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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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gametokinetic (gam′e-to-ki-net′ik)
Promoting or causing karyogamy or true conjugation. [gameto- + G. kinesis, movement]

gametophagia (gam′e-to-fa′je-a)
The disappearance of the male or female element in zygosis. SYN: gamophagia. [gameto- + G. phago, to eat]

Gamgee
Joseph Sampson, British surgeon, 1828–1886. See G. tissue.

gamic (gam′ik)
Relating to or derived from sexual union; usually used as a suffix. [G. gamikos, pert. to marriage]

gamma (gam′a)
1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet, &g.;. 2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 10−9 T. [G.]

gamma benzene hexachloride (GBH)
One of the purified isomers of hexachlorobenzene which is used as a scabicide and pediculicide applied topically to the skin in various lotions, creams, and shampoos; GBH can be absorbed through the skin. Resembles DDT in its actions but is less persistent. SYN: hexachlorocyclohexane.

gammacism (gam′a-sizm)
Mispronunciation of, or trouble articulating, the “g” sound. [G. gamma, equivalent of the letter g]

gammagram (gam′a-gram)
Archaic term for scintiscan.

Gammaherpesvirinae (gam′a-her′pez-vir′i-ne)
A subfamily of Herpesviridae containing Epstein-Barr virus and others that cause lymphoproliferation.

gammopathy (ga-mop′a-the)
A primary disturbance in immunoglobulin synthesis. benign monoclonal g. SYN: monoclonal g. of undetermined significance. biclonal g. a g. in which the serum contains two distinct monoclonal immunoglobulins. monoclonal g. any one of a group of disorders due to proliferation of a single clone of lymphoid or plasma cells and characterized by the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum or urine (visible on electrophoresis as a single peak). monoclonal g. of undetermined significance a paraproteinemia (an abnormal gammaglobulin, typically with λ light chain component) of less than 3 g/100 ml, which at the time of discovery, is without apparent cause; specifically, there is no evidence of multiple myeloma or other malignant disorders. SYN: benign monoclonal g.. monoclonal g. of unknown significance (MGUS) a g. diagnosed by electrophoresis of serum of asymptomatic elderly persons who have no other evidence of plasma cell neoplasia; in 20% of cases it evolves into plasma cell malignancy. polyclonal g. a g. in which there is a heterogeneous increase in immunoglobulins involving more than one cell line; may be caused by any of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic disorders.

Gamna
Carlos, Italian physician, 1896–1950. See G. disease, G.-Favre bodies, under body, Gandy-G. bodies, under body, G.-Gandy bodies, under body, G.-Gandy nodules, under nodule.

gamogenesis (gam-o-jen′e-sis)
SYN: sexual reproduction. [G. gamos, marriage, + genesis, production]

gamogony (gam-og′o-ne)
SYN: gametogony.

gamont
SYN: gametocyte. [G. gamos, marriage, + on (ont-), being]

gamophagia (gam-o-fa′je-a)
SYN: gametophagia.

gamophobia (gam-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of marriage. [G. gamos, marriage, + phobos, fear]

ganciclovir (gan-si′klo-vir)
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of opportunistic cytomegalovirus infections.

Gandy
Charles, French physician, *1872. See Gamna-G. bodies, under body, Gamna-G. nodules, under nodule, G.-Gamna bodies, under body, G.-Nanta disease.

ganga (gang′ga)
An extract of the flowers of Cannabis sativa (Indian hemp or hashish) which grows in India, Persia, and Arabia. SEE ALSO: cannabis.

ganglia (gang′gle-a)
Plural of ganglion.

ganglial (gang′gle-al)
SYN: ganglionic.

gangliate, gangliated (gang′gle-at, gang′gle-a-ted)
Having ganglia. SYN: ganglionated.

gangliform (gang′gle-form)
Having the form or appearance of a ganglion. SYN: ganglioform.

gangliitis (gang-gle-i′tis)
SYN: ganglionitis.

ganglioblast (gang′gle-o-blast)
An embryonic cell from which develop ganglion cells. [ganglion + G. blastos, germ]

gangliocyte (gang′gle-o-sit)
SYN: ganglion cell.

