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Medical Dictionary


galactosuria (ga-lak-to-soo′re-a)
The excretion of galactose in the urine. [galactose + G. ouron, urine]

galactosyl (ga-lak′to-sil)
The galactose portion of a galactoside.

galactosylceramide (ga-lak′to-sil-ser′a-mid)
A sphingolipid that accumulates in individuals with Krabbe disease.

galactotherapy (ga-lak′to-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of disease by means of an exclusive or nearly exclusive milk diet. SYN: lactotherapy.

galacturonan (ga-lak′toor-o-nan)
A polysaccharide that yields galacturonic acid on hydrolysis; a constituent of some pectins.

galangal, galanga (ga-lan′gal, -ga)
The rhizome of Alpinia offcinarum (family Zingiberaceae); an aromatic stimulant and carminative. SYN: Chinese ginger. [Mediev. L. galanga, mild ginger, fr. Chinese]

Nikolay Fedorovich, Russian hygienist, *1893. See G. reflex.

galanthamine (ga-lan′tha-men)
An alkaloid derived from Caucasian snowdrops (a white flower of early spring) Galanthus woronowii (family Amaryllidaceae); from Narcissus spp. An alkaloid with anticholinesterase properties; enjoys use in Eastern Europe.

galea (ga′le-a)
1. [NA] A structure shaped like a helmet. 2. SYN: epicranial aponeurosis. 3. A form of bandage covering the head. 4. SYN: caul (1) . [L. a helmet] g. aponeurotica [TA] SYN: epicranial aponeurosis.

Domenico, Italian physician, 1686–1775. See G. glands, under gland.

galeatomy (ga-le-at′o-me)
Incision of the galea aponeurotica. [galea + G. tome, incision]

Riccardo, Italian surgeon, 1886–1952. See G. fracture.

Galen, Galenius, Galenos
Claudius, Greek physician and medical scientist in Rome, c. 130–201 A.D. See G. anastomosis, G. nerve, veins of G., under vein, great vein of G..

galena (ga-le′na)
SYN: lead sulfide. [L.]

galenic (ga-len′ik)
Relating to Galen or to his theories.

galenicals (ga-len′i-kalz)
1. Herbs and other vegetable drugs, as distinguished from the mineral or chemical remedies. 2. Crude drugs and the tinctures, decoctions, and other preparations made from them, as distinguished from the alkaloids and other active principles. 3. Remedies prepared according to an official formula. [Claudius Galen]

gall (gawl)
1. SYN: bile. 2. An excoriation or erosion. 3. SYN: nutgall. [A.S. gealla]

galla (gal′a)
SYN: nutgall. [L.]

gallamine triethiodide (gal′a-men tri-eth-i′o-did)
A triple quaternary ammonium compound with action comparable to that of curarine.

Louis, French physician, 1875–1957. See G. phenomenon.

gallbladder (gawl′blad-er) [TA]
A pear-shaped receptacle on the inferior surface of the liver, in a hollow between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe; it serves as a storage reservoir for bile. SYN: vesica biliaris [TA] , vesica fellea&star, bile cyst, cholecyst, cholecystis, cystis fellea, gall bladder, vesicula fellis. Courvoisier g. an enlarged, often palpable g. in a patient with carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. It is associated with jaundice due to obstruction of the common bile duct. See Courvoisier law. porcelain g. intramural calcification of the g. commonly associated with g. cancer. sandpaper g. a roughened condition of the mucous membrane of the g., associated usually with the presence of gallstones. strawberry g. a g. of which the mucosa is dotted with yellowish cholesterol deposits contrasting with the red hyperemic background.

Gallego differentiating solution
See under solution.

gallein (gal′e-in)
Structurally related to fluorescein and used as an aniline dye indicator, turning rose red above pH 6.6, yellowish brown below pH 4. SYN: pyrogallolphthalein.

gallic acid (gal′ik)
Usually made from tannic acid or nutgalls; used locally as an astringent, for the same purpose as tannic acid.

