|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A semisynthetic orally effective steroid with biological effects that largely resemble those of progesterone; in addition, it is weakly estrogenic and androgenic; administered in combination with an estrogen as an oral contraceptive. e. diacetate an antifertility agent, usually used in combination with mestranol.
The monovalent radical HC&tbond;C–. SYN: acetenyl, ethinyl.
A local anesthetic.
etidronate disodium (e-ti-dro′nat)
A drug that affects bone resorption, used in the treatment of Paget disease, heterotopic ossification, and hypercalcemia of malignancy.
etidronic acid (e-ti-dron′ik)
Used as a calcium regulator, usually as the salt etidronate disodium.
etilefrine hydrochloride (et-il-ef′rin)
A sympathomimetic amine vasopressor agent. SYN: ethylphenylephrine hydrochloride.
1. Prefix used with (for example) cholane to indicate replacement of the C-17 side chain by H; thus, etiocholane is the 5β isomer of androstane. 2. Combining form meaning cause. [G. aitia, cause]
A metabolite of adrenocortical and testicular hormones, and an important urinary 17-ketosteroid; produces fever when given to human beings.
Of a causal nature. [G. aitia, cause, + genesis, production]
Subjected to, or characterized by, etiolation.
1. Paleness or pallor resulting from absence of light, as in persons confined because of illness or imprisonment, or in plants bleached by being deprived of light. 2. The process of blanching, bleaching, or making pale by withholding light. [Fr. étioler, to blanch]
Relating to etiology.
1. The science and study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation. Cf.:pathogenesis. 2. The science of causes, causality; in common usage, cause. [G. aitia, cause, + logos, treatise, discourse]
Relating to specific lesions concerned with the cause of a disease. [G. aitia, cause, + pathos, disease]
Consideration of the cause of an abnormal state or finding. [G. aitia, cause, + pathology]
A porphyrin derivative characterized by the presence on each of the four pyrrole rings of one methyl group and one ethyl group; four isomeric forms are thus possible.
Directed against the cause; denoting a remedy that attenuates or destroys the causal factor of a disease. [G. aitia, cause, + trope, a turning]
An intraluminal amebicide similar to teclozan and diloxanide.
A potent intravenous hypnotic used in anesthesia.
A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin; a mitotic inhibitor used in the treatment of refractory testicular tumors, small cell lung cancer, and other cancers.
A narcotic analgesic, having a potency about 1,000 times greater than morphine; used in tranquilizer darts.
Abbreviation for electron transport particles, under particle.
A retinoid used in the treatment of severe recalcitrant psoriasis.
An antihistaminic. SYN: ethotrimeprazine.
Symbol for europium.
Good, well; opposite of dys-, caco-. [G.]
Genes having different nucleotide substitutions at the same position. Cf.:heteroalleles.
An obsolete name for an order of bacteria that contained simple, undifferentiated, rigid cells which were either spheres or straight rods. It contained motile (peritrichous) and nonmotile, Gram-negative and Gram-positive, and sporeforming and nonsporeforming species. The order contained 13 families: Achromobacteriaceae, Azotobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Brucellaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Micrococcaceae, Neisseriaceae, Propionibacteriaceae, and Rhizobacteriaceae.
A genus containing more than 40 species of anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile bacteria containing straight or curved Gram-positive rods which usually occur singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Usually these organisms attack carbohydrates. They may be pathogenic, and rarely are associated with intraabdominal sepsis in humans. The type species is E. limosum. E. aerofaciens a bacterial species infrequently found in human intestines; pathogenic for mice. E. combesi a bacterial species from forest soil found in an area then called French West Africa; it is not pathogenic for guinea pigs or mice. Formerly called Cillobacterium combesi. E. contortum a bacterial species found in cases of putrid, gangrenous appendicitis and in the intestines. E. crispatum former name for Lactobacillus crispatus. E. filamentosum former name for Clostridium ramosum. E. lentum a bacterial species occurring commonly in the feces of normal persons; occasional cause of septicemia and nosocomial infections. E. limosum a bacterial species that occurs in human feces and presumably in the feces of other warm-blooded animals. The type species of the genus. E. minutum a bacterial species that occurs infrequently in the intestines of breast-fed infants; it was originally found in a case of infant diarrhea; it is pathogenic for mice. E. moniliforme a bacterial species found rarely in the human respiratory system; it is pathogenic for guinea pigs, causing death in eight days. Formerly called Cillobacterium moniliforme. E. parvum a bacterial species found in the large intestine of a horse and in a case of acute appendicitis; it occurs infrequently in the intestines of foals and of humans, and is not pathogenic for laboratory animals. E. poeciloides a bacterial species infrequently found in human intestines; originally found in a case of intestinal occlusion; it is pathogenic for guinea pigs and rabbits. E. pseudotortuosum a bacterial species found in a case of purulent, acute appendicitis; occurs uncommonly in the intestines. E. quartum a bacterial species found in cases of infantile diarrhea; occurs in the intestines of children, but is rather uncommon. E. quintum a bacterial species found in cases of infantile diarrhea; pathogenic for guinea pigs. E. rectale a bacterial species found in association with a rectal ulcer; occurs in the rectum. E. tenue a bacterial species isolated from dog feces; its pathogenicity is unknown; formerly called Cillobacterium tenue. E. tortuosum a bacterial species found infrequently in the intestines of humans.
