij′i-tin)
SYN: digitonin.

digitonin (dij-i-to′nin)
1. A steroid glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea that has no cardiac action; used as a reagent in the determination of plasma cholesterol and steroids having a 3-hydroxyl group in beta configuration. 2. A mixture of four different steroids found in the seeds of Digitalis purpurea; a strong hemolytic poison. They can act as nonionic detergents in the solubilization of membrane proteins. SYN: digitin.

digitoxigenin (dij′i-toks′i-jen-in)
The aglycon derived from digitoxin; can be prepared by refluxing digitoxin in a mixture of water, alcohol, and hydrochloric acid.

digitoxin (dij-i-tok′sin)
A cardioactive glycoside obtained from the leaves of Digitalis purpurea; it is more completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract than is digitalis. Largely eliminated by hepatic metabolism. SYN: crystalline digitalin.

digitoxose (dij′i-toks′os)
The sugar moiety obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the glycosides digitoxin, gitoxin, and digoxin. The hydrolysis yields 3 moles of d. for each mole of the respective aglycon.

d-digitoxose (dij′i-toks′os)
The carbohydrate moiety found in digitalis glycosides; 2,6-dideoxy-d-ribo-hexose.

digitus, pl .digiti (dij′i-tus, -ti) [TA]
SYN: digit. [L.] d. anularis [TA] SYN: ring finger. d. auricularis SYN: little finger. digiti hippocratici obsolete term for clubbed digits or fingers. See clubbing. d. manus [TA] SYN: finger. d. (manus) medius [TA] SYN: middle finger. d. (manus) minimus [TA] SYN: little finger. d. (manus) primus thumb. d. (manus) quartus IV ring finger. d. (manus) quintus [V] SYN: little finger. d. (manus) secundus [II] index finger. d. (manus) tertius [III] middle finger. d. pedis [TA] SYN: toe. d. (pedis) minimus [V] [TA] SYN: little toe [V]. d. pedis primus I great toe I. d. (pedis) quartus [IV] [TA] SYN: fourth toe [IV]. d. (pedis) quintus [V] little toe [V]. d. (pedis) secundus [II] [TA] SYN: second toe [II]. d. (pedis) tertius [III] [TA] SYN: third toe [III]. d. valgus permanent deviation of one or more fingers to the radial side. d. varus permanent deviation of one or more fingers to the ulnar side.

diglossia (di-glos′e-a)
A developmental condition that results in a longitudinal split in the tongue. See bifid tongue. [G. di-, two, + glossa, tongue]

diglyceride lipase (di-glis′er-id)
SYN: lipoprotein lipase.

diglycocoll hydroiodide-iodine (di-gli′ko-kol hi-dro-i′o-did-i′o-din)
Two moles of diglycocoll hydroiodide combined with two atomic weights of iodine; an antibacterial agent used in tablet form to disinfect drinking water.

dignathus (di-nath′us)
A malformed fetus with a double mandible. SYN: augnathus. [G. di-, two, + gnathos, jaw]

digoxigenin (di-joks′i-jen-in)
The aglycon of digoxin that is joined by 3 moles of digitoxose to form the glycoside, digoxin.

digoxin (di-jok′sin)
A cardioactive steroid glycoside obtained from Digitalis lanata. Largely eliminated by the kidneys.

Di Guglielmo
Giovanni, Italian physician, 1886–1961. See D. disease, D. syndrome.

digyny, digynia (di′ji-ne, di-jin′e-a)
Fertilization of a diploid ovum by a sperm, which results in a triploid zygote. Cf.:diandry. [di- + G. gyne, woman]

diheterozygote (di-het′er-o-zi′got)
An individual heterozygous at two loci of interest, especially in genetic linkage analysis.

dihybrid (di-hi′brid)
The offspring of parents differing in two characters. [G. di-, two, + L. hybrida, offspring of a tame sow and a wild boar]

dihydralazine (di-hi-dral′a-zen)
An antihypertensive agent.

dihydrate (di-hi′drat)
A compound with two molecules of water of crystallization.

dihydrazone (di-hi′dra-zon)
SYN: osazone.

dihydro-
Prefix indicating the addition of two hydrogen atoms. [G. di, two + hydor, water]

dihydroascorbic acid (di-hi′dro-as-kor′bik)
SYN: l-gulonolactone.

dihydrobiopterin (di-hi′dro-bi-op′ter-in)
Precursor to tetrahydrobiopterin, a required cofactor for a number of enzymes, including the biosynthesis of l-tyrosine; the inability to synthesize d. can result in a form of malignant hyperphenylalaninemia. d. reductase SYN: dihydropteridine reductase.

