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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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eglandulous (e-glan′doo-lus)
Without glands. [L. e, without, + gland or glandula]

Eglis glands
See under gland.

ego (e′go)
In psychoanalysis, one of the three components of the psychic apparatus in the freudian structural framework, the other two being the id and superego. Although the e. has some conscious components, many of its functions are learned and automatic. It occupies a position between the primal instincts (pleasure principle) and the demands of the outer world (reality principle), and therefore mediates between the person and external reality by performing the important functions of perceiving the needs of the self, both physical and psychological, and the qualities and attitudes of the environment. It evaluates, coordinates, and integrates these perceptions so that internal demands can be adjusted to external requirements, and is also responsible for certain defensive functions to protect the person against the demands of the id and superego. [L. I]

ego-alien (e′go-a′le-en)
SYN: ego-dystonic.

egobronchophony (e′go-brong-kof′o-ne)
Egophony with bronchophony. [G. aix (aig-), goat, + bronchos, bronchus, + phone, voice]

egocentric (e-go-sen′trik)
Marked by extreme concentration of attention upon oneself, i.e., self-centered. Cf.:allocentric. SYN: egotropic. [ego + G. kentron, center]

egocentricity (e′go-sen-tris′i-te)
The condition of being egocentric.

ego-dystonic (e′go-dis-ton′ik)
Repugnant to or at variance with the aims of the ego and related psychological needs of the individual ( e.g., an obsessive thought or compulsive behavior); the opposite of ego-syntonic. SYN: ego-alien. [ego + G. dys, bad, + tonos, tension]

ego-ideal
In psychoanalysis, a more or less conscious ideal of personal excellence toward which an individual strives, and that is derived from a composite image of the personal characteristics of a parent, public figure, or one or more other individuals the person admires.

egomania (e-go-ma′ne-a)
Extreme self-centeredness, self-appreciation, or self-content. [ego + G. mania, frenzy]

egophonic (e-go-fon′ik)
Relating to egophony.

egophony (e-gof′o-ne)
A peculiar broken quality of the voice sounds, like the bleating of a goat, heard about the upper level of the fluid in cases of pleurisy with effusion. SYN: capriloquism, tragophonia, tragophony. [G. aix (aig-), goat, + phone, voice]

ego-syntonic (e′go-sin-ton′ik)
Acceptable to the aims of the ego and the related psychological needs of the individual ( e.g., a delusion); the opposite of ego-dystonic. [ego + G. syn, together, + tonos, tension]

egotropic (e-go-trop′ik)
SYN: egocentric. [ego + G. trope, a turning]

EGTA
Abbreviation for ethyleneglycotetraacetic acid.

EHEC
Abbreviation for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

Ehlers
Edward L., Danish dermatologist, 1863–1937. See E.-Danlos syndrome.

Ehrenritter
Johann, Austrian anatomist, &dag;1790. See E. ganglion.

Ehret
Heinrich, German physician, *1870. See E. phenomenon.

Ehrlich
Paul, German bacteriologist, immunologist, and Nobel laureate, 1854–1915. See Ehrlichia, E. anemia, E. inner body, E. phenomenon, E. postulate, E. diazo reagent, E. theory, E.-Türk line. See entries under stain; reaction.

Ehrlichia (er-lik′e-a)
A genus of small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal, nonmotile, Gram-negative bacteria (order Rickettsiales) that occur either singly or in compact inclusions in circulating mammalian leukocytes; species are the etiologic agents of ehrlichiosis and are transmitted by ticks. The type species is E. canis. [P. Ehrlich] E. canis the bacterial species causing the tick-borne disease canine ehrlichiosis in dogs (transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus); it is the type species of the genus E.. Occasionally causes tick-borne infection in humans. E. chaffeensis a recently described bacterial species associated with human ehrlichiosis; infects human monocytes and is carried by the tick vector, Amblyomma americanum, the Lone Star tick. E. equi a bacterial species that causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; occurs in the Midatlantic, southern New England, and southern Midwest and is spread by ticks (Ixodes). E. phagocytophila a bacterial species that causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis; also causes tick-borne fever in cattle; occurs in the Midatlantic, southern New England, and southern Midwest and is spread by ticks (Ixodes). E. risticii the bacterial species causing equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. sennetsu the bacterial species causing Sennetsu fever in humans. SYN: Rickettsia sennetsu.

