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Medical Dictionary


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fibrogliosis (fi′bro-gli-o′sis)
A cellular reaction within the brain, usually in response to a penetrating injury, in which both astrocytes and fibroblasts participate and which culminates in a fibrous and glial scar. [fibro- + G. glia, glue, + -osis, condition]

fibroid (fi′broyd)
1. Resembling or composed of fibers or fibrous tissue. 2. Old term for certain types of leiomyoma, especially those occurring in the uterus. 3. SYN: fibroleiomyoma. [fibro- + G. eidos, resemblance]

fibroidectomy (fi-broy-dek′to-me)
SYN: myomectomy. [fibroid + G. ektome, excision]

fibroin (fi′bro-in)
A white insoluble protein forming the primary constituent (70%) of cobweb and silk.

fibroleiomyoma (fi′bro-li′o-mi-o′ma)
A leiomyoma containing non-neoplastic collagenous fibrous tissue, which may make the tumor hard; f. usually arises in the myometrium, and the proportion of fibrous tissue increases with age. SYN: fibroid (3) , leiomyofibroma.

fibrolipoma (fi′bro-li-po′ma)
A lipoma with an abundant stroma of fibrous tissue. SYN: lipoma fibrosum.

fibroma (fi-bro′ma)
A benign neoplasm derived from fibrous connective tissue. [fibro- + G. -oma, tumor] ameloblastic f. a benign mixed odontogenic tumor characterized by neoplastic proliferation of both epithelial and mesenchymal components of the tooth bud without the production of dental hard tissue; presents clinically as a slow-growing painless radiolucency occurring most commonly in the mandible of children and adolescents. aponeurotic f. a calcifying recurrent non-metastasizing but infiltrating f. seen most frequently on the palms of young people as a small firm nodule not attached to the overlying skin. cementoossifying f. a form of f. with cementicles and bone rimmed with osteoblasts in moderately cellular stroma. central ossifying f. a painless, slow-growing, expansile, sharply circumscribed benign fibro-osseus tumor of the jaws that is derived from cells of the periodontal ligament; presents initially as a radiolucency that becomes progressively more opaque as it matures. chondromyxoid f. an uncommon benign bone tumor, occurring most frequently in the tibia of adolescents and young adults, composed of lobulated myxoid tissue with scanty chondroid foci. SYN: chondrofibroma, chondromyxoma. concentric f. a benign neoplasm, actually a leiomyoma, that occupies the entire circumference of the wall of the uterus. desmoplastic f. a benign fibrous tumor of bone affecting children and young adults; cortical destruction may result. giant cell f. a tumor of the oral mucosa composed of fibrous connective tissue with large stellate and multinucleate fibroblasts; shares a similar histology with the retrocuspid papilla, fibrous papule of the nose, pearly penile papule, and the ungual f.. irritation f. a slow-growing nodule on the oral mucosa, composed of fibrous tissue covered by epithelium, resulting from mechanical irritation by dentures, fillings, cheek biting, etc. f. molle SYN: skin tag. f. molle gravidarum skin tags or polyps that develop on women during pregnancy and often disappear at term. f. myxomatodes SYN: myxofibroma. nonossifying f. a loculated osteolytic focus of cellular fibrous tissue, slightly expanding a bone, usually near the end of a long bone in older children; similar to fibrous cortical defect, although larger. nonosteogenic f. SYN: fibrous cortical defect. odontogenic f. a rare odontogenic tumor found in soft tissue or as a central bony lesion. The tumor is composed of fibrous connective tissue, odontogenic epithelium, and sometimes calcification. peripheral ossifying f. a reactive focal gingival overgrowth derived histogenetically from cells of the periodontal ligament and usually developing in response to local irritants (plaque and calculus) on associated teeth; consists microscopically of a hyperplastic cellular fibrous stroma supporting deposits of bone, cementum, or dystrophic calcification. periungual f. multiple smooth firm nodules formed at the nail folds, often over 10 mm in length, which appear at or after puberty in some patients with tuberous sclerosis. rabbit f. SYN: Shope f.. recurring digital f. of childhood multiple fibrous flesh-colored nodules on the extensor aspect of the terminal phalanges of adjacent digits of infants and young children that often recur after attempted excision, do not metastasize, and may spontaneously regress in two to three years; composed of spindle cells containing cytoplasmic inclusions believed to be derived from myofibrils. SYN: infantile digital fibromatosis. Shope f. a connective tissue tumor of cottontail rabbits caused by a poxvirus of the genus Leporipoxvirus and found by Shope to be transmissible with cellular suspensions or Berkefeld filtrates; it is related to myxomatosis and is used in Europe as a source of vaccine to protect against the myxoma virus. SYN: rabbit f.. telangiectatic f. a benign neoplasm of fibrous tissue in which there are numerous small and large, frequently dilated vascular channels. SYN: angiofibroma.

