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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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diphenylenimine (di′fen-il-en′i-men)
SYN: carbazole.

diphenylhydantoin (di′fen-il-hi-dan′to-in)
See phenytoin.

5,5-diphenylhydantoin (di-fen′il-hi-dan′to-in)
SYN: phenytoin.

2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) (di′fen-il-oks′a-zol)
A scintillator used in radioactivity measurements by liquid scintillation counting.

diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (di-fen-il-pir′a-len)
An H1 antihistaminic similar in action and use to diphenhydramine.

diphosgene (di-fos′jen)
A poison gas used in World War I; it is also slightly lacrimatoric.

diphosphatase (di-fos′fa-taz)
SYN: pyrophosphatase. inorganic d. SYN: inorganic pyrophosphatase.

diphosphate
SYN: pyrophosphate.

diphosphothiamin (di′fos-fo-thi′a-min)
SYN: thiamin pyrophosphate.

diphtheria (dif-the-r′ea)
A specific infectious disease due to the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae and its highly potent toxin; marked by severe inflammation that can form a membranous coating, with formation of a thick fibrinous exudate, of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, the nose, and sometimes the tracheobronchial tree; the toxin produces degeneration in peripheral nerves, heart muscle, and other tissues, d. had a high fatality rate, especially in children, but now rare because of an effective vaccine. [G. diphthera, leather] cutaneous d. a &dquor;punched-out&dquor; shallow ulcer sometimes bordered or followed by a bulla, resulting from infection of the skin by Corynebacterium diphtheriae; systemic manifestations are the same as those of pharyngeal d.. false d. SYN: diphtheroid (1) . faucial d. severe pharyngitis affecting the fauces, the usual site affected by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae. laryngeal d. d. affecting the larynx, usually with asphyxiation due to obstruction of the airway by the membrane that forms, with fatal outcome. SYN: laryngotracheal d.. laryngotracheal d. SYN: laryngeal d..

diphtherial, diphtheritic (dif-the-r′e-al, dif-the-rit′ik)
Relating to diphtheria, or the membranous exudate characteristic of this disease. SYN: diphtheric.

diphtheric
SYN: diphtherial.

diphtheroid (dif′the-royd)
1. One of a group of local infections suggesting diphtheria, but caused by microorganisms other than Corynebacterium diphtheriae. SYN: Epstein disease, false diphtheria, pseudodiphtheria. 2. Any microorganism resembling Corynebacterium diphtheriae. [diphtheria + G. eidos, resemblance]

diphtherotoxin (dif′ther-o-tok′sin)
The toxin of diphtheria.

diphyllobothriasis (di-fil′o-both-ri′a-sis)
Infection with the cestode Diphyllobothrium latum; human infection is caused by ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked fish infected with the plerocercoid larva. Leukocytosis and eosinophilia may occur; if the worm is high enough in the alimentary canal, it may preempt the supply of vitamin B12 or alter its absorption, leading to hyperchromic macrocytic anemia resembling pernicious anemia, although the condition is rare, even in hyperendemic areas. SYN: bothriocephaliasis.

Diphyllobothrium (di-fil-lo-both′re-um)
A large genus of tapeworms (order Pseudophyllidea) characterized by a spatulate scolex with dorsal and ventral sucking grooves or bothria. Several species are found in humans, although only one, D. latum, is of widespread importance. [G. di-, two, + phyllon, leaf, + bothrion, little ditch] D. cordatum a species found in dogs, sea mammals, and occasionally humans, in Greenland. D. dendriticum adult form of the tapeworm found in the intestine of fish-eating birds; infective for humans. D. hians tapeworm species found in humans in Japan. D. houghtoni canine and feline tapeworm; found in humans in China. D. latum the broad or broad fish tapeworm, a species that causes diphyllobothriasis, found in humans and fish-eating mammals in many parts of northern Europe, Japan and elsewhere in Asia, and in Scandinavian populations of the American north central states; it often has 3 or 4 thousand segments, broader than long; the head has typical bothria characteristic of the genus. SYN: Dibothriocephalus latus. D. linguloides SYN: Spirometra mansoni. D. mansoni SYN: Spirometra mansoni. D. mansonoides SYN: Spirometra mansonoides. D. nihonkaiense tapeworm species closely related to D. latum; found in Japan with increasing numbers of human infections. D. orcini tapeworm species found in humans in Japan. D. pacificum tapeworm species found in sea lions; has been described as a human tapeworm acquired from marine fishes; found in Japan, Peru, and Ecuador. D. scoticum tapeworm species found in humans in Japan.

diphyodont (di-f′e-o-dont)
Possessing two sets of teeth, as occurs in humans and most other mammals. [G. di-, two, + phyo, to produce, + odous (odont-), tooth]

dipiproverine (di-pi-pro′ver-en)
An intestinal antispasmodic.

dipivefrin hydrochloride (di-piv′e-frin)
An adrenergic epinephrine prodrug used in drop form in initial therapy for control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.