Ehrlichieae
Members of the Rickettsiaceae family; obligate intracellular parasites of peripheral blood leukocytes.

ehrlichiosis (er-lik-e-o′sis)
Infection with leukocytic rickettsiae of the genus Ehrlichia; in humans, especially by E. sennetsu that produces manifestations similar to those of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.Species of Ehrlichia have long been recognized as causes of febrile hemorrhagic disease of variable severity in animals, including dogs and horses. Human infection with E. sennetsu, limited to the Far East, is a mononucleosislike illness. The first human case of e. in the western hemisphere was reported in 1986. Since then 2 distinct forms of the disease, each associated with a different species of Ehrlichia and a different group of tick vectors, have been recognized in human beings. More than 90% of patients give a history of having been bitten by several ticks. An animal reservoir has not yet been identified, but rodents and deer are suspected. After an incubation period of 1–4 weeks, infection begins as a nonspecific febrile illness with chills, sweating, headache, and joint and muscle pains. One-fourth of patients have a transitory nonspecific rash not related to the site of tick bite. Systemic complications may involve the respiratory tract (sore throat, cough, pulmonary infiltrates, acute respiratory distress syndrome), the digestive system (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding), or the liver (80% have hepatitis). Other possible complications include meningitis, pericarditis, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Early studies of these infections, based on populations with more conspicuous and readily identifiable disease, overestimated case fatality rates. With treatment, the case fatality rate in the 2 forms of e. probably does not exceed 1%. Human granulocytic e. is clinically indistinguishable from human monocytic e., but in the former, morulae are found in neutrophils rather than in monocytes, and the disease is somewhat more severe. For both forms of e., polymerase chain reaction technology has yielded the most sensitive and specific serologic testing. Tetracycline and doxycycline are highly effective in arresting progression of either form of human e.. Because other agents, including chloramphenicol, have not been found to be effective, tetracyclines are used even in children, in whom they are generally contraindicated because of the risk of dental mottling and suppression of bone growth. Treatment is often begun on suspicion, pending confirmation of the clinical diagnosis by serologic test. Drug therapy is continued for 14 days. human e. a form of e. that presents clinically as a undifferentiated acute febrile illness characterized by fever, chills, diarrhea, and headache, following tick bite(s), probably by the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Usually caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. First described in 1987. (Thought to be predominantly a monocytic form of e..) human granulocytic e. (HGE) an acute infectious disease characterized by fever, chills, headache, joint and muscle pains, and sometimes respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, or other systemic involvement; first described in 1994 in northeastern and northern midwestern states and California; the causative agent can be distinguished only by molecular studies from Ehrlichia equi, the cause of equine e.. The deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the principal vector, and the peak incidence is in July. Hematologic studies show depression of RBC, WBC, and platelets. Clusters of developing organisms called morulae may be seen in neutrophils on stained blood smears, but serologic testing is more sensitive. human monocytic e. (HME) an acute infectious disease characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and variable respiratory, gastrointestinal, and systemic involvement; hematologic studies show depression of RBC, WBC, and platelets. The finding of clumps of developing organisms, called morulae, in the cytoplasm of monocytes in a stained smear of peripheral blood establishes the diagnosis, but their detection is often difficult. Serologic testing shows antibody to Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an organism closely resembling the agent of canine e., E. canis. This disease has been largely confined to the southeastern and south central United States. The Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) are the principal vectors, and the incidence is highest from April to September, during the peak activity of these ticks.

Eichhorst
Hermann L., Swiss physician, 1849–1921. See E. corpuscles, under corpuscle, E. neuritis.