The science of hygienic living. [eu- + G. biotikos, relating to life]
A local anesthetic.
The dried leaves of E. globulus (family Myrtaceae), the blue gum or Australian fever tree. e. oil the volatile oil distilled with steam from the fresh leaf of E. globulus or some other species of E.; contains not less than 70% of eucalyptol; used as an antiseptic and expectorant in cough lozenges and in vaporizer aromatics.
A state in which the arterial carbon dioxide pressure is optimal. SEE ALSO: normocapnia. [eu- + G. kapnos, vapor]
SYN: eukaryote. [eu- + G. karyon, kernel, nut]
Ammonium caseinate prepared by passing ammonia gas over finely powdered dry casein; added as a concentrated food to bouillon, chocolate, etc.
eucatropine hydrochloride (u-kat′ro-pen)
It produces no anesthesia, pain, or increased intraocular pressure.
A condition in which free hydrochloric acid exists in normal amount in the gastric juice. [eu- + cholohydric (acid) + -ia]
A normal state of the bile as regards quantity and quality. [eu- + G. chole, bile]
1. SYN: orthochromatic. 2. Characteristic of euchromatin.
The parts of chromosomes that, during interphase, are uncoiled dispersed threads and not stained by ordinary dyes; metabolically active, in contrast to the inert heterochromatin.
One of three trichurid nematode genera, commonly referred to as Capillaria.
Normal functioning of the adrenal cortex.
1. Obsolete term for homeostasis. 2. Obsolete term for a condition of reduced susceptibility to the adverse effects of certain drugs, articles of diet, etc. [G. eukrasia, good temperament, fr. eu, well, + krasis, a mixing]
SYN: euprocin hydrochloride.
Normal free sweating. [eu- + G. diaphoresis, perspiration]
Ordinary mild thirst. [eu- + G. dipsa, thirst]
Former term for the protozoan flagellates now included in the subphylum Mastigophora.
Relating to eugenics.
1. Practices and policies, as of mate selection or of sterilization, that tend to better the innate qualities of progeny and human stock. 2. Practices and genetic counseling directed to anticipating genetic disability and disease. SYN: orthogenics. [G. eugeneia, nobility of birth, fr. eu, well, + genesis, production]
The belief that the human species can be improved through selective breeding.
Obtained from oil of cloves; used in dentistry with zinc oxide as an analgesic and as a base for impression materials; also used in perfumery as a substitute for oil of cloves. SYN: eugenic acid.
A widespread genus of photosynthesizing free-living fresh water flagellates (family Euglinidae). [eu- + G. glene, eyeball] E. gracilis an abundant species sometimes used in assaying vitamin B12 concentrations of serum and urine in various types of anemia. E. viridis a species that inhabits stagnant pools, often in great numbers.
A family of green (phytomonad) flagellates (subphylum Mastigophora, class Phytomastigophorea).
That fraction of the serum globulin that is soluble in isotonic salt solutions and less soluble in (NH4)2SO4 solution than the pseudoglobulin fraction.
A normal blood glucose concentration. SYN: normoglycemia. [eu- + G. glykys, sweet, + haima, blood]
Denoting, characteristic of, or promoting euglycemia. SYN: normoglycemic.
eugnathia (u-na′the-a, -nath′e-a)
An abnormality that is limited to the teeth and their immediate alveolar supports. SYN: eugnathic anomaly. [eu- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Normal ability to synthesize sensory stimuli. [eu- + G. gnosis, perception]
A term used to indicate that the growth of a bacterial culture is rapid and relatively luxuriant; used especially in reference to the growth of cultures of the human tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). SEE ALSO: dysgonic. [G. eugonos, productive, fr. eu, well, + gonos, seed, offspring]
An order of gregarines (subclass Gregarinia), reproducing only by sporogony, in which schizogony is absent; they are parasites of annelids and arthropods. [eu- + L. gregarius, gregarious]
Normal state of body water content; absence of absolute or relative hydration or dehydration.
Eukaryotae, Eucaryotae (u-kar-e-o′te)
A superkingdom of organisms characterized by eukaryotic cells; acellular members (kingdom Protoctista) are characterized by a single eukaryotic unit; more complex (multicellular) members have been assigned to the kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
1. A cell containing a membrane-bound nucleus with chromosomes of DNA, RNA, and proteins, mostly large (10–100 μm), with cell division involving a form of mitosis in which mitotic spindles (or some microtubule arrangement) are involved; mitochondria are present, and, in photosynthetic species, plastids are found; undulipodia (cilia or flagella) are of the complex 9+2 organization of tubulin and various proteins. Possession of a e. type of cell characterizes the four kingdoms above the Monera or prokaryote level of complexity: Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, combined into the superkingdom Eukaryotae. 2. Common name for members of the Eukaryotae. SYN: eucaryote. [eu- + G. karyon, kernel, nut]
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