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Medical Dictionary


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fasciitis (fas-e-i′tis, fash-)
1. Inflammation in fascia. 2. Reactive proliferation of fibroblasts in fascia. SYN: fascitis. eosinophilic f. induration and edema of the connective tissues of the extremities, usually appearing following exertion; associated with elevated sedimentation rate, elevated IgG, and eosinophilia. SYN: Shulman syndrome. group A streptococcal necrotizing f. a severe and often fulminant toxic complication of infection with group A β-hemolytic streptococci in which superficial fascia and underlying muscle tissue are rapidly destroyed.During the past decade there has been a rise in the incidence of acute systemic disease due to toxin-producing strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Like staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS), toxin-mediated streptococcal syndromes are marked by rapid progression, shock, and multisystem toxicity that is out of proportion to local evidence of infection. The incidence of necrotizing f. due to streptococci increased markedly in 1994 in both the United States and Europe. This disease is believed to be the same as the “malignant scarlet fever” of a century ago. In necrotizing f., streptococci in a skin wound, usually on an extremity, invade and destroy underlying muscles and other soft tissues. The skin of the affected extremity shows erythema, bulla formation, and often anesthesia due to destruction of sensory nerves. Rapid spread of infection along fascial planes and widespread liquefactive necrosis are accompanied by high fever, intense local pain, shock, and other evidence of systemic toxicity. The goals of therapy in streptococcal necrotizing f. are to inhibit and destroy pathogens, reverse shock and systemic toxicity, and conserve structure and function. Treatment includes intravenous hydration and aggressive supportive measures as well as administration of penicillin, clindamycin, or other antibiotics as appropriate. (Antibiotic resistance has not been a problem with streptococcal TSS.) In necrotizing f., debridement or amputation may be life-saving. Throat cultures of contacts are recommended, to identify possible sources of further infection with virulent toxigenic streptococci. necrotizing f. a rare soft-tissue infection primarily involving the superficial fascia and resulting in extensive undermining of surrounding tissues; progress is often fulminant and may involve all soft-tissue components, including the skin; usually occurs postoperatively, after minor trauma, or after inadequate care of abscesses or cutaneous ulcers. SEE ALSO: group A streptococcal necrotizing f.. nodular f. a rapidly growing tumorlike proliferation of fibroblasts, not thought to be neoplastic, with mild inflammatory exudation occurring in fascia; the fibrosis may infiltrate surrounding tissue but does not progress indefinitely or metastasize. SYN: pseudosarcomatous f.. parosteal f. a rare form of nodular f. arising from the periosteum, and which may be associated with reactive cortical bone formation. plantar f. inflammation of the plantar fascia causing foot or heel pain. proliferative f. a benign rapidly-growing subcutaneous nodule characterized by proliferation of fibroblasts and basophilic giant cells slightly resembling ganglion cells. pseudosarcomatous f. SYN: nodular f..

fascio-
A fascia. [L. fascia, a band or fillet]

fasciodesis (fas-e-od′e-sis, fas-)
Surgical attachment of a fascia to another fascia or a tendon. [fascio- + G. desis, a binding together]

Fasciola (fa-se′o-la, fa-si′o-la)
A genus of large, leaf-shaped, digenetic liver flukes (family Fasciolidae, class Trematoda) of mammals. [L. dim. of fascia, a band] F. gigantica a species, resembling F. hepatica but of larger size, found in herbivores, especially in Africa, where it also infects humans. F. hepatica the common liver fluke inhabiting the bile ducts of sheep and cattle; the intermediate hosts are aquatic snails, Lymnaea or related genera; after the cercariae escape, they become encysted on water plants by which they gain access to the intestinal canal; rarely, this fluke is reported from humans, in whom it may cause considerable biliary damage.

fasciola, pl .fasciolae (fa-se′o-la, fa-si′o-la; -o-le)
A small band or group of fibers. [L. dim. of fascia, band, fillet] f. cinerea SYN: fasciolar gyrus.

fasciolar (fa-se′o-lar, fa-si′)
Relating to the gyrus fasciolaris.

fascioliasis (fas′e-o-li′a-sis, fa-si′o-li′a-sis)
Infection with a species of Fasciola.

fasciolid (fa-se′o-lid, fa-si′)
A member of the family Fasciolidae.

fasciolopsiasis (fas′e-o-lop-si′a-sis, fa-si′o-)
Parasitization by any of the flukes of the genus Fasciolopsis.