fibromatoid (fi-bro′ma-toyd)
A focus, nodule, or mass (of proliferating fibroblasts) that resembles a fibroma but is not regarded as neoplastic.

fibromatosis (fi′bro-ma-to′sis)
1. A condition characterized by multiple fibromas, with relatively widespread distribution. 2. Abnormal hyperplasia of fibrous tissue. abdominal f. SYN: desmoid (2) . aggressive infantile f. a childhood counterpart of abdominal or extra-abdominal desmoid tumors, characterized by firm subcutaneous nodules that grow rapidly in any part of the body that invade locally and recur but do not metastasize. f. colli a fibrous mass in the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle; the mass may be a hematoma resulting from a birth injury and may cause torticollis. congenital generalized f. [MIM*228550] multiple subcutaneous and visceral fibrous tumors present at birth; a rare disorder often fatal in the first week of life, although sometimes undergoing spontaneous remission; probable autosomal recessive inheritance. gingival f. f. that may be associated with trichodiscomas. Several genetic forms are known, all autosomal dominant [MIM*135300, *135400, *135500, *135550]. infantile digital f. SYN: recurring digital fibroma of childhood. juvenile hyalin f. [MIM*228600] a rare recessively inherited deforming disorder of head, neck, and generalized cutaneous nodules or tumors in children with normal mentality; the lesions consist of fibroblasts separated by an eosinophilic hyalin stroma composed mostly of glycosaminoglycans. SYN: systemic hyalinosis. juvenile palmo-plantar f. f. that occurs in children from birth to adolescence as a single poorly demarcated nodule of the thenar or hypothenar eminence or overlying the calcaneus of the mid-sole. palmar f. nodular fibroplastic proliferation in the palmar fascia of one or both hands, preceding or associated with Dupuytren contracture. penile f. SYN: Peyronie disease. plantar f. nodular fibroblastic proliferation in plantar fascia of one or both feet; rarely associated with contracture. SYN: Dupuytren disease of the foot.

fibromatous (fi-bro′ma-tus)
Pertaining to, or of the nature of, a fibroma.

fibromectomy (fi-bro-mek′to-me)
SYN: myomectomy.

fibrometer (fi′bro-me′ter)
An instrument that measures clot formation (as in tests for blood clotting in vitro) by mechanical detection of the clot by a moving probe.

fibromuscular (fi′bro-mus′ku-lar)
Both fibrous and muscular; relating to both fibrous and muscular tissues.

fibromyalgia (fi-bro-mi-al′ja)
A syndrome of chronic pain of musculoskeletal origin but uncertain cause. The American College of Rheumatology has established diagnostic criteria that include pain on both sides of the body, both above and below the waist, as well as in an axial distribution (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine or anterior chest); additionally there must be point tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specified sites. SYN: f. syndrome.

fibromyectomy (fi′bro-mi-ek′to-me)
Excision of a fibromyoma.

fibromyoma (fi′bro-mi-o′ma)
A leiomyoma that contains a relatively abundant amount of fibrous tissue.

