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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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fecaloma (fe′ka-lo-ma)
An accumulation of inspissated feces in the colon or rectum giving the appearance of an abdominal tumor. SYN: coproma, fecal tumor, scatoma, stercoroma.

fecaluria (fe-ka-loo′re-a)
The commingling of feces with urine passed from the urethra in persons with a fistula connecting the intestinal tract and lower urinary tract, often noticed most dramatically by the passage of flatus through the urethra. [L. faeces, feces, + G. ouron, urine]

feces (fe′sez)
The matter discharged from the bowel during defecation, consisting of the undigested residue of food, epithelium, intestinal mucus, bacteria, and waste material from the food. SYN: stercus. [L., pl. of faex (faec-), dregs]

Fechner
Gustav T., German physicist, 1801–1887. See Weber-F. law, F.-Weber law.

feculent (fek′u-lent)
Foul. [L. faeculentus, full of excrement, fr. faeces, dregs, feces]

fecund (fe′kund, fek′und)
SYN: fertile (1) . [L. fecundus, fruitful]

fecundate (fe′kun-dat)
To impregnate; to make fertile. [L. fecundo, pp. -atus, to make fruitful, fertilize]

fecundation (fe-kun-da′shun)
The act of rendering fertile. SEE ALSO: fertilization, impregnation.

fecundity (fe-kun′di-te)
The ability to produce live offspring.

Fede
Francesco, Italian physician, 1832–1913. See Riga-F. disease.

feedback (fed′bak)
1. In a given system, the return, as input, of some of the output, as a regulatory mechanism; e.g., regulation of a furnace by a thermostat. 2. An explanation for the learning of motor skills: sensory stimuli set up by muscle contractions modulate the activity of the motor system. 3. The feeling evoked by another person's reaction to oneself. See biofeedback. auditory f. the unwanted sound that occurs in an amplification system when the microphone picks up the sound from the speaker; a major problem in the use of hearing aids. negative f. that which occurs if the sign or sense of the returned signal results in reduced amplification. positive f. that which occurs when the sign or sense of the returned signal results in increased amplification or leads to instability. tubuloglomerular f. a blood flow control mechanism operating in the kidneys that limits changes in glomerular filtration rate.

feeding (fed′ing)
Giving food or nourishment. fictitious f. SYN: sham f.. forced f., forcible f. 1. giving liquid food through a nasal tube passed into the stomach; 2. forcing a person to eat more food than desired. SYN: forced alimentation. gastric f. giving of nutriment directly into the stomach by means of a tube inserted via the nasopharynx and esophagus or directly through the abdominal wall. nasal f. the giving of nourishment through a flexible tube passed through the nasal passages into the stomach. sham f. a procedure used in the study of the psychic phase of gastric secretion: in experiments on dogs, the food, after being eaten, does not enter the stomach but issues from an esophageal fistula made in the neck; the chewing and swallowing of food causes an abundant secretion of gastric juice. SYN: fictitious f..

feeling (fel′ing)
1. Any kind of conscious experience of sensation. 2. The mental perception of a sensory stimulus. 3. A quality of any mental state or mood, whereby it is recognized as pleasurable or the reverse. 4. A bodily sensation that is correlated with a given emotion.

Feer
Emil, Swiss pediatrician, 1864–1955. See F. disease.

FEF
Abbreviation for forced expiratory flow.

Fehling
Hermann von, German chemist, 1812–1885. See F. reagent, F. solution.

Feil
André, French physician, *1884. See Klippel-F. syndrome.

Feiss
Henry O., 20th century American orthopedic surgeon. See F. line.

FEL
Abbreviation for familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

felbamate (fel′ba-mat)
An anticonvulsant/antiepileptic agent chemically related to meprobamate; useful in complex partial seizures.

Feldberg
Wilhelm, British physiologist, 1900–1993. See Dale-F. law.

Feldman
Harry Alfred, U.S. epidemiologist, 1914–1986. See Sabin-F. dye test.