Eicken
Karl von, German laryngologist, 1873–1960. See E. method.

eicosanoids (i′ko-sa-noydz)
The physiologically active substances derived from arachidonic acid, i.e., the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes; synthesized via a cascade pathway. [G. eicosa-, twenty, + eidos, form]

9-eicosenoic acid (i′ko-se-no′ik)
SYN: gadoleic acid.

eidetic (i-det′ik)
1. Relating to the power of visualization of and memory for objects previously seen which reaches its height in children aged 8 to 10. 2. A person possessing this power to a high degree. [G. eidon, saw (aorist of verb)]

EIEC
Abbreviation for enteroinvasive Escherichia coli.

Eikenella corrodens (i-ke-nel′a kor-ro′denz)
A species of nonmotile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that characteristically pits the agar under its colonies; it is part of the normal flora of the adult human oral cavity but may be an opportunistic pathogen, in pure or mixed culture especially in immunocompromised hosts. [M. Eiken, 1958]

eikonometer (i-ko-nom′e-ter)
1. An instrument for determining the magnifying power of a microscope, or the size of a microscopic object. 2. An instrument for determining the degree of aniseikonia. [G. eikon, image, + metron, measure]

eiloid (i′loyd)
Resembling a coil or roll. [G. eilo, to roll up, + eidos, appearance]

Eimer
Gustav Heinrich Theodor, German zoologist, 1843–1898.

Eimeriidae (i-mer-i′i-de)
A family of sporozoan coccidia; important genera are Eimeria and Isospora, infections by Eimeria being by far the most common and most serious in domesticated animals. [see Eimeria]

Einarson gallocyanin-chrome alum stain
See under stain.

einstein (in′stin)
A unit of energy equal to 1 mol quantum, hence to 6.0221367 × 1023 quanta. The value of e., in kJ, is dependent upon the wavelength. [A. E., German-born U.S. theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, 1879–1955]

einsteinium (Es) (in-stin′e-um)
An artificially prepared transuranium element, atomic no. 99, atomic wt. 252.0; it has many isotopes, all of which are radioactive (252Es has the longest known half-life, 1.29 years).

Einthoven
Willem, Dutch physiologist and Nobel laureate, 1860–1927. See E. equation, E. law, E. string galvanometer, E. triangle.

Eisenlohr
Carl, German physician, 1847–1896.

Eisenmenger
Victor, German physician, 1864–1932. See E. complex, E. defect, E. disease, E. syndrome, E. tetralogy.

eisodic (i-sod′ik)
Rarely used term for afferent. [G. eis, into, + hodos, a way]

ejaculate (e-jak′u-lat)
1. To expel suddenly. 2. Semen expelled in ejaculation. [see ejaculation]

ejaculation (e-jak-u-la′shun)
The process that results in propulsion of semen from the genital ducts and urethra to the exterior; caused by the rhythmic contractions of the muscles surrounding the internal genital organs and the ischiocavernous and bulbocavernous muscles, resulting in an increase in pressure on the semen in the internal genital glands and the internal urethra. [L. e-iaculo, pp. -atus, to shoot out] premature e. during sexual intercourse, too rapid achievement of climax and e. in the male relative to his own or his partner's wishes. retrograde e. delivery of semen ejaculate into the bladder; seen in neurologic disease, diabetes, and occasionally after prostate surgery.

ejaculatory (e-jak′u-la-tor-e)
Relating to an ejaculation.

ejecta (e-jek′ta)
SYN: ejection (2) . [L. ntr. pl. of ejectus, pp. of ejicio, to throw out]

ejection (e-jek′shun)
1. The act of driving or throwing out by physical force from within. 2. That which is ejected. SYN: ejecta. [L. ejectio, from ejicio, to cast out]

ejector (e-jek′tor, -tor)
A device used for forcibly expelling (ejecting) a substance. saliva e. a hollow, perforated suction tube used in the evacuation of saliva or liquid debris from the oral cavity. SYN: dental pump, saliva pump.

EJP
Abbreviation for excitatory junction potential.

Ejrup
Erick, 20th century Swedish internist. See E. maneuver.

eka-
Prefix used to denote an undiscovered or just discovered element in the periodic system before a proper and official name is assigned by authorities; e.g., e.osmium, now plutonium. [Sanskrit eka, one]

Ekbom
Karl A., Swedish neurologist, *1907. See E. syndrome.

