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Medical Dictionary


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fretting (fret′ing)
Abrasive polishing and wear of two metallic surfaces at their interface due to repetitive motion. [M.E., fr. O.E. fretan, to devour]

fretum, pl .freta (fre′tum, -ta)
A strait; a constriction. [L.]

Freud
Sigmund, Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist, 1856–1939, founder of psychoanalysis. See freudian, freudian fixation, freudian psychoanalysis, freudian slip, F. theory.

freudian (froyd′e-an)
Relating to or described by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). f. slip a mistake in speech or deed that presumably suggests some underlying motive, often sexual or aggressive in nature.

Freund
Jules, U.S. bacteriologist, 1891–1960. See F. complete adjuvant, F. incomplete adjuvant.

Freund
Wilhelm A., German gynecologist, 1833–1918. See F. anomaly, F. operation.

Frey
Max von, German physician, 1852–1932. See F. hairs, under hair.

Frey
Lucie, Polish physician, 1852–1932. See F. syndrome.

FRH
Abbreviation for follitropin-releasing hormone.

friable (fri′a-bl)
1. Easily reduced to powder. 2. In bacteriology, denoting a dry and brittle culture falling into powder when touched or shaken. [L. friabilis, fr. frio, to crumble]

fricative (frik′a-tiv)
Speech sound made by forcing the air stream through a narrow orifice, created by apposition of the teeth, tongue, and lips in producing consonant phonemes such as f, v, s, and z.

friction (frik′shun)
1. The act of rubbing the surface of an object against that of another; especially rubbing the limbs of the body to aid the circulation. 2. The force required for relative motion of two bodies that are in contact. [L. frictio, fr. frico, to rub] dynamic f. the force that must be overcome to maintain steady motion of one body relative to another because they remain in contact. Cf.:starting f.. starting f. the force that must be overcome to initiate the motion of one body relative to another because they have been resting in contact. Cf.:dynamic f.. SYN: static f.. static f. SYN: starting f..

Friderichsen
Carl, Danish physician, *1886. See Waterhouse-F. syndrome, F.-Waterhouse syndrome.

Friedländer
Carl, German pathologist, 1847–1887. See F. bacillus, F. pneumonia, F. stain for capsules.

Friedman
Emanuel A., U.S. obstetrician, *1926. See F. curve.

Friedreich
Nikolaus, German neurologist, 1825–1882. See F. ataxia, F. phenomenon, F. sign.

Friend
Charlotte, U.S. microbiologist, 1921–1987. See F. disease, F. virus, F. leukemia virus.

frigid (frij′id)
1. SYN: cold. 2. Temperamentally, especially sexually, cold or irresponsive. [L. frigidus, cold]

frigidity (fri-jid′i-te)
1. Impotence in the female. 2. The state of being frigid (2); female sexual inadequacy ranging from the freudian concept of inability to achieve orgasm to any degree of sexual response considered unsatisfactory by either the female or her partner.

frigorific (frig-o-rif′ik)
Producing cold. [L. frigus, cold, + facio, to make]

frigorism (frig′o-rizm)
SYN: cryopathy. [L. frigus, cold]

fringe (frinj)
SYN: fimbria (1) . costal f. an irregularly disposed collection of visible veins seen in the skin of people usually of or past middle age; it has no specific connection with any deep structure, such as the diaphragm, and no necessary connection with underlying visceral disease. SYN: zona corona. synovial f. SYN: synovial villi, under villus.

frit (frit)
1. The material from which the glaze for artificial teeth is made. 2. A powdered pigment material used in coloring the porcelain of artificial teeth. [Fr. f., fried]

Fritsch
Heinrich, German gynecologist, 1844–1915. See Bozeman-F. catheter.

Froehde
A., 19th century German chemist. See F. reagent.

frog (frog)
An amphibian in the order Anura, which includes the toads; the commonest f. genera are Rana (grass frogs) and Hyla (tree frogs). [A.S. frogge]

Fröhlich
Alfred, Austrian neurologist and pharmacologist, 1871–1953. See F. dwarfism, F. syndrome.

Frohn
Damianus, German physician, *1843. See F. reagent.

Froin
Georges, French physician, 1874–1932. See F. syndrome.

frôlement (frol-mon′)
1. Light friction or massage with the palm of the hand. 2. A rustling sound heard in auscultation. [Fr.]

Froment
Jules, Lyon physician, 1878–1946. See F. sign.