William E., Canadian surgeon, 1882–1959. See G. transplant.

Galliformes (gal-i-for′mez)
An order of birds embracing the pheasant, turkey, and chicken. [L. gallus, a cock, + forma, form]

gallinaceous (gal-i-na′shus)
Pertaining to the order Galliformes. [L. gallinaceus, fr. gallina, a hen]

gallium (Ga) (gal′e-um)
A rare metal, atomic no. 31, atomic wt. 69.723. [L. Gallia, France]

gallium-67 (67Ga)
A cyclotron-produced radionuclide with a half-life of 3.260 days and major gamma ray emissions of 93, 185, and 300 keV; used in the citrate form as a tumor- and inflammation-localizing radiotracer.

gallium-68 (68Ga)
A positron emitter with a radioactive half-life of 1.130 h.

gallocyanin, gallocyanine (gal-o-si′a-nin, a-nen) [C.I. 51030]
A blue phenoxazin dye used as a stain for nucleic acids after boiling with chrome alum, which is applicable for quantitative cytophotometric determination of these moieties.

gallon (gal′un)
A measure of U.S. liquid capacity containing 4 quarts, 231 cu. in., or 8.3293 pounds of distilled water at 20°C; it is the equivalent of 3.785412 L. The British imperial g. contains 277.4194 cu. in. [O.Fr. galon]

gallop (gal′op)
A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious disease. SYN: bruit de galop, cantering rhythm, g. rhythm, Traube bruit. atrial g. SYN: presystolic g.. presystolic g. g. cadence in which the g. sound in late diastole is an audible fourth heart sound due to forceful ventricular filling following atrial systole. SYN: atrial g.. protodiastolic g. g. rhythm in which the g. sound occurs in early diastole and is an abnormal third heart sound. S7 g. SYN: summation g.. summation g. g. rhythm in which the g. sound is due to superimposition of third and fourth heart sounds; sometimes heard in normal subjects with tachycardia, but usually indicative of myocardial disease. SYN: S7 g., S7. systolic g. obsolete term for a triple cadence to the heart sounds in which the extra sound occurs during systole, usually in the form of a systolic “click.”

gallstone (gawl′ston)
A concretion in the gallbladder or a bile duct, composed chiefly of a mixture of cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, occasionally as a pure stone composed of just one of these substances. SYN: biliary calculus, cholelith. opacifying gallstones gallstones becoming roentgenographically opaque after prolonged exposure to cholecystographic contrast mediums. silent gallstones gallstones that cause no symptoms and are discovered by radiographic or ultrasound examination at the time of operation or autopsy.

Gallus (gal′us)
A genus of gallinaceous birds including G. domestica, the domestic chicken. [L. g., a cock]

Abbreviation for gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

Sir Francis, English scientist, 1822–1911. See G. delta, G. system of classification of fingerprints, under fingerprint, G. law, G. whistle.

galtonian (gahl-to′ne-an)
Attributed to or described by Sir Francis Galton.

Luigi, Italian physician and anatomist, 1737-1798. See galvanism.

galvanic (gal-van′ik)
Pertaining to galvanism. SYN: voltaic.

galvanism (gal′va-nizm)
1. Direct current electricity produced by chemical action, as by a battery. 2. Oral manifestations of direct current electricity occurring when dental restorations with dissimilar electric potentials (such as silver and gold) are placed in the mouth; characterized by pain or development of small areas of leukoplakia. SYN: voltaism.

galvanization (gal′va-ni-za′shun)
Application of direct current (galvanic) electricity, as in galvanizing (electroplating).