dihydrocodeine tartrate (di-hi-dro-ko′den)
An analgesic derivative of codeine, about one-sixth as potent as morphine; a narcotic antitussive.

dihydrocodeinone (di-hi-dro-ko′den-on)
SYN: hydrocodone.

dihydrocortisone (di-hi-dro-kor′ti-son)
A metabolite of cortisone, reduced at the 4,5 double bond.

dihydroergocornine (di-hi′dro-er-go-kor′nin)
An ergot alkaloid derivative prepared by the hydrogenation of ergocornine and less toxic than the latter. See dihydroergotoxine mesylate.

dihydroergocristine (di-hi′dro-er-go-kris′ten)
An ergot alkaloid derivative prepared by the hydrogenation of ergocristine and less toxic than the latter. See dihydroergotoxine mesylate.

dihydroergocryptine (di-hi′dro-er-go-krip′ten)
An ergot alkaloid derivative prepared by the hydrogenation of ergocryptine and less toxic than the latter. See dihydroergotoxine mesylate.

dihydroergotamine (di-hi′dro-er-got′a-men)
An ergot alkaloid derivative prepared by the hydrogenation of ergotamine; used in the treatment of migraine; less toxic and less oxytocic than ergotamine.

dihydroergotoxine mesylate (di-hi′dro-er-go-tok′sen)
A mixture of dihydroergocornine methanesulfate, dihydroergocristine methanesulfate, and dihydroergocryptine methane sulfate; used as an α-adrenergic blocking agent for relief of cardiovascular insufficiency.

dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) (di-hi-dro-fo′lat)
An enzyme reversibly oxidizing tetrahydrofolate to 7,8-dihydrofolate with NADP+. A crucial enzyme in one-carbon metabolism; used as a marker of drug resistance to methotrexate. SYN: 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.

7,8-dihydrofolic acid (di-hi-dro-fo′lik)
Intermediate between folic acid and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid, oxidation of the latter requiring NADP+ and dehydrofolate reductase.

dihydrogen
SYN: hydrogen (2) .

dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (di-hi′dro-lip-o-am′id a-se-til-trans′fer-az)
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl grout from S6-acetyldihydrolipoamide to coenzyme A. A part of many enzyme complexes ( e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase complex). SYN: lipoate acetyltransferase, thioltransacetylase A.

dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (di-hi′dro-lip-o-am′id di-hi-dro′jen-az)
A flavoenzyme oxidizing dihydrolipoamide at the expense of NAD+; completes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate; a part of several enzyme complexes ( e.g., α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex). Decreased activity leads to neuronal loss in brain resulting in psychomotor retardation. SYN: coenzyme factor, lipoamide dehydrogenase, lipoamide reductase (NADH), lipoyl dehydrogenase.

dihydrolipoic acid (di-hi′dro-lip-o′ik)
Reduced lipoic acid, formed by cleavage of the &cbond;S&cbond;S&cbond; bond as a result of the acceptance of two hydrogens. Cf.:lipoic acid.

dihydromorphinone hydrochloride (di-hi-dro-mor′fi-non)
SYN: hydromorphone hydrochloride.

dihydro-orotase (di-hi′dro-or-o′tas)
An enzyme catalyzing ring closure of N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate to form l-5,6-dihydroorotate and water; an enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. SYN: carbamoylaspartate dehydrase.

dihydro-orotate (di-hi′dro-or-o′tat)
l-5,6-Dihydroorotate;an intermediate in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines.

dihydropteridine reductase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible formation of tetrahydrobiopterin from dihydrobiopterine using NADPH; a deficiency of this enzyme can result in malignant hyperphenylalaninemia. SYN: dihydrobiopterin reductase.

dihydropteroic acid (di-hi′dro-te-ro′ik)
An intermediate in the formation of folic acid; a compound of 6-hydroxymethylpterin and p-aminobenzoic acid, the combining of which is inhibited by sulfonamides.

dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (di-hi-dro′pi-rim′i-den de-hi-dro′jen-as)
An enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis that reacts 5,6-dihydrouracil with NADP+ to form uracil and NADPH; it also acts on dihydrothymine; a deficiency of this enzyme can result in hyperuracil thyminuria. SYN: dihydrouracil dehydrogenase.

dihydrostreptomycin (di-hi′dro-strep-to-mi′sin)
An aminoglycoside antibiotic similar in action to streptomycin but with a higher risk of ototoxicity.

dihydrotachysterol (di-hi′dro-ta-kis′ter-ol)
See tachysterol.




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