Frommel
Richard, German gynecologist, 1854–1912. See Chiari-F. syndrome.

frons, gen. frontis (fronz, fron′tis) [TA]
SYN: forehead. [L.]

front (frunt)
The position of the leading edge of the solvent in chromatography.

frontad (frun′tad)
Toward the front.

frontal (frun′tal) [TA]
1. In front; relating to the anterior part of a body. 2. Referring to the f. (coronal) plane or to the f. bone or forehead. SYN: frontalis [TA] .

frontalis (frun-ta′lis) [TA]
SYN: frontal. [L.]

frontomalar (frun′to-ma′lar)
SYN: frontozygomatic.

frontomaxillary (frun′to-mak′si-la-re)
Relating to the frontal and the maxillary bones.

frontonasal (frun′to-na′zal)
Relating to the frontal and the nasal bones.

fronto-occipital (frun′to-ok-sip′i-tal)
Relating to the frontal and the occipital bones, or to the forehead and the occiput.

frontoparietal (frun′to-pa-ri′e-tal)
Relating to the frontal and the parietal bones.

frontotemporal (frun-to-tem′po-ral)
Relating to the frontal and the temporal bones.

frontotemporale (frun′to-tem-po-ra′le)
A craniometric point located at the most anterior point of the temporal line on the frontal bone.

frontozygomatic (frun′to-zi′go-mat′ik)
Relating to the frontal and zygomatic bones. SYN: frontomalar.

Froriep
August von, German anatomist, 1849–1917. See F. ganglion.

frost
A deposit resembling that of frozen vapor or dew. urea f., uremic f. powdery deposits on the skin, especially the face, including urea and uric acid salts, due to excretion of nitrogenous compounds in the sweat; seen in severe uremia. SYN: uridrosis crystallina.

Frost
Albert D., U.S. ophthalmologist, 1889–1945. See F. suture.

Frost
Wade H., U.S. epidemiologist, 1880–1938. See Reed-F. model.

Frost
William A., English ophthalmologist, 1853–1935.

frostbite (frost′bit)
Local tissue destruction resulting from exposure to extreme cold; in mild cases, it results in superficial, reversible freezing followed by erythema and slight pain (frostnip); in severe cases, it can be painless or paresthetic and result in blistering, persistent edema, and gangrene. F. is currently treated by rapid rewarming.

frottage (fro-tahzh′)
1. The rubbing movement in massage. 2. Production of sexual excitement by rubbing against someone. [F. a rubbing]

frotteur (fro-tuhr′)
One who gets sexual excitement through frottage.

FRS
Abbreviation for first rank symptoms, under symptom.

F.R.S.
Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal Society.

F.R.S.C.
Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal Society (Canada).

Fru
Symbol for fructose.

fructan (fruk′tan)
SYN: fructosan (1) .

fructo-
Chemical prefix denoting the fructose configuration. [L. fructus, fruit]

fructofuranose (fruk-to-foor′a-nos, fruk-)
Fructose in furanose form.

fructokinase (fruk-to-ki′nas, fruk-)
A liver enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP and d-fructose to form fructose 6-phosphate and ADP; deficient in individuals with essential fructosuria (hepatic f. deficiency).

fructolysis (fruk-to′li-sis)
The conversion of fructose to lactate; analogous to glycolysis.

fructosan (fruk′to-san, fruk-)
1. A polysaccharide of fructose ( e.g., inulin) containing small amounts of other sugars; present in certain tubers. SYN: fructan, levan, levulan, levulin, levulosan, polyfructose. 2. 2,6-Anhydrofructofuranose.

fructose (Fru) (fruk′tos, fruk-)
The d-isomer (also referred to as fruit sugar, levoglucose, levulose, and d-arabino-2-hexulose) is a 2-ketohexose that is physiologically the most important of the ketohexoses and one of the two products of sucrose hydrolysis; it is metabolized or converted to glycogen in the absence of insulin. [L. fructus, fruit, + -ose]

fructose-bisphosphatase
A hydrolase that catalyzes conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to d-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate in gluconeogenesis; AMP is an allosteric inhibitor; f. deficiency results in problems with impaired gluconeogenesis; there is a similar enzyme that acts on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.

fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
A key intermediate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. SYN: hexosebisphosphatase, hexosediphosphatase.

fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
An analog of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate that plays a key role in the regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; activates phosphofructokinase and inhibits fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase.

fructose-bisphosphate aldolase
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate triophosphate-lyase;an enzyme reversibly cleaving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; also acts on certain ketose 1-phosphates; deficient in individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (aldolase B); a deficiency of aldolase A leads to erythrocyte aldolase deficiency with nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Cf.:hereditary fructose intolerance. SYN: 1-phosphofructaldolase, fructose-diphosphate aldolase.

fructose-diphosphate aldolase
SYN: fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.

fructosemia (fruk-to-se′me-a, fruk-)
Presence of fructose in the circulating blood. SEE ALSO: hereditary fructose intolerance. SYN: levulosemia.

fructose 1-phosphate
A fructose derivative that accumulates in individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance.

fructose 6-phosphate
An intermediate in glycolysis and in transketolation of erythrose 4-phosphate. SYN: Neuberg ester.

fructoside (fruk′to-sid, fruk′)
Fructose in &cbond;C&cbond;O&cbond; linkage where the &cbond;C&cbond;O&cbond; group is the original 2-group of the fructose.




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