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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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extraventricular (eks-tra-ven-trik′u-lar)
Outside of any ventricle, especially of one of the ventricles of the heart.

extraversion (eks-tra-ver′zhun, -shun)
SYN: extroversion.

extravert (eks′-tra-vert)
SYN: extrovert.

extravisual (ek-stra-vizh′oo-al)
Outside the field of vision, or beyond the visible spectrum.

extremital (eks-trem′i-tal)
Relating to an extremity. SEE ALSO: distal.

extremitas (eks-trem′i-tas) [TA]
SYN: extremity. See limb. [L. fr. extremus, last, outermost] e. acromialis claviculae [TA] SYN: acromial end of clavicle. e. anterior splenica [TA] SYN: anterior extremity of spleen. e. inferior [TA] SYN: inferior pole. e. inferior renis [TA] SYN: inferior pole of kidney. e. inferior testis [TA] SYN: lower pole of testis. e. posterior splenica [TA] SYN: posterior extremity of spleen. e. sternalis claviculae [TA] SYN: sternal end of clavicle. e. superior [TA] SYN: superior pole. e. superior renis [TA] SYN: superior pole of kidney. e. superior testis [TA] SYN: upper pole of testis. e. tubaria ovarii [TA] SYN: tubal extremity of ovary. e. uterina ovarii [TA] SYN: uterine extremity of ovary.

extremity (eks-trem′i-te) [TA]
One of the ends of an elongated or pointed structure. Incorrectly used to mean limb. SEE ALSO: limb, end, pole. SYN: extremitas [TA] . acromial e. of clavicle SYN: acromial end of clavicle. anterior e. of caudate nucleus SYN: head of caudate nucleus. anterior e. of spleen [TA] the anterior end of the spleen (extremitas anterior splenis [NA]). SYN: extremitas anterior splenica [TA] . inferior e. 1. inferior pole. 2. incorrectly, but commonly used for lower limb. inferior e. of kidney inferior pole of kidney. lower e. SYN: lower limb. posterior e. of spleen [TA] the posterior end of the spleen (extremitas posterior splenis [NA]). SYN: extremitas posterior splenica [TA] . sternal e. of clavicle SYN: sternal end of clavicle. superior e. 1. superior pole. 2. incorrectly, but commonly used term for upper limb. superior e. of kidney superior pole of kidney. tubal e. of ovary [TA] the rounded lateral end of the ovary, usually directed toward the infundibulum of the uterine tube. SYN: extremitas tubaria ovarii [TA] , lateral pole. upper e. SYN: upper limb. upper e. of fibula SYN: head of fibula. uterine e. of ovary [TA] the rounded medial end of the ovary, usually directed toward the uterus. SYN: extremitas uterina ovarii [TA] , medial pole of ovary.

extrinsic (eks-trin′sik)
Originating outside of the part where found or upon which it acts; denoting especially a muscle, such as e. muscles of hand. [L. extrinsecus, from without]

extrogastrulation (eks′tro-gas-troo-la′shun)
Evagination of the primitive gut material during gastrulation instead of the normal invagination, as the result of some natural or experimental manipulation of the developing embryo or its environment.

extroversion (eks′tro-ver′zhun, -shun)
1. A turning outward. 2. A trait involving social intercourse, as practiced by an extrovert. Cf.:introversion. SYN: extraversion. [incorrectly formed fr. L. extra, outside, + verto, pp. versus, to turn]

extrovert (eks′tro-vert)
A gregarious person whose chief interests lie outside the self, and who is socially self-confident and involved in the affairs of others. Cf.:introvert. SYN: extravert.

extrude (eks-trood′)
To thrust, force, or press out.

extrusion (eks-troo′zhun)
1. A thrusting or forcing out of a normal position. 2. The overeruption or migration of a tooth beyond its normal occlusal position. e. of a tooth elongation of a tooth; movement of a tooth in an occlusal or incisal direction.

extubate (eks′too-bat)
To remove a tube.

extubation (eks′too-ba′shun)
Removal of a tube from an organ, structure, or orifice; specifically, removal of the tube after intubation. [L. ex, out, + tuba, tube]

exuberant (ek-zoo′ber-ant)
Denoting excessive proliferation or growth, as of a tissue or granulation. [L. exubero, to abound, be abundant]

exudate (eks′oo-dat)
Any fluid that has exuded out of a tissue or its capillaries, more specifically because of injury or inflammation ( e.g., peritoneal pus in peritonitis, or the e. that forms a scab over a skin abrasion) in which case it is characteristically high in protein and white blood cells. Cf.:transudate. SYN: exudation (2) . [L. ex, out, + sudo, to sweat]

exudation (eks-oo-da′shun)
1. The act or process of exuding. 2. SYN: exudate.

exudative (eks-oo′da-tiv)
Relating to the process of exudation or to an exudate.

exude (ek-zood′)
In general, to ooze or pass gradually out of a body structure or tissue; more specifically, restricted to a fluid or semisolid that so passes and may become encrusted or infected, because of injury or inflammation. [L. ex, out, + sudo, to sweat]

exulcerans (eks-ul′ser-anz)
Ulcerating.

