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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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endosperm (en′do-sperm)
A storage tissue found in many seeds that nourishes the embryo of a plant.

endospore (en′do-spor)
1. A resistant body formed within the vegetative cells of some bacteria, particularly those belonging to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. 2. A fungus spore borne within a cell or within the tubular end of a sporophore as in the spherule of Coccidioides immitis. [endo- + G. sporos, seed]

endosteal (en-dos′te-al)
Relating to the endosteum.

endosteitis, endostitis (en′dos-te-i′tis, en′dos-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the endosteum or of the medullary cavity of a bone. SYN: central osteitis (2) , perimyelitis. [endo- + G. osteon, bone, + -itis, inflammation]

endosteoma (en-dos′te-o′ma)
A benign neoplasm of bone tissue in the medullary cavity of a bone. SYN: endostoma. [endo- + G. osteon, bone, + -oma, tumor]

endostethoscope (en-do-steth′o-skop)
A stethoscopic tube used in endoauscultation. [endo- + G. stethos, chest, + skopeo, to examine]

endosteum (en-dos′te-um) [TA]
A layer of cells lining the inner surface of bone in the central medullary cavity. SYN: medullary membrane, perimyelis. [endo- + G. osteon, bone]

endostoma (en-do-sto′ma)
SYN: endosteoma.

endotendineum (en′do-ten-din′e-um)
The fine connective tissue surrounding secondary fascicles of a tendon. [endo- + L. tendon, tendon, + -eus, adj.; the whole, in its neuter form, used substantively]

endothelia (en-do-the′le-a)
Plural of endothelium.

endothelial (en-do-the′le-al)
Relating to the endothelium.

endothelin
A 21-amino acid peptide originally derived from endothelial cells. It is an extremely potent vasoconstrictor. Three different gene products have been identified, e. 1, e. 2, and e. 3; they are found in brain, kidney, and endothelium (e. 1), intestine (e. 2), and intestine and adrenal gland (e. 3).

endotheliocyte (en-do-the′le-o-sit)
SYN: endothelial cell.

endothelioid (en-do-the′le-oyd)
Resembling endothelium.

endothelioma (en′do-the-le-o′ma)
Generic term for a group of neoplasms, particularly benign tumors, derived from the endothelial tissue of blood vessels or lymphatic channels; endotheliomas may be benign or malignant. [endothelium + -oma, tumor]

endotheliosis (en′do-the-le-o′sis)
Proliferation of endothelium.

endothelium, pl .endothelia (en-do-the′le-um, -le-a) [TA]
A layer of flat cells lining especially blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart. [endo- + G. thele, nipple] e. of anterior chamber [TA] a single layer of large, squamous cells that covers the posterior surface of the cornea. SYN: e. posterius corneae [TA] , e. camerae anterioris. e. camerae anterioris SYN: e. of anterior chamber. e. posterius corneae [TA] SYN: e. of anterior chamber.

endothermic (en-do-ther′mik)
Denoting a chemical reaction during which heat (enthalpy) is absorbed. Cf.:exothermic (1) . [endo- + G. therme, heat]

endothrix (en′do-thriks)
Fungal spores (conidia) invading the interior of a hair shaft; there is no conspicuous external sheath of spores, as there is with ectothrix. [endo- + G. thrix, hair]

endotoxemia (en′do-tok-se′me-a)
Presence in the blood of endotoxins, which, if derived from Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, may cause a generalized Shwartzman phenomenon with shock.

endotoxic (en-do-tok′sik)
Denoting an endotoxin.

endotoxicosis (en′do-tok-si-ko′sis)
Poisoning by an endotoxin.

endotoxin (en-do-tok′sin)
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin. 2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of a variety of relatively avirulent as well as virulent strains of Gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are relatively heat-stable, are less potent than most exotoxins, are less specific, and do not form toxoids; on injection, they may cause a state of shock and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis; they have the capacity of eliciting the Shwartzman and the Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomena. SYN: intracellular toxin.

endotracheal (en′do-tra′ke-al)
Within the trachea.

endourology (en-do-ur-ol′o-je)
Genitourinary operative procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic) performed through instruments. These may be cystoscopic, pelviscopic, celioscopic, laparoscopic, percutaneous, or ureteroscopic.