fibromyositis (fi′bro-mi-o-si′tis)
Chronic inflammation of a muscle with an overgrowth, or hyperplasia, of the connective tissue. [fibro- + G. mys, muscle, + -itis, inflammation]

fibromyxoma (fi′bro-mik-so′ma)
A myxoma that contains a relatively abundant amount of mature fibroblasts and connective tissue. [fibro- + G. myxa, mucus, + -oma, tumor]

fibronectins (fi-bro-nek′tins)
High molecular weight multifunctional glycoproteins found on cell surface membranes and in blood plasma and other body fluids. F. are thought to function as adhesive ligandlike molecules that play a role in contact inhibition; also known as large external transformation sensitive protein (LETS), which is reduced after cells become transformed. SYN: zetaprotein. [L. fibra, fiber, + nexus, interconnection] plasma fibronectin a circulating α2-glycoprotein that functions as an opsonin, mediating reticuloendothelial and macrophage clearance of fibrin microaggregates, collagen debris, and bacterial particulates, protecting microvascular perfusion and lymphatic drainage.

fibroneuroma (fi′bro-noo-ro′ma)
SYN: neurofibroma.

fibro-osteoma (fi′bro-os-te-o′ma)
An osteoma in which the neoplastic bone-forming cells are situated within a relatively abundant stroma of fibrous tissue.

fibropapilloma (fi′bro-pap-i-lo′ma)
A papilloma characterized by a conspicuous amount of fibrous connective tissue at the base and forming the cores upon which the neoplastic epithelial cells are massed.

fibroplasia (fi-bro-pla′ze-a)
Production of fibrous tissue, usually implying an abnormal increase of nonneoplastic fibrous tissue. [fibro- + G. plasis, a molding] retrolental f. SYN: retinopathy of prematurity.

fibroplastic (fi-bro-plas′tik)
Producing fibrous tissue. [fibro- + G. plastos, formed]

fibroplate (fi′bro-plat)
SYN: articular disk.

fibropolypus (fi-bro-pol′i-pus)
A polyp composed chiefly of fibrous tissue.

fibroreticulate (fi′bro-re-tik′u-lat)
Relating to or consisting of a network of fibrous tissue.

fibrosa


fibrosarcoma (fi′bro-sar-ko′ma)
A malignant neoplasm derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts arranged in a distinctive herringbone pattern with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. ameloblastic f. a rapidly growing, painful, destructive, radiolucent odontogenic tumor that usually arises through malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a pre-existing ameloblastic fibroma. SYN: ameloblastic sarcoma. Earle L f. a transplantable f. derived from subcutaneous tissue of a mouse of C3H strain, grown in tissue culture to which 20-methylcholanthrene had been added. infantile f. a rapidly growing but infrequently metastasizing f. which usually appears on the extremities in the first year of life.

fibrose (fi-bros′)
To form fibrous tissue.

fibroserous (fi-bro-se′rus)
Composed of fibrous tissue with a serous surface; denoting any serous membrane.