Fasciolopsis (fas′e-o-lop′sis, fa-si′o-)
A genus of very large intestinal fasciolid flukes. [Fasciola + G. opsis, form, appearance] F. buski the large intestinal fluke, a species found in the intestine of humans in eastern and southern Asia; transmitted via ingestion of water chestnuts or other vegetation contaminated with infective metacercariae. F. rathouisi a species reported from China in a few cases in the intestine or liver; possibly the same as F. buski.

fasciorrhaphy (fash-e-or′a-fe)
Suture of a fascia or aponeurosis. SYN: aponeurorrhaphy. [fascio- + G. rhaphe, suture]

fasciotomy (fash-e-ot′o-me)
Incision through a fascia; used in the treatment of certain disorders and injuries when marked swelling is present or anticipated which could compromise blood flow; f. may be combined with embolectomy in the treatment of acute arterial embolism. [fascio- + G. tome, incision]

fascitis (fa-si′tis)
SYN: fasciitis.

fast
1. Durable; resistant to change; applied to stained microorganisms which cannot be decolorized. SEE ALSO: acid-f.. 2. Not eating. [A.S. foest, firm, fixed]

fast green FCF [C.I. 42053]
An acid arylmethane dye widely used in histology and cytology and less subject to fading than light green FCF which it has replaced in many procedures; used as a quantitative cytochemical stain for histones at alkaline pH after acid extraction of DNA, and also in electrophoresis as a protein stain.

fastidious (fas-tid′e-us)
In bacteriology, having complex nutritional requirements.

fastigatum (fas-ti-ga′tum)
SYN: fastigial nucleus. [L. fastigatus, pointed]

fastigium (fas-tij′e-um)
1. [TA] Apex of the roof of the fourth ventricle of the brain, an angle formed by the anterior and posterior medullary vela extending into the substance of the vermis. 2. The acme or period of full development of a disease. [L. top, as of a gable; a pointed extremity]

fastness (fast′nes)
The state of tolerance exhibited by bacteria to a drug or other agent. See fast.

fat
1. SYN: adipose tissue. 2. Common term for obese. 3. A greasy, soft-solid material, found in animal tissues and many plants, composed of a mixture of glycerol esters; together with oils they make up the homolipids. 4. A triacylglycerol or a mixture of triacylglycerols. [A.S. faet] brown f. thermogenic tissue that is composed of cells containing numerous small f. droplets; lobular masses are found in the interscapular and mediastinal regions and other locations; although found most frequently in certain hibernating animals, it is also found in pigs, rodents, and the newborn of humans. SYN: brown adipose tissue, hibernating gland, interscapular gland, interscapular hibernoma, multilocular adipose tissue, multilocular f.. multilocular f. SYN: brown f.. neutral f. a triester of fatty acids and glycerol ( i.e., triacylglycerol). paranephric f. [TA] the perirenal f.. SYN: adipose capsule, capsula adiposa renis, fatty renal capsule, perirenal f. capsule. retrobulbar f. [TA] the mass of f. contained in the orbit that contributes to the support of the eyeball. SYN: corpus adiposum orbitae [TA] , orbital f. body&star, f. body of orbit, orbital f.-pad. saturated f. saturated fatty acid. split f. free fatty acids, as reduced by the action of lipases, neutral fats, or phospholipids. unilocular f. adipose tissue in which the f. is present in a single droplet within the f. cells. SYN: white f. (2) . unsaturated f. unsaturated fatty acid. white f. 1. SYN: adipose tissue. 2. SYN: unilocular f..

fatal (fa′tal)
Pertaining to or causing death; denoting especially inevitability or inescapability of death. [L. fatalis, of or belonging to fate]

fatality (fa-tal′i-te)
1. A condition, disease, or disaster ending in death. 2. An individual instance of death.