endovaccination (en′do-vak-si-na′shun)
Oral administration of vaccines.

endovasculitis (en′do-vas′ku-li′tis)
SYN: endangiitis. hemorrhagic e. endothelial and medial hyperplasia of placental blood vessels with thrombosis, fragmentation, and diapedesis of red blood cells resulting in stillbirth or fetal developmental disorders.

endovenous (en-do-ve′nus)
SYN: intravenous.

end-piece
The terminal part of the tail of a spermatozoon consisting of the axoneme and the flagellar membrane.

endplate, end-plate (end′plat)
The ending of a motor nerve fiber in relation to a skeletal muscle fiber. motor e. the large and complex end-formation by which the axon of a motor neuron establishes synaptic contact with a striated muscle fiber (cell); several terminal branches of a motor axon end in irregular, club-shaped synaptic end-formations that are bedded in a single troughlike depression of the muscle fiber's surface; the postsynaptic membrane, the sarcolemma that forms the bottom of the trough, is greatly increased in surface area by deep infoldings protruding into the underlying cytoplasm of the muscle fiber; the subsynaptic interval between the plasma membrane of the axon terminals and the sarcolemma is filled with an amorphous substance; the trough is closed off toward the surface by the Schwann sheath, which peels away from the axons as the latter enter the trough and thus forms a lid over the trough; the slight bulge of this closure plate corresponds to Doyère eminence. SYN: sole-plate ending.

end-tidal (end-ti′dal)
At the end of a normal expiration.

endyma (en′di-ma)
SYN: ependyma. [G. a garment]

E.N.E.
Abbreviation for ethylnorepinephrine.

-ene
Suffix applied to a chemical name indicating the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond; e.g., propene (unsaturated propane, CH3&cbond;CH&dbond;CH2). [G. ene, feminine adjectival suffix]

enediol (en-di′ol)
The atomic arrangement –C(OH)&dbond;C(OH)– produced by proton migration from the CH of a &cbond;CHOH group that is attached to a –CO– group to the oxygen of the –CO– group (usually induced by alkali), giving rise to doubly bonded carbon atoms (the -ene group), each bearing a –CHOH group (a diol); a special case of enolization.

enema (en′e-ma)
A rectal injection for clearing out the bowel, or administering drugs or food. [G.] air contrast e. a radiographic double contrast e. in which air is introduced after coating of the colon with a dense barium suspension. SYN: air contrast barium e., double contrast e.. air contrast barium e. SYN: air contrast e.. analeptic e. an e. of a pint of lukewarm water with one-half teaspoonful of table salt. barium e. a type of contrast e.; administration of barium sulfate suspension, a radiopaque medium, for radiographic and fluoroscopic study of the lower intestinal tract. blind e. the introduction into the rectum of a rubber tube to facilitate the expulsion of flatus. contrast e. e. using barium sulfate or a water-soluble contrast medium. double contrast e. SYN: air contrast e.. flatus e. an e. of magnesium sulfate in glycerin and warm water. high e. an e. instilled high up into the colon. SYN: enteroclysis (1) . Hypaque e. e. with water-soluble radiographic contrast material, whether diatrizoate or other. nutrient e. a rectal injection of predigested food. oil retention e. a rectal injection of mineral oil, introduced at low pressure and retained for several hours before expelling, to soften feces. small bowel e. radiographic examination of the small intestine, by retrograde filling from the contrast-filled large bowel. Cf.:enteroclysis, small bowel series. soapsuds e. an e. of shredded or powdered soap in warm water. turpentine e. an e. of turpentine and olive oil in soapsuds.

enemator (en-e-ma′ter, -tor)
An appliance used to give an enema.

enemiasis (en-e-mi′a-sis)
The use of enemas.

energetics (en-er-jet′iks)
The study of the energy changes involved in physical and chemical reactions and in overall systems.