diplacusis (dip-la-koo′sis)
Abnormal perception of sound, either in time or in pitch, so that one sound is heard as two. [G. diplous, double, + akousis, a hearing] d. binauralis a condition in which the same sound is heard differently by the two ears. d. dysharmonica a condition in which the same sound is heard as a different pitch in each ear. d. echoica a condition in which sound heard in the affected ear is repeated. d. monauralis a condition in which one sound is perceived as two in the same ear.

diplegia (di-ple′je-a)
Paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body. SYN: double hemiplegia. [G. di-, two, + plege, a stroke] congenital facial d. SYN: Möbius syndrome. facial d. paralysis of both sides of the face. infantile d. SYN: spastic d.. masticatory d. paralysis of all the muscles of mastication. spastic d. a type of cerebral palsy in which there is bilateral spasticity, with the lower extremities more severely affected. Cf.:flaccid paralysis. SYN: Erb-Charcot disease (1) , infantile d., Little disease, spastic spinal paralysis.

diplo-
Double, twofold. See haplo-. [G. diploos, double]

diploalbuminuria (dip′lo-al-bu-mi-noo′re-a)
The coexistence of nephritic, or pathologic, and nonnephritic, or physiologic, albuminuria.

diplobacillus (dip′lo-ba-sil′us)
Two rod-shaped bacterial cells linked end to end. [diplo- + bacillus]

diploblastic (dip-lo-blas′tik)
Formed of two germ layers. [diplo- + G. blastos, germ]

diplocardia (dip-lo-kar′de-a)
An anomaly in which the left and right halves of the heart are separated to varying degrees by a central fissure. [diplo- + G. kardia, heart]

diplocephalus (dip-lo-sef′a-lus)
SYN: dicephalus.

diplocheiria, diplochiria (dip′lo-ki′re-a)
SYN: dicheiria. [diplo- + G. cheir, hand]

diplococcemia (dip-lo-kok-se′me-a)
The presence of diplococci in the blood; used especially in referring to Neisseria meningitidis (meningococci) in circulating blood.

diplococci (dip′lo-kok′si)
Plural of diplococcus.

diplococcin (dip-lo-kok′sin)
An antibiotic crystalline substance isolated from cultures of lactic acid-producing cocci present in milk active against lactobacilli and certain Gram-positive cocci, but inactive against Gram-negative bacteria.

Diplococcus (dip′lo-kok′us)
Species of this former genus of bacteria are now assigned to other genera. D. pneumoniae, the type species of D., is a member of the genus Streptococcus. See Neisseria, Peptococcus, Streptococcus. [diplo- + G. kokkos, berry]

diplococcus, pl .diplococci (dip′lo-kok′us, -kok′si)
1. Spherical or ovoid bacterial cells joined together in pairs. 2. Common name of any organism belonging to the former bacterial genus D.. [diplo- + G. kokkos, berry]

diplocoria (dip-lo-ko′re-a)
The occurrence of two pupils in the eye. SYN: dicoria. [diplo- + G. kore, pupil]

diploë (dip′lo-e) [TA]
The central layer of spongy bone between the two layers of compact bone, outer and inner plates, or tables, of the flat cranial bones. [G. diploe, fem. of diplous, double]

diplogenesis (dip-lo-jen′e-sis)
Production of a double fetus or of one with some parts doubled. [diplo- + G. genesis, production]

Diplogonoporus (dip′lo-go-nop′o-rus)
A genus of tapeworms found in Japan (D. grandis) and probably also in Rumania (D. brauni) [diplo- + G. gonos, seed, + poros, pore]

diploic (dip-lo′ik)
Relating to the diploë.

diploid (dip′loyd)
Denoting the state of a cell containing two haploid sets derived from the father and from the mother respectively; the normal chromosome complement of somatic cells (in humans, 46 chromosomes). [diplo- + G. eidos resemblance]

diplokaryon (dip′lo-kar′e-on)
A cell nucleus containing four haploid sets; i.e., a tetraploid nucleus. SEE ALSO: polyploidy. [diplo- + G. karyon, nut (nucleus)]

diplomelituria (dip′lo-mel-i-too′re-a)
The occurrence of diabetic and nondiabetic glycosuria in the same individual. [diplo- + G. meli, honey, + ouron, urine]

diplomyelia (dip-lo-mi-e′le-a)
Complete or incomplete doubling of the spinal cord; may be accompanied by a bony septum of the vertebral canal. [diplo- + G. myelon, marrow]

diplon (dip′lon)
SYN: deuteron.