Felidae (fe′li-de)
A family of Carnivora embracing domestic and wild cats such as lions and tigers. [L. felis, cat]

feline (fe′lin)
Pertaining or relating to cats. [L. felis, cat]

Felix
Arthur, Polish bacteriologist, 1887–1956. See Weil-F. reaction, Weil-F. test.

fellatio (fe-la′she-o)
Oral stimulation of the penis; a type of oral-genital sexual activity; contrasted with cunnilingus, which is the oral stimulation of the vulva or clitoris. SYN: irrumation. [L.]

felodipine (fe-lo′di-pen)
A calcium blocking agent of the dihydropyridine class resembling nifedipine.

felon (fel′on)
SYN: whitlow. [M.E. feloun, malignant]

Felson
Benjamin, U.S. radiologist, 1913–1988. See silhouette sign of F..

feltwork
1. A fibrous network. 2. A close plexus of nerve fibrils. See neuropil.

Felty
Augustus R., U.S. physician, 1895–1963. See F. syndrome.

felypressin (fel-i-pres′in)
[Phe2,Lys8]Vasopressin;lysine vasopressin with l-phenylalanine at position 2. SYN: octapressin.

female (fe′mal)
In zoology, denoting the gender that bears the young or the ovum. genetic f. 1. an individual with a normal f. karyotype, including two X chromosomes; 2. an individual whose cell nuclei contain Barr sex chromatin bodies, which are normally absent in males. XO f. the genetic f. in Turner syndrome, where the criterion is the macroscopic appearance of the external genitals. XXX f. triple X syndrome.

feminization (fem′i-ni-za′shun)
Development of what are superficially external female characteristics by a male. testicular f. SYN: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.testicular f. syndrome.

femoral (fem′o-ral)
Relating to the femur or thigh.

femorocele (fem′o-ro-sel)
SYN: femoral hernia. [L. femur, thigh, + G. kele, hernia]

femorotibial (fem′o-ro-tib′e-al)
Relating to the femur and the tibia.

femto- (f)
Prefix used in SI and metric system to signify a submultiple of one-quadrillionth (10–15). [Danish and Norwegian femten, fifteen]

femur, gen. femoris, pl .femora (fe′mur, fem′o-ris, -a) [TA]
1. SYN: thigh. 2. The long bone of the thigh, articulating with the hip bone proximally and the tibia and patella distally. [L. thigh]

fenbufen (fen-boo′fen)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent resembling ibuprofen.

fencamine (fen′ka-men)
A central nervous system stimulant.

fenclofenac (fen-klo′fen-ak)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of joint disorders; similar to diclofenac.

fenclonine (fen′klo-nen)
A serotonin inhibitor.

Fendt
H., 19th century Austrian dermatologist. See cutaneous pseudolymphoma, Spiegler-F. sarcoid.

fenestra, pl .fenestrae (fe-nes′tra, -tre)
1. [TA] An anatomic aperture, often closed by a membrane. 2. An opening left in a plaster of Paris cast or other form of fixed dressing in order to permit access to a wound or inspection of the part. 3. The opening in one of the blades of an obstetric forceps. 4. A lateral opening in the sheath of an endoscopic instrument that allows lateral viewing or operative maneuvering. 5. Openings in the wall of a tube, catheter, or trocar designed to promote better flow of air or fluids. SYN: window (1) [TA] . [L. window] f. of the cochlea SYN: round window. f. cochleae [TA] SYN: round window. f. nov-ovalis artificial opening through the otic capsule into the lateral semicircular canal, connecting the membranous labyrinth with the mastoid cavity produced during fenestration surgery. f. ovalis SYN: oval window. f. rotunda SYN: round window. f. of the vestibule SYN: oval window. f. vestibuli [TA] SYN: oval window.

fenestrated (fen′es-tra′ted)
Having fenestrae or windowlike openings.

fenestration (fen-es-tra′shun)
1. The presence of openings or fenestrae in a part. 2. Making openings in a dressing to allow inspection of the parts. 3. In dentistry, a surgical perforation of the mucoperiosteum and alveolar process to expose the root tip of a tooth to permit drainage of tissue exudate. optic nerve sheath f. the cutting of a window in the dura of the optic nerve sheath to relieve papilledema and prevent further loss of optic nerve fibers. tracheal f. a surgical procedure to create an epithelialized mucocutaneous opening from the neck into the trachea.

fenethylline hydrochloride (fen-eth′i-len)
An analeptic.

fenfluramine hydrochloride (fen-floo′ra-men)
An anorexigenic agent.