energy (en′er-je)
The exertion of power; the capacity to do work, taking the forms of kinetic e., potential e., chemical e., electrical e., etc. SYN: dynamic force. [G. energeia, fr. en, in, + ergon, work] e. of activation (Ea) e. that must be added to that already possessed by a molecule or molecules in order to initiate a reaction; usually expressed in the Arrhenius equation relating a rate constant to absolute temperature. binding e. e. that would be released if a particular atomic nucleus were formed through the combination of individual protons and neutrons. SYN: fusion e.. chemical e. e. liberated or absorbed by a chemical reaction, e.g., oxidation of carbon, or absorbed in the formation of a chemical compound. free e. (F) a thermodynamic function symbolized as F, or G (Gibbs free e.), = H − TS, where H is the enthalpy of a system, T the absolute temperature, and S the entropy; chemical reactions proceed spontaneously in the direction that involves a net decrease in the free e. of the system ( i.e., ΔG < 0). fusion e. SYN: binding e.. Gibbs e. of activation the Gibbs e. that must be added to that already possessed by a molecule or molecules in order to initiate a reaction. Gibbs free e. (G) free e.. Helmholtz e. (A) e. equivalent to the internal e. minus the entropy contribution (TS). internal e. (U) e. of a system measured by the heat absorbed from the system's surroundings and the amount of work done on the system by its surroundings. kinetic e. (K) the e. of motion. latent e. SYN: potential e.. nuclear e. e. given off in the course of a nuclear reaction or stored in the formation of an atomic nucleus. nutritional e. SYN: trophodynamics. e. of position SYN: potential e.. potential e. the e., existing in a body by virtue of its position or state of existence, which is not being exerted at the time. SYN: e. of position, latent e.. psychic e. in psychoanalysis, a hypothetical mental force, analogous to the physical concept of e., which enables and vitalizes an individual's psychological activity. SEE ALSO: libido. SYN: psychic force. radiant e. e. contained in light rays or any other form of radiation. solar e. e. derived from sunlight. total e. the sum of kinetic and potential energies.

enflurane (en-floor′an)
A potent volatile inhalation anesthetic that is nonflammable and nonexplosive.

ENG
Abbreviation for electronystagmography.

engagement (en-gaj′ment)
In obstetrics, the mechanism by which the biparietal diameter of the fetal head enters the plane of the inlet.

engastrius (en-gas′tre-us)
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is wholly or partly within the abdomen of the larger autosite. [G. en, in, + gaster, belly]

Engelmann
Guido, German surgeon, *1876. See E. disease.

Engelmann
Theodor W., German physiologist, 1843–1909. See E. basal knobs, under knob.

engineering (en-jin-er′ing)
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. biomedical e. application of e. principles to obtain solutions to biomedical problems. dental e. application of e. principles to dentistry. genetic e. internal manipulation of basic genetic material of an organism to modify biologic heredity or to produce peptides of high purity, such as hormones or antigens.

Englisch
Josef, Austrian physician, 1835–1915. See E. sinus.

englobe (en-glob′)
To take in by a spheroidal body; said of the ingestion of bacteria and other foreign bodies by the phagocytes.

englobement (en-glob′ment)
The process of inclusion by a spheroidal body, such as by a phagocyte.

engorged (en-gorjd′)
Absolutely filled; distended with fluid. SEE ALSO: congested, hyperemic. [O. Fr. fr. Mediev. L. gorgia, throat, narrow passage, fr. L. gurges, a whirlpool]

engorgement (en-gorj′ment)
Distention with fluid or other material. SEE ALSO: congestion, hyperemia.

engram (en′gram)
In the mnemic hypothesis, a physical change or memory trace made on the central nervous system of an organism as a result of experience or the repetition of stimuli. [G. en, in, + gramma, mark]

engraphia (en-graf′e-a)
The formation of engrams.

en grappe (ahn-grap′)
Denoting the grapelike cluster arrangement of microconidia of certain dermatophytes. [Fr. en, in, + grappe, bunch of grapes]

enhancement (en-hans′ment)
1. The act of augmenting. 2. In immunology, the prolongation of a process or event by suppressing an opposing process. acoustic e. a manifestation of increased echo amplitude returning from regions beyond an object, such as a fluid-filled cyst, which causes little or no attenuation of the ultrasound beam. Cf.:acoustic shadow. contrast e. the intravenous administration of water-soluble iodinated contrast material, which increases the CT number of the vascular pool, as well as some lesions (particularly in the brain), due to abnormal leakage into the interstitium; the property of showing increased radiopacity from concentration of contrast medium. edge e. using analogue or digital image processing to increase the contrast of each interface; equivalent to using a high-pass filter. immunologic e. SYN: immunoenhancement. ring e. in computed tomography, when a bright circle appears on an image made after injection of contrast medium, characteristic of localization of the contrast in the wall of an abscess.