fate
The ultimate outcome. prospective f. the normal development by any part of the egg or embryo without interference.

fatigability (fat′i-ga-bil′i-te)
A condition in which fatigue is easily induced.

fatigable (fat′i-ga-bl)
Tiring on very slight exertion. [L. fatigabilis, easily tired, fr. fatigo, to tire]

fatigue (fa-teg′)
1. That state, following a period of mental or bodily activity, characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness, sleepiness, or irritability; may also supervene when, from any cause, energy expenditure outstrips restorative processes and may be confined to a single organ. 2. Sensation of boredom and lassitude due to absence of stimulation, monotony, or lack of interest in one's surroundings. [Fr., fr. L. fatigo, to tire] auditory f. temporary shift of threshold sensitivity following exposure to sound. battle f. a term used to denote psychiatric illness consequent to the stresses of battle. SYN: shell shock. functional vocal f. SYN: phonasthenia.

fat-pad [TA]
An accumulation of somewhat encapsulated adipose tissue. SYN: corpus adiposum [TA] , fat body&star. Bichat fat-pad SYN: buccal fat-pad. buccal fat-pad an encapsuled mass of fat in the cheek on the outer side of the buccinator muscle, especially marked in the infant; supposed to strengthen and support the cheek during the act of sucking. SYN: corpus adiposum buccae [TA] , Bichat fat-pad, Bichat protuberance, fat body of cheek, sucking cushion, sucking pad, suctorial pad. Imlach fat-pad fat surrounding the round ligament of the uterus in the inguinal canal. infrapatellar fat-pad [TA] the fatty mass that occupies the area between the patellar ligament and the infrapatellar synovial fold of the knee joint. SYN: corpus adiposum infrapatellare [TA] , infrapatellar fat body. ischiorectal fat-pad SYN: fat body of ischioanal fossa. orbital fat-pad SYN: retrobulbar fat.

fatty (fat′e)
Oily or greasy; relating in any sense to fat.

fatty acid
Any acid derived from fats by hydrolysis ( e.g., oleic, palmitic, or stearic acids); any long-chain monobasic organic acid; they accumulate in disorders associated with the peroxisomes. activated f. a fatty acyl-coenzyme A thiol ester. diethenoid f. a f. containing two double bonds, e.g., linoleic acid. essential f. a f. that is nutritionally essential; E.G., linoleic acid, linolenic acid. ω-3 fatty acids a class of fatty acids that have a double bond three carbons from the methyl moiety; reportedly, they play a role in lowering cholesterol and LDL levels. SYN: omega-3 fatty acids. omega-3 fatty acids SYN: ω-3 fatty acids. saturated f. a f., the carbon chain of which contains no ethylenic or other unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms ( e.g., stearic acid and palmitic acid); called saturated because it is incapable of absorbing any more hydrogen. f. synthase complex the multienzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of palmitate from acetyl-coenzyme A, malonyl-coenzyme A, and NADPH. f. thiokinase 1. long-chain: long-chain f.–CoA ligase; 2. medium-chain: butyrate-CoA ligase. unesterified free f. (FFA, UFA) free fatty acids which occur in plasma as a result of lipolysis in adipose tissue or when plasma triacylglycerols are taken into tissues. unsaturated f. a f., the carbon chain of which possesses one or more double or triple bonds ( e.g., oleic acid, with one double bond in the molecule, and linoleic acid, with two); called unsaturated because it is capable of absorbing additional hydrogen.

fauces, gen. faucium (faw′sez, faw′se-um) [TA]
The space between the cavity of the mouth and the pharynx, bounded by the soft palate and the base of the tongue. SEE ALSO: isthmus of f.. SYN: oropharyngeal passage. [L. the throat]

faucial (faw′shal)
Relating to the fauces.

fauna (faw′na)
The animal forms of a continent, district, locality, or habitat. [Mod. L. application of F., sister of Faunus, a rural deity]

faveolate (fa-ve′o-lat)
Pitted.