fibrosis (fi-bro′sis)
Formation of fibrous tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. African endomyocardial f. f. of the inner layers of the myocardium, often including the endocardium, causing diastolic restriction of the heart; indigenous to East Africa. congenital f. of the extraocular muscles [MIM*135700] an autosomal dominant disorder associated with blepharoptosis and absence of eye movements. cystic f., cystic f. of the pancreas [MIM*219700] a congenital metabolic disorder in which secretions of exocrine glands are abnormal; excessively viscid mucus causes obstruction of passageways (including pancreatic and bile ducts, intestines, and bronchi), and the sodium and chloride content of sweat are increased throughout the patient's life; symptoms usually appear in childhood and include meconium ileus, poor growth despite good appetite, malabsorption and foul bulky stools, chronic bronchitis with cough, recurrent pneumonia, bronchiectasis, emphysema, clubbing of the fingers, and salt depletion in hot weather. Detailed genetic mapping and molecular biology have been accomplished by the methods of reverse genetics; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the cystic f. conductance regulator gene (CFTR) on chromosome 7q. SYN: Clarke-Hadfield syndrome, fibrocystic disease of the pancreas, mucoviscidosis, viscidosis. endocardial f. scarring or collagenosis of the endocardium. SYN: endocardial sclerosis. endomyocardial f. thickening of the ventricular endocardium by f., involving the subendocardial myocardium, and sometimes the atrioventricular valves, with mural thrombosis, leading to progressive right and left ventricular failure with mitral and tricuspid insufficiency; occurs in adults and is endemic in parts of Africa. SYN: Davies disease, endocardial fibroelastosis (2) , endomyocardial fibroelastosis. idiopathic interstitial f. SYN: idiopathic pulmonary f.. idiopathic pulmonary f. (IPF) an acute to chronic inflammatory process or interstitial f. of the lung of unknown etiology. with collagen-vascular diseases. SYN: chronic fibrosing alveolitis, cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, fibrosing alveolitis, Hamman-Rich syndrome, idiopathic interstitial f.. interstitial pulmonary f. includes both idiopathic pulmonary f. and pulmonary f. associated with connective tissue disease and other known primary diseases. leptomeningeal f. a fibrous reaction within the subarachnoid space; sometimes a sequel to infectious or chemical meningitis. SEE ALSO: adhesive arachnoiditis. mediastinal f. f. that may obstruct the superior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, veins, or bronchi; most common cause is histoplasmosis; less commonly tuberculosis or unknown. SYN: fibrosing mediastinitis, idiopathic fibrous mediastinitis. nodular subepidermal f. dermatofibroma. oral submucous f. a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa and upper aerodigestive tract characteristically in a native of India. pericentral f. f. occurring around the central veins in the hepatic lobules. perimuscular f. f. in the outer media of arteries, usually the renal arteries of young women, where it causes segmental stenosis and hypertension; a variety of fibromuscular dysplasia. SYN: subadventitial f.. pipestem f. a characteristic pipe-shaped f. formed around hepatic portal veins in some cases of long-continued heavy infection with Schistosoma mansoni; thought to be induced by the presence of large numbers of schistosome eggs in the hepatic tissues. SYN: Symmers clay pipestem f., Symmers f.. replacement f. the formation of fibrous tissue that occupies sites where various other cells and tissues have become atrophied, or degenerated and necrotic. retroperitoneal f. f. of retroperitoneal structures and connective tissue commonly involving and obstructing the ureters; the cause is usually unknown. SYN: idiopathic fibrous retroperitonitis, Ormond disease, periureteritis plastica. subadventitial f. SYN: perimuscular f.. Symmers clay pipestem f., Symmers f. SYN: pipestem f..

fibrositis (fi-bro-si′tis)
1. Inflammation of fibrous tissue. 2. Term used to denote generalized muscle aching, soreness, or stiffness, with multiple tender foci (trigger points); of unknown etiology. SYN: muscular rheumatism. [fibro- + G. -itis, inflammation] cervical f. SYN: posttraumatic neck syndrome.

fibrothorax (fi-bro-tho′raks)
Fibrosis of the pleural space.

fibrotic (fi-brot′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by fibrosis.

fibrous (fi′brus)
Composed of or containing fibroblasts, and also the fibrils and fibers of connective tissue formed by such cells.

fibroxanthoma (fi′bro-zan-tho′ma)
A fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. atypical f. a solitary, often ulcerated, small, cutaneous, usually benign, tumor composed of foamy histiocytes, spindle cells, and bizarre giant cells; usually found on the exposed skin of older people; microscopically, atypical f. closely resembles malignant fibrous histiocytoma, but originates in the dermis.