enhancers
Genetic elements important in the function of a specific promoter. [M.E. enhauncen, raise, increase, fr. O. Fr. enhaucier, fr. L.L. inalto, fr. altus, high, + -er, agent suffix]

enkephalinergic (en-kef′a-lin-er′jik)
Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ an enkephalin as their neurotransmitter. [enkephalin + G. ergon, work]

enkephalins (en-kef′a-linz)
Pentapeptide endorphins, found in many parts of the brain, that bind to specific receptor sites, some of which may be pain-related opiate receptors; hypothesized as endogenous neurotransmitters and nonaddicting analgesics. Metenkephalin is Tyr–Gly–Gly–Phe–Met; leuenkephalin has Leu in place of Met; proenkephalin has Pro in place of Met.

enlargement (en-larj′ment) [TA]
1. An increase in size; an anatomic swelling, e., or prominence. 2. An intumescence or swelling. SYN: intumescentia [TA] , intumescence (1) . cervical e. [TA] a spindle-shaped swelling of the spinal cord extending from the third cervical to the second thoracic vertebra, with maximum thickness opposite the fifth or sixth cervical vertebra, consequential to the innervation of the upper limb. SYN: intumescentia cervicalis [TA] , cervical e. of spinal cord. cervical e. of spinal cord SYN: cervical e.. choroid e. [TA] the enlarged portion of the choroid plexus located in the atrium of the lateral ventricle; may become partially calcified with age. SEE ALSO: choroid glomus. SYN: glomus choroideum [TA] , choroid glomus, choroid skein. gingival e. an overgrowth (localized or diffuse) of gingival tissue, nonspecific in nature. SEE ALSO: gingival hyperplasia. lumbosacral e. [TA] a spindle-shaped swelling of the spinal cord beginning at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra and tapering into the medullary cone, with maximum thickness opposite the last thoracic vertebra, consequential to the innervation of the lower limb. SYN: intumescentia lumbosacralis [TA] , lumbosacral e. of spinal cord. lumbosacral e. of spinal cord SYN: lumbosacral e.. tympanic e. [TA] a swelling, not ganglionic, on the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeus nerve; it is regarded as possibly similar to the carotid glomus. SEE ALSO: tympanic ganglion. SYN: intumescentia tympanica [TA] , tympanic intumescence. e. of the vestibular aqueduct recessive hereditary hearing impairment associated with a large vestibular aqueduct.

-enoic
Suffix indicating an unsaturated acid. [-ene + -ic]

enol (e′nol)
A compound possessing a hydroxyl group (alcohol) attached to a doubly bonded (ethylenic) carbon atom (–CH&dbond;CH(OH)–); properly italicized when attached as a prefix or infix to an otherwise complete name; e.g., e. pyruvate; phosphoe.pyruvate; usually in equilibrium with its keto tautomer. [-ene + -ol]

enolase (e′nol-as)
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible dehydration of 2-phospho-d-glycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate and water; a step in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; several isozymes exist; requires magnesium ion and is inhibited by F−. SYN: phosphopyruvate hydratase. neuron-specific e. an isoenzyme of e. present in neurons and glial cells; stains for this enzyme are frequently used in the differential diagnosis of neuronal or neuroendocrine tumors.

enolization (e′nol-i-za′shun)
Conversion of a keto to an enol form; e.g., CH3&cbond;CO&cbond;COOH → CH2&dbond;C(OH)COOH.

enol pyruvate (e-nol-pi′roo-vat)
CH2&dbond;C(OH)–COO−, the form of pyruvate encountered in the biologically important phosphoe.pyruvate (e. pyruvate phosphate), not in the free form.

enophthalmia (en-of-thal′me-a)
SYN: enophthalmos.




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