faveolus, pl .faveoli (fa-ve′o-lus, -o-li)
A small pit or depression. [Mod. L. dim. of favus, honeycomb]

favic chandeliers (fa′vik shan-de-lerz′)
Specialized fungal hyphae that are curved, branched, and antlerlike in appearance, formed by the pathogens Trichophyton schoenleinii and T. concentricum.

favid (fa′vid)
An allergic reaction in the skin observed in patients who have favus.

favism (fa′vizm)
An acute condition seen chiefly in Italy, following the ingestion of certain species of beans, e.g., Vicia faba, or inhalation of the pollen of its flower; characterized by fever, headache, abdominal pain, severe anemia, prostration, and coma; it occurs in certain individuals with genetic erythrocytic deficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Chance exposure to the Vicia faba, by its impact on the phenotype of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, impinges on the expression or the gene, an example of incomplete penetrance. SYN: fabism. [Ital. favismo, from fava, bean]

Favre
Maurice J., French physician, 1876–1954. See Gamna-F. bodies, under body, Nicolas-F. disease.

Favre
Maurice Jules, French physician, 1876–1954. See Goldmann-F. syndrome. SEE ALSO: Goldmann-F. syndrome.

Favre dystrophy
See under dystrophy.

favus (fa′vus, fah′vus)
A severe, unremitting type of chronic ringworm of the scalp and nails, with scarring and formation of crusts called scutula, caused by three dissimilar dermatophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii (most commonly), T. violaceum, and Microsporum gypseum; it occurs more frequently in the Mediterranean countries, southeastern Europe, southern Asia, and northern Africa. SYN: crusted ringworm, honeycomb ringworm, tinea favosa. [L. honeycomb]

Fc
See F. fragment.

F.C.A.P.
Abbreviation for Fellow of the College of American Pathologists.

F.C.C.P.
Abbreviation for Fellow of the College of Chest Physicians.

Fd
Abbreviation for ferredoxin.

FDA
Abbreviation for Food and Drug Administration of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

FDNB
Abbreviation for fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

FDP
Abbreviation for fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, under product.

Fe
Symbol for iron. [L. ferrum, iron]

52Fe
Symbol for iron-52.

55Fe
Symbol for iron-55.

59Fe
Symbol for iron-59.

fear (fer)
Apprehension; dread; alarm; by having an identifiable stimulus, f. is differentiated from anxiety which has no easily identifiable stimulus. [A.S. faer]

features (fe′choorz)
The various parts of the face, forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, cheeks, and ears, that give to it its individuality and character. [through O. Fr., fr. L. factura, a making, fr. facio, to do]

febricant (feb′ri-kant)
SYN: febrifacient.

febricula (fe-brik′u-la)
A simple continued fever; a mild fever of short duration, of indefinite origin, and without any distinctive pathology. [L. dim. of febris, fever]

febrifacient (feb-ri-fa′shent)
1. Causing or favoring the development of fever. SYN: febriferous, febrific. 2. Anything that produces fever. SEE ALSO: pyrogenic. SYN: febricant. [L. febris, fever, + facio, to make]

febriferous (fe-brif′er-us)
SYN: febrifacient (1) . [L. febris, fever, + fero, to bear, + -ous]

febrific (fe-brif′ik)
SYN: febrifacient (1) .

febrifugal (fe-brif′u-gal)
SYN: antipyretic (1) .

febrifuge (feb′ri-fuj)
SYN: antipyretic (2) . [L. febris, fever, + fugo, to put to flight]

febrile (feb′ril, fe′bril)
Denoting or relating to fever. SYN: feverish (1) , pyrectic, pyretic.

febris (fe′bris)
SYN: fever. [L.] f. melitensis (fe′bris mel-i-ten′sis) infection with Brucella melitensis; SEE ALSO: Brucella melitensis. f. undulans (fe′bris un-doo-lanz′) SYN: brucellosis.

fecal (fe′kal)
Relating to feces.

fecalith (fe′ka-lith)
A hard mass consisting of inspissated feces. SYN: coprolith, stercolith. [L. faeces, feces, + G. lithos, stone]

fecaloid (fe′ka-loyd)
Resembling feces. [L. faeces, feces, + G. eidos, resemblance]




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