fibula (fib′u-la) [TA]
The lateral and smaller of the two bones of the leg; it is not-weight bearing and articulates with the tibia above and the tibia and talus below. SYN: calf bone, calf-bone (1) , perone, peroneal bone. [L. f. (contr. fr. figibula), that which fastens, a clasp, buckle, fr. figo, to fix, fasten]

fibular (fib′u-lar)
Relating to the fibula. SYN: fibularis, peroneal. [L. fibularis]

fibularis (fib-u-la′ris)
SYN: fibular, fibular. [Mod. L.]

fibulocalcaneal (fib′u-lo-kal-ka′ne-al)
Relating to the fibula and the calcaneus.

ficain (fi-kan)
SYN: ficin (2) .

ficin (fi′sin)
1. A cysteine endopeptidase isolated from figs (Ficus carica, globata, and doliaria); used in industry as a protein digestant; f. has a wide specificity for protein substrates; an anthelmintic. 2. The crude dried latex from Ficus spp. SYN: ficain.

Fick
Adolf, German physician, 1829–1901. See F. method, F. principle.

FID
Abbreviation for free induction decay.

Fiedler
Carl L.A., German physician, 1835–1921. See F. myocarditis.

field (feld)
A definite area of plane surface, considered in relation to some specific object. [A.S. feld] auditory f. the space included within the limits of hearing of a definite sound, as of a tuning fork. Broca f. SYN: Broca center. Cohnheim f. SYN: Cohnheim area. f. of consciousness f. of consciousness. f. of fixation in ophthalmology, the angular distance around which the line of fixation can be turned. fields of Forel three circumscript, myelin-rich regions of the subthalamus known as H fields (from Haubenfelder); 1) f. H1, corresponding to the thalamic fasciculus, a horizontal fiber stratum at the junction of the subthalamus and the overlying thalamus, is composed of pallidothalamic and cerebellothalamic fibers (brachium conjunctivum) and is separated by the zona incerta from the more ventrally placed f. H2; 2) f. H2, formed by the lenticular fasciculus and arching over the dorsal border of the subthalamic nucleus, is composed largely of pallidothalamic fibers; 3) f. H3 or prerubral f., is a large f. of intermingling gray and white matter immediately rostral to the red nucleus, uniting fields H1 and H2 around the medial margin of the zona incerta; its gray matter forms the prerubral nucleus. SEE ALSO: lenticular loop. SYN: campi foreli, tegmental fields of Forel. free f. a f. (three-dimensional space) in a homogeneous, isotropic medium free from boundaries; in practice, a f. in which boundary effects are negligible. H fields fields of Forel. individuation f. the f. within which an organizer can bring about the rearrangement of primordial tissues in such a manner that a complete embryo is formed. involved f. in radiation treatment, the area of the tumor itself. magnetic f. the sphere of influence of a magnet. microscopic f. the area within which objects are visible with microscope oculars and objectives of various magnifying powers. nerve f. the regional distribution of nerve terminals. prerubral f. fields of Forel. sound f. the environment in which sound waves are propagated. SYN: acoustical surround. tegmental fields of Forel SYN: fields of Forel. visual f. (F) the area simultaneously visible to one eye without movement; often measured by means of a bowl perimeter located 330 mm from the eye. Wernicke f. SYN: Wernicke center.

Fielding
George H., British anatomist, 1801–1871. See F. membrane.

Field rapid stain
See under stain.

field-vole (feld-vol)
A species of field mouse (Microtus montebelloi), normal host of Leptospira hebdomadis, the cause of a type of leptospirosis resembling infectious mononucleosis.