exumbilication (eks′um-bil-i-ka′shun)
1. SYN: exomphalos (1) . 2. SYN: umbilical hernia. 3. SYN: omphalocele. [L. ex, out, + umbilicus, navel]

ex vivo (ex ve′vo)
Referring to the use or positioning of a tissue or cell after removal from an organism while the tissue or cells remain viable. [L. from the living]

eye (i) [TA]
1. The organ of vision that consists of the eyeball and the optic nerve; SYN: oculus [TA] . 2. The area of the e., including lids and other accessory organs of the e.; the contents of the orbit (common). [A.S. eage] amaurotic cat e. a yellow reflex from the pupil in cases of retinoblastoma or pseudoglioma. aphakic e. the e. from which the lens is absent. artificial e. a curved disk of opaque glass or plastic, containing an imitation iris and pupil in the center, inserted beneath the eyelids and supported by the orbital contents after evisceration or enucleation; it may be ready-made (stock) or custom-made. black e. ecchymosis of the lids and their surroundings. blear e. blepharitis accompanied by a viscid discharge that tends to cause the lid edges to cling together. SYN: lippitude, lippitudo. bleary e. sore, runny, watery e. with an associated lackluster appearance and, by extension, dimness of vision. compound e. the e. of arthropods, most highly developed in insects and crustaceans; the e. consists of a group of functionally related visual elements (ommatidia) whose corneal surfaces collectively form a segment of a sphere. crossed eyes SYN: strabismus. cyclopian e., cyclopean e. cyclopia. dark-adapted e. an e. that has been in darkness or semidarkness and has undergone regeneration of rhodopsin (visual purple), which renders it more sensitive to reduced illumination. SYN: scotopic e.. dominant e. the e. that is customarily used for monocular tasks. SYN: master e.. epiphysial e. SYN: pineal e.. exciting e. the injured e. in sympathetic ophthalmia. fixing e. the e., in cases of strabismus, that is directed toward the object of regard. hare's e. SYN: lagophthalmia. light-adapted e. an e. that has been exposed to light, with bleaching of rhodopsin (visual purple) and insensitivity to low illumination. SYN: photopic e.. Listing reduced e. a representation that simplifies calculations of retinal imagery: radius of anterior refracting surface, 5.1 mm; total length, 20 mm; distance of nodal point to retina, 15 mm. master e. SYN: dominant e.. parietal e. SYN: pineal e.. phakic e. an e. containing the natural lens. photopic e. SYN: light-adapted e.. pineal e. a non–image-forming, photoreceptive e. in or near the median line in certain crustacea and lower vertebrates; homologue of pineal gland in higher forms. SYN: epiphysial e., parietal e.. raccoon eyes bilateral ecchymosis in the periorbital region; suggests a basilar skull fracture and may also be seen in neuroblastoma. SYN: bilateral medial orbital ecchymoses. reduced e. a simplified design of the ocular optical system, represented as having a single refracting surface and a uniform index of refraction; a model based on this concept is used in retinoscopy and ophthalmoscopy. schematic e. the representation of the optical system of an ideal normal e. in which are listed the curvatures and indices of refraction of the refracting elements and their intervening distances. scotopic e. SYN: dark-adapted e.. shipyard e. SYN: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis virus. squinting e. the e., in cases of strabismus, that is not directed toward the object of regard. sympathizing e. the uninjured e. in sympathetic ophthalmia that becomes involved later in the disease process. watery e. 1. SYN: epiphora. 2. excessive lacrimation. web e. SYN: pterygium (1) .

eyeball (i′bawl) [TA]
The eye proper without the appendages. SYN: bulbus oculi [TA] , bulb of eye, globe of eye.

eye bank
A place where corneas of eyes removed after death are preserved for subsequent keratoplasty.

eyebrow [TA]
The crescentic line of hairs at the superior edge of the orbit. SYN: supercilium.

eyeglasses
SYN: spectacles.

eyegrounds (i′growndz)
The fundus of the eye as seen with the ophthalmoscope.

eyelash
One of the stiff hairs projecting from the margin of the eyelid. SYN: cilium (1) . ectopic e. the condition in which the eyelashes grow from the eyelid at a site other than the lid margin. SYN: canities poliosis. piebald e. an isolated bundle of white eyelashes among normally pigmented eyelashes. SYN: canities circumscripta, ciliary poliosis.

eyelid [TA]
One of the two movable folds covering the front of the eyeball when closed; formed of a fibrous core (tarsal plate) and the palpebral portions of the orbicularis oculi muscle covered with skin on the superficial, anterior surface and lined with conjunctiva on the deep, posterior surface; rapid contraction of the contained muscle fibers produces blinking; they each have fixed (orbital) and free margins, the latter separated centrally by the palpebral fissure, united at the lateral and medial palpebral commissures, and bearing eyelashes, the openings of tarsal and ciliary glands and (medially) the lacrimal puncta. SYN: palpebra [TA] , blepharon, lid. inferior e. [TA] the inferior, smaller and less mobile of the two eyelids; a check ligament from the inferior rectus muscle extends into it, pulling the lid inferiorly when the gaze is directed downward. SYN: palpebra inferior [TA] , lower e.&star, lower lid. lower e. inferior e.. superior e. [TA] the superior, larger and more mobile of the two eyelids which covers most of the anterior surface of the eyeball, including the cornea, when closed; a portion of the lacrimal gland and the aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle extend into it, the muscle opening the closed eye and providing additional elevation when the gaze is directed upward. SYN: palpebra superior [TA] , upper e.&star, upper lid. third e. SYN: plica semilunaris of conjunctiva (2) . upper e. superior e..

eyepiece (i′pes)
The compound lens at the end of the microscope tube nearest the eye; it magnifies the image made by the objective.

eyespot
1. A colored spot or plastid (chromatophore) in a unicellular organism. 2. SYN: ocellus (1) .

eyestone
A small smooth shell or other object that is inserted beneath the eyelid for the purpose of removing a foreign body.

eyestrain
SYN: asthenopia.

eyewash
A soothing solution used for bathing the eye.

(4E)-sphingenine (sfing′gen-en)
SYN: sphingosine.




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