Prefix denoting electrical, primarily direct current. [see galvanism]

galvanocautery (gal′va-no-kaw′ter-e)
A form of electrocautery using a wire heated by a galvanic current.

galvanocontractility (gal′va-no-kon-trak-til′i-te)
The capability of a muscle of contracting under the stimulus of a galvanic (direct) current.

galvanofaradization (gal′va-no-far′a-di-za′shun)
Simultaneous application of a galvanic and a faradic current.

galvanometer (gal′va-nom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current. d'Arsonval g. a sensitive g. consisting of a moving coil suspended in a permanent magnetic field between delicate metallic wires or ribbons that serve as both torsion springs and conductors; a mirror on the coil deflects a beam of light along the scale. Einthoven string g. the original instrument on which Einthoven developed the first electrocardiogram.

galvanomuscular (gal′va-no-mus′ku-lar)
Denoting the effect of the application of a galvanic (direct) current to a muscle.

galvanopalpation (gal′va-no-pal-pa′shun)
Esthesiometry by means of a sharp-pointed electrode through which a feeble direct current passes to the cathode applied to an indifferent part.

galvanoscope (gal′va-no-skop)
An instrument for detecting the presence of a galvanic current. [galvano- + G. skopeo, to view]

galvanosurgery (gal′va-no-ser′jer-e)
An operation in which direct electric current is utilized.

galvanotaxis (gal′va-no-tak′sis)
SYN: electrotaxis.

galvanotherapy (gal′van-o-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of disease by application of direct (galvanic) current.

galvanotonus (gal-va-not′o-nus)
1. SYN: electrotonus. 2. Tonic muscular contraction in response to a galvanic stimulus. [galvano- + G. tonos, tension]

galvanotropism (gal-va-not′ro-pizm)
SYN: electrotaxis. [galvano- + G. trope, a turning]

gamabufagin (gam-a-boo′fa-jin)
SYN: gamabufotalin.

gamabufogenin (gam-a-boo′fo-jen-in)
SYN: gamabufotalin.

gamabufotalin (gam-a-boo′fo-tal-in)
A trihydroxybufadienolide, present in the venoms of toads (family Bufonidae), which chemically and pharmacologically resembles digitalis. SYN: gamabufagin, gamabufogenin.

gambir (gam′ber)
An extract from the leaves of Uncaria (Ourouparia) gambier (family Rubiaceae); an astringent. Commercial g. is known as terra japonica.

game (gam)
A contest, physical or mental, conducted according to set rules, played for amusement or for a stake. [M.E. fr. O.E. gamen] language g. in philosophy, all the operations and behaviors contained in and expressed by symbols, language rules, and the social customs concerning language use. model g. the use of games, especially of games of strategy, for the explanation of human behavior (both normal and abnormal).

gametangium (gam′e-tan′je-um)
A structure in which gametes are produced.

gamete (gam′et)
1. One of two haploid cells that can undergo karyogamy. 2. Any germ cell, whether ovum or spermatozoon. [G. gametes, husband; g., wife] joint g. the haploid set of (nonallelic) genes inherited in a single germinal cell.

A gamete. [G. gametes, husband, gamete, wife, fr. gameo, to marry]

gametocide (ga-me′to-sid)
An agent destructive of gametes, specifically the malarial gametocytes. [gameto- + L. caedo, to kill]

gametocyst (ga-me′to-sist)
A cyst formed around a pair of united gregarine gamonts in which gametes are produced. [gameto- + G. kystis, bladder]

gametocyte (ga-me′to-sit)
A cell capable of dividing to produce gametes, e.g., a spermatocyte or oocyte. SYN: gamont. [gameto- + G. kytos, cell]

gametogenesis (gam′e-to-jen′e-sis)
The process of formation and development of gametes. [gameto- + G. genesis, production]

gametogonia (gam′e-to-go′ne-a)
SYN: gametogony.

gametogony (gam-e-tog′o-ne)
A stage in the sexual cycle of sporozoans in which gametes are formed, often by schizogony. SYN: gametogonia, gamogony. [gameto- + G. gone, a begetting]

gametoid (gam′e-toyd)
Pertaining to certain biologic features that resemble those characteristic of gametes or reproductive cells.


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