Fiessinger
Noël Armand, French physician, 1881–1946. See F.-Leroy-Reiter syndrome.

fièvre
(fe-evr′)French term for fever. f. boutonneuse (fe-evr′ boo-ton-nuz′) SYN: Mediterranean spotted fever.

fig
Ficus, the partially dried fruit of Ficus carica (family Moraceae); used as a nutrient, mild laxative, and demulcent. [L. ficus; A.S. fic]

FIGLU
Abbreviation for formiminoglutamic acid.

figuratus (fig-u-ra′tus)
Figured; a term descriptive of certain skin lesions. [L. figuro, pp. -atus, to form, fashion]

figure (fig′ur)
1. A form or shape. 2. A person representing the essential aspects of a particular role ( e.g., relating to one's male boss as a father f. or to one's female teacher as a mother f.). 3. A form, shape, outline, or representation of an object or person. [L. figura, fr fingo, to shape, fashion] authority f. a real or projected person in a position of power; one's parents, police, and boss are authority figures to some people; during the transference phase of psychoanalysis, the psychoanalyst becomes an authority f.. flame f. a small area of dermal or subcutaneous necrosis with intense eosinophil staining of collagen bundles; seen in the lesions of eosinophilic cellulitis. fortification figures SYN: fortification spectrum. mitotic f. the microscopic appearance of a cell undergoing mitosis; a cell of which the chromosomes are visible by the light microscope. myelin f. a rolled-up or scroll-like arrangement of a lipid bilayer within a cell, superficially resembling the myelin sheath of nerves; observed with the electron microscope in the cytoplasm or as inclusion in mitochondria and autophagic vacuoles where they may represent artifacts of lipid fixation. SYN: myelin body. Purkinje figures shadows of the retinal vessels, seen as dark lines on a reddish field when a light enters the eye through the sclera and not the pupil.

figure and ground
That aspect of perception wherein the perceived is separated into at least two parts, each with different attributes but influencing one another. Figure is the most distinct; ground the least formed; e.g., a bird or tree (figure) seen against the sky (ground).

fila (fi′la)
Plural of filum. [L.]

filaceous (fi-la′shus)
SYN: filamentous. [L. filum, a thread]

filaggrin (fil-ag′grin)
A major protein of the keratohyalin granule, composed mostly of l-histidyl, lysyl, and arginyl residues (stratum corneum basic proteins). It aggregates keratin intermediate filaments and promotes disulfide bond formation. [filament + aggregating]

filamen, filamin (fil′a-men)
A high molecular weight, actin-binding protein that is part of the intracellular filamentous structure of fibroblastic cells; its distribution in cells is derived from its interaction with polymerized actin.

filament (fil′a-ment)
1. SYN: filamentum. 2. In bacteriology, a fine threadlike form, unsegmented or segmented without constrictions. [L. filamentum, fr. filum, a thread] actin f. one of the contractile elements in muscular fibers and other cells; in skeletal muscle, the actin filaments are about 5 nm wide and 100 μm long, and attach to the transverse Z filaments. SYN: thin f.. axial f. the central f. of a flagellum or cilium; with the electron microscope it is seen as a complex of nine peripheral diplomicrotubules and a central pair of microtubules. SYN: axoneme (2) . cytokeratin filaments SYN: keratin filaments. intermediate filaments a class of tough protein filaments (including keratin filaments, neurofilaments, desmin, and vimentin) that measure 8–10 nm in thickness and comprise part of the cytoskeleton of the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells; so named because they are intermediate in thickness between actin filaments and microtubules. keratin filaments a class of intermediate filaments that form a network within epithelial cells and anchor to desmosomes, thus imparting tensile strength to the tissue. SYN: cytokeratin filaments. myosin f. one of the contractile elements in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle fibers; in skeletal muscle, the f. is about 10 nm thick and 1.5 μm long. SYN: thick f.. parabasal f. term formerly used for rhizoplast. pial f. pial part of filum terminale. root filaments SYN: radicular fila, under filum. spermatic f. a spermatozoon, especially the tail of a spermatozoon. thick f. SYN: myosin f.. thin f. SYN: actin f.. Z f. the thin zig-zag structure at the Z line of striated muscle fibers to which the actin filaments attach.

filamentous (fil-a-men′tus)
1. Threadlike in structure. SYN: filiform (1) . 2. Composed of filaments or threadlike structures. SYN: filaceous, filar (2) .




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