diplonema (dip-lo-ne′ma)
The doubled form of the chromosome strand visible at the diplotene stage of meiosis. [diplo- + G. nema, thread]

diploneural (dip-lo-noo′ral)
Supplied by two nerves from different sources, said of certain muscles. [diplo- + G. neuron, nerve]

diplopagus (dip-lop′a-gus)
General term for conjoined twins, each with fairly complete bodies, although one or more internal organs may be in common. See conjoined twins, under twin. [diplo- + G. pagos, something fixed]

diplopia (di-plo′pe-a)
The condition in which a single object is perceived as two objects. SYN: double vision. [diplo- + G. ops, eye] crossed d. d. in which the image seen by the right eye is to the left of the image seen by the left eye. SYN: heteronymous d.. heteronymous d. SYN: crossed d.. homonymous d. SYN: homonymous images, under image. monocular d. a double image or an extra ghost image produced in one eye, almost always by an aberration of the ocular media; for example, a corneal or lenticular irregularity, an uncorrected astigmatism or an irregularity of the vitreous or the retina. If a similar process occurs in both eyes (bilateral monocular d.), that is, the doubling is still present with either eye covered, the patient may still only see two images; seeing multiple images (polyopia) is rare. simple d. SYN: homonymous images, under image. uncrossed d. SYN: homonymous images, under image.

diplopodia (dip-lo-po′de-a)
Duplication of digits of the foot. [diplo- + G. pous, foot]

diplosome (dip′lo-som)
Paired allosomes; the pair of centrioles of mammalian cells. SYN: paired allosome. [diplo- + G. soma, body]

diplosomia (dip-lo-so′me-a)
Condition in which twins who seem functionally independent are joined at one or more points. See conjoined twins, under twin. [diplo- + G. soma, body]

diplotene (dip′lo-ten)
The late stage of prophase in meiosis in which the paired homologous chromosomes begin to repel each other and move apart, but are usually held together by chiasmata. The chiasmata are associated with breakage of two chromatids at corresponding points followed by refusion of the broken ends with exchange of segments between the chromatids; this is considered to be the cytologic basis for the crossing-over of genes. [diplo- + G. tainia, band]

dipodia (di-po′de-a)
1. A developmental anomaly involving complete or incomplete duplication of a foot. 2. In conjoined twins and sirenomelia, a degree of union leaving two feet evident. [G. di-, two, + pous (pod-), foot]

dipole (di′pol)
A pair of separated electrical charges, one or more positive and one or more negative; or a pair of separated partial charges. SYN: doublet (2) .

dipotassium phosphate (di-po-tas′e-um)
SYN: potassium phosphate.

diprenorphine (di-pren′or-fen)
A narcotic antagonist resembling naloxone but more potent.

dipropyltryptamine (di-pro-pil-trip′ta-men)
A hallucinogenic agent similar to dimethyltryptamine.

diprosopus (di-pros′o-pus, di-pro-so′pus)
Conjoined twins with almost complete fusion of the bodies and with normal limbs. Part or all of the face may be duplicated. See conjoined twins, under twin. [G. di-, two + prosopon, face]

dipsesis (dip-se′sis)
An abnormal or excessive thirst, or a craving for unusual forms of drink. SYN: dipsosis, morbid thirst. [G. dipseo, to thirst]

dipsogen (dip′so-jen)
A thirst-provoking agent. [G. dipsa, thirst, + -gen, producing]

dipsomania (dip-so-ma′ne-a)
A recurring compulsion to drink alcoholic beverages to excess. See alcoholism. [G. dipsa, thirst, + mania, madness]

dipsosis (dip-so′sis)
SYN: dipsesis. [G. dipsa, thirst, + -osis, condition]

dipsotherapy (dip′so-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of certain diseases by abstention, as far as possible, from liquids.

Diptera (dip′ter-a)
An important order of insects (the two-wing flies and gnats), including many significant disease vectors such as the mosquito, tsetse fly, sandfly, and biting midge. [G. di-, two, + pteron, wing]

dipteran (dip′ter-an)
Denoting insects of the order Diptera.

dipterous (dip′ter-us)
Relating to or characteristic of the order Diptera.

Dipus sagitta (di′pus saj′i-ta)
A small rodent of southern Russia that serves as a vector, through fleas, of Yersinia pestis (plague bacillus). [G. dipous, jerboa, two-footed; L. sagitta, arrow]

dipygus (di-pi′gus, dip′e-gus)
Conjoined twins with a single head and thorax and the pelvis and lower extremities duplicated; when the duplications of the lower parts are symmetric, usually called duplicitas posterior. See conjoined twins, under twin. [G. di-, two, + pyge, buttocks]

dipylidiasis (dip′i-li-di′a-sis)
Infection of carnivores and humans with the cestode Dipylidium caninum.

Dipylidium caninum (dip-i-lid′e-um ka-ni′num)
The commonest species of dog tapeworm, the double-pored tapeworm, the larvae of which are harbored by dog fleas or lice; the worm occasionally infects humans, especially children licked by dogs that have recently nipped infected fleas. [G. dipylos, with two entrances; L. ntr. of caninus, pertaining to canis, dog]

dipyridamole (di-pir-id′a-mol)
A coronary vasodilator that also has a weak action to reduce platelet aggregation; commonly used in place of exercise for studies of myocardial contractility.

dipyrimidine photolyase (di-pi-rim′i-den)
SYN: deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase.

dipyrine (di-pi′ren)
SYN: aminopyrine.




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