EKG
Abbreviation for electrocardiogram.

ekiri (e-ki′ri)
An acute, toxic form of dysentery of infants seen in Japan and due to Shigella sonnei. [Jap.]

EKY
Abbreviation for electrokymogram.

elaboration (e-lab′or-a′shun)
The process of working out in detail by labor and study. [L. e-laboro, pp. -atus, to labor, endeavor, fr. labor, toil, to work out] secondary e. the mental process occurring partly during dreaming and partly during the recalling or telling of a dream by means of which the latent (relatively disorganized and psychologically painful) content of the dream is brought into increasingly more coherent and logical order, resulting in the manifest content of the dream; an aspect of dream work.

Elaeophora schneideri (e-le-of′o-ra schni′der-i)
The bloodworm of sheep; a species of nematodes causing filarial dermatosis. [Mod. L. elaea, fr. G. elaia, olive, + agnos, sheep, + phoros, to bear]

elaidic acid (el-a-id′ik)
An unsaturated monobasic trans-isomer of oleic acid; found in ruminant fats. Cf.:oleic acid.

elaiopathia (el′a-o-path′e-a)
SYN: eleopathy. [G. elaion, oil, + pathos, suffering]

E-LAM
Abbreviation for endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule.

elapid (el′a-pid)
Any member of the snake family Elapidae.

Elapidae (e-lap′i-de)
A family of highly venomous snakes characterized by a pair of comparatively short, permanently erect deeply grooved fangs at the front of the mouth. There are over 150 species, including the cobra, krait, mamba, and coral snakes. [G. elops, a serpent]

elastance (e-las′tans)
A measure of the tendency of a structure to return to its original form after removal of a deforming force. In medicine and physiology, usually a measure of the tendency of a hollow viscus ( e.g., lung, urinary bladder, gallbladder) to recoil toward its original dimensions upon removal of a distending or compressing force, the recoil pressure resulting from a unit distention or compression of the viscus; the reciprocal of compliance. The relationship between elasticity and e. is of the same nature as that between the specific inductive capacity of an insulator material and the capacitance of a particular condenser made from that material.

elastase (e-las′tas)
A serine proteinase hydrolyzing elastin; other e.-like enzymes have been identified ( e.g., pancreatic e. [pancreatopeptidase E] and leukocyte e. [lysosomal or neutrophil e.]) with different sequences and kinetic parameters; all have fairly broad specificities.

elastic (e-las′tik)
1. Having the property of returning to the original shape after being stretched, compressed, bent, or otherwise distorted. 2. A rubber or plastic band used in orthodontics as either a primary or adjunctive source of force to move teeth. The term is generally modified by an adjective to describe the direction of the force or the location of the terminal connecting points. [G. elastreo, epic form of elauno, drive, push] intermaxillary e. material used to provide e. traction between the upper and lower teeth. vertical e. e. material used in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane, connecting one arch wire to the other, and usually used to improve intercuspation.

elastica (e-las′ti-ka)
1. The elastic layer in the wall of an artery. 2. SYN: elastic tissue.

elasticin (e-las′ti-sin)
SYN: elastin.

elasticity (e-las-tis′i-te)
The quality or condition of being elastic. physical e. of muscle the quality of muscle that enables it to yield to passive physical stretch. physiologic e. of muscle the biologic quality, unique for muscle, of being able to change and resume size under neuromuscular control. total e. of muscle the combined effect of physical and physiologic e. of muscle.

elastin (e-las′tin)
A yellow elastic fibrous mucoprotein that is the major connective tissue protein of elastic structures ( e.g., large blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, etc.); elastins precursor is proelastin. SYN: elasticin.

elastofibroma (e-las′to-fi-bro′ma)
A nonencapsulated slow-growing mass of poorly cellular, collagenous, fibrous tissue and elastic tissue; occurs usually in subscapular adipose tissue of old persons. [G. elastos, beaten, + L. fibra, -oma tumor]

elastoidin (e-las′toy-din)
A complex collagen.




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