Fenn
Wallace Osgood, U.S. physiologist, 1893–1971. See F. effect.

fennel (fen′l)
F. seed, the dried ripe fruit of cultivated varieties of Foeniculum vulgare (family Umbelliferae), an herb native to southern Europe and Asia, a diaphoretic and carminative; a volatile oil distilled from the fruit is used as a flavoring. [through O. Fr., fr. L. faeniculum, f., dim. of faenum, hay]

fenoprofen calcium (fen-o-pro′fen)
An anti-inflammatory analgesic used for treatment of mild to moderate pain and for osteoarthritis; similar to ibuprofen.

fenoterol (fen′o-ter′ol)
A β2 agonist inhalation bronchodilator.

fenpipramide (fen-pip′ra-mid)
An antispasmodic.

fentanyl citrate (fen′ta-nil)
A short-acting narcotic analgesic about 100 times more potent than morphine used as a supplementary analgesic in general anesthesia.

fenticlor (fen′ti-klor)
A topical anti-infective agent.

fenugreek (fen′u-grek)
An annual plant indigenous to western Asia and cultivated in Africa and parts of Europe; the mucilaginous seeds are used as food and in the preparation of culinary spices (curry). [L. faenum graecum, f., fr. faenum, hay, + Graecus, Greek]

Fenwick
Edwin Hurry, British urologist, 1856–1944. See F.-Hunner ulcer.

feral (fer′il)
Denoting an animal that is wild and untamed.

Féréol
Louis Felix Henri, French physician, 1825–1891.

Ferguson
J.K.W., 20th century obstetrician. See F. reflex.

Fergusson
Sir William, Scottish surgeon, 1808–1877. See F. incision.

ferment (fer-ment′)
1. To cause or to undergo fermentation. 2. An agent that causes fermentation. [L. fermentum, leaven]

fermentable (fer-ment′a-bl)
Capable of undergoing fermentation.

fermentation (fer-men-ta′shun)
1. A chemical change induced in a complex organic compound by the action of an enzyme, whereby the substance is split into simpler compounds. 2. In bacteriology, the anaerobic dissimilation of substrates with the production of energy and reduced compounds; the mechanism of f. does not involve a respiratory chain or cytochrome, hence oxygen is not the final electron acceptor as it is in oxidation. [L. fermento, pp. -atus, to ferment, from L. fermentum, yeast] acetic f., acetous f. f., as of wine or beer, whereby the alcohol is oxidized to acetic acid (vinegar). alcoholic f. the anaerobic formation of ethanol and CO2 from d-glucose. Cf.:Gay-Lussac equation. amylic f. f. of potato or corn mash, or other starchy material, by which fusel oil is produced. lactic acid f. the production of lactic acid in milk, or other carbohydrate-containing media, caused by the presence of any one of a number of lactic acid bacteria.

fermentative (fer-ment′a-tiv)
Causing or having the ability to cause fermentation.

fermenter (fer-ment′er)
A large container used in cultures of microorganisms.

fermium (Fm) (fer′me-um)
Radioactive element, artificially prepared in 1955, atomic no. 100, atomic wt. 257.095; 257Fm has the longest known half-life (100.5 days) of this transuranium element. [E. Fermi, It.-U.S. physicist and Nobel laureate, 1901–1954]

Fernandez reaction
See under reaction.

Fernbach
Auguste, French microbiologist, 1860–1939. See F. flask.

ferning
A term used to describe the pattern of arborization produced by cervical mucus, secreted at midcycle, upon crystallization, which resembles somewhat a fern or a palm leaf.




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