gangliocytoma (gang′gle-o-si-to′ma)
A rare lesion that contains neuronal (ganglion) cells in a sparse glial stoma. SYN: central ganglioneuroma. [ganglion + G. kytos, cell, + -oma, tumor]

ganglioform (gang′gle-o-form)
SYN: gangliform.

ganglioglioma (gang′gle-o-gle-o′ma)
A rare tumor composed of a glioma component and an atypical neuronal (ganglion) cell component; in younger patients often associated with seizures.

gangliolysis (gang-gle-ol′i-sis)
The dissolution or breaking up of a ganglion. percutaneous radiofrequency g. g. produced by radiofrequency currents applied to a ganglion by a needle passed through the skin.

ganglioma (gang-gle-o′ma)
SYN: ganglioneuroma.

ganglion, pl .gangliaganglions (gang′gle-on, -gle-a, -gle-onz)
1. [TA] Originally, any group of nerve cell bodies in the central or peripheral nervous system; currently, an aggregation of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. SYN: nerve g., neural g., neuroganglion. 2. A cyst containing mucopolysaccharide-rich fluid within fibrous tissue or, occasionally, muscle bone or a semilunar cartilage; usually attached to a tendon sheath in the hand, wrist, or foot, or connected with the underlying joint. SYN: myxoid cyst, peritendinitis serosa, synovial cyst. [G. a swelling or knot] aberrant g. a collection of nerve cells sometimes found on a posterior spinal nerve root between the spinal g. and the spinal cord. acousticofacial g. a primordial ganglionic cell mass in young embryos which later separates into the acoustic or spiral g. of the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve and the geniculate g. of the facial (seventh cranial) nerve. Acrel g. 1. pseudoganglion on the posterior interosseous nerve on the dorsal aspect of the wrist joint; 2. a cyst on a tendon of an extensor muscle at the level of the wrist. Andersch g. SYN: inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. aorticorenal ganglia [TA] a semidetached portion of the celiac ganglia, at the origin of each renal artery; contains the postsynaptic sympathetic neurons innervating the vasculature of the kidney. SYN: ganglia aorticorenalia [TA] . ganglia aorticorenalia [TA] SYN: aorticorenal ganglia. Arnold g. SYN: otic g.. auditory g. SYN: cochlear g.. Auerbach ganglia collections of postsynaptic parasympathetic nerve cells in the myenteric plexus. See myenteric (nervous) plexus. auricular g. SYN: otic g.. autonomic ganglia visceral ganglia. See autonomic division of nervous system. ganglia of autonomic plexuses autonomic ganglia lying in plexuses of autonomic fibers, e.g., the celiac and inferior mesenteric ganglia of the sympathetic, and the small parasympathetic ganglia of the myenteric plexus. SYN: ganglia plexuum autonomicorum [TA] . basal ganglia originally, all of the large masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemisphere; currently, the striate body (caudate and lentiform nuclei) and cell groups functionally associated with the striate body, such as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. SEE ALSO: basal nuclei, under nucleus. Bezold g. an aggregation of nerve cells in the interatrial septum. Bochdalek g. a g. of the plexus of the dental nerve lying in the maxilla just above the root of the canine tooth. Bock g. SYN: carotid g.. Böttcher g. g. on the cochlear nerve in the internal acoustic meatus. cardiac ganglia [TA] parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus lying between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery and of the plexus extension onto the atria and atrioventricular groove. One such g. is commonly found adjacent to the ligamentum arteriosum; the ganglia send postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the nodal tissue and periarterial plexuses of the coronary arteries. SYN: ganglia cardiaca [TA] , Wrisberg ganglia. ganglia cardiaca [TA] SYN: cardiac ganglia. carotid g. a small ganglionic swelling on filaments from the internal carotid plexus, lying on the undersurface of the carotid artery in the cavernous sinus. SYN: Bock g., Laumonier g.. celiac ganglia [TA] the largest and highest group of prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, located on the superior part of the abdominal aorta, on either side of the origin of the celiac artery; contains postsynaptic sympathetic neurons whose unmyelinated postganglionic axons innervate the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidney, small intestine, and ascending and transverse colon. SYN: ganglia coeliaca [TA] , solar ganglia, Vieussens ganglia, Willis centrum nervosum. g. cervicale inferius [TA] SYN: inferior cervical g.. g. cervicale medium [TA] SYN: middle cervical g.. g. cervicale superius [TA] SYN: superior cervical g.. cervicothoracic g. [TA] a sympathetic trunk g. lying posterior to the subclavian artery near the origin of the vertebral artery, it is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical g., at the level of the seventh cervical vertebra, with the first thoracic g.. SYN: g. cervicothoracicum [TA] , g. stellatum&star, stellate g.&star. g. cervicothoracicum [TA] SYN: cervicothoracic g.. chain ganglia SYN: g. of sympathetic trunk. g. ciliare [TA] SYN: ciliary g.. ciliary g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle; it receives presynaptic fibers from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus by way of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and in turn gives rise to postsynaptic fibers that innervate the ciliary muscle and the sphincter of the iris (sphincter pupillae muscle). SYN: g. ciliare [TA] , lenticular g., Schacher g.. coccygeal g. SYN: g. impar. cochlear g. [TA] an elongated g. of bipolar sensory nerve cell bodies on the cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve in the spiral canal of the modiolus; each g. cell gives rise to a peripheral process that passes between the layers of the bony spiral lamina to the organ of Corti, and a central axon that enters the hindbrain as a component of the inferior (cochlear) root of the eighth nerve, which conveys auditory sensation. SYN: g. cochleare [TA] , spiral g. of cochlea [TA] , g. spirale cochleae&star, auditory g., Corti g., spiral cochlear g.. g. cochleare [TA] SYN: cochlear g.. ganglia coeliaca [TA] SYN: celiac ganglia. Corti g. SYN: cochlear g.. ganglia craniospinalia sensoria [TA] SYN: craniospinal sensory ganglia. craniospinal sensory ganglia [TA] a term collectively designating the sensory ganglia on the dorsal (posterior) roots of spinal nerves and on those cranial nerves that contain general sensory and taste fibers; also called encephalospinal ganglia. SYN: ganglia craniospinalia sensoria [TA] . diffuse g. a cystic swelling due to inflammatory effusion into one or several adjacent tendon sheaths. dorsal root g. spinal g.. Ehrenritter g. SYN: superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. extracranial ganglia SYN: inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. g. extracraniale SYN: inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. g. of facial nerve SYN: geniculate g.. Frankenhäuser g. SYN: uterovaginal (nervous) plexus. Froriep g. a temporary collection of nerve cells on the dorsal aspect of the hypoglossal nerve in the embryo; it represents a rudimentary sensory g.. gasserian g. SYN: trigeminal g.. geniculate g. [TA] a g. of the nervus intermedius fibers conveyed by the facial nerve, located within the facial canal at the genu of the canal and containing the sensory neurons innervating the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and a small area on the external ear. SYN: g. geniculi [TA] , g. geniculatum&star, g. of facial nerve, g. of intermediate nerve, g. of nervus intermedius, intumescentia ganglioformis. g. geniculatum geniculate g.. g. geniculi [TA] SYN: geniculate g.. Gudden g. SYN: interpeduncular nucleus. g. habenulae SYN: habenular nuclei, under nucleus. hypogastric ganglia SYN: pelvic ganglia. g. impar [TA] the most inferior, unpaired g. of the sympathetic trunk; inconstant. SYN: coccygeal g., Walther g.. inferior cervical g. [TA] inferior-most of the three ganglia of the cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk, occurring at the C7 vertebral level. Most commonly, it is fused to the first thoracic sympathetic g. to form a cervicothoracic (stellate) g.. SYN: g. cervicale inferius [TA] . inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve [TA] the lower, more significant, of two sensory ganglions on the glossopharyngeal nerve immediately inferior to its exit from the jugular foramen. The unipolar neurons comprising the ganglia convey taste and general sensation from the posterior third of the tongue, and general sensation only from the fauces, soft palate, and oropharynx. SYN: g. inferius nervi glossopharyngei [TA] , Andersch g., extracranial ganglia, g. extracraniale, petrosal g., petrous g.. inferior mesenteric g. [TA] the lowest of the sympathetic prevertebral ganglia, located at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery from the aorta and containing the postsynaptic sympathetic neurons innervating the descending and sigmoid colon. SYN: g. mesentericum inferius [TA] . inferior g. of vagus nerve [TA] a large sensory g. of the vagus, anterior to the internal jugular vein. SYN: g. inferius nervi vagi [TA] , g. of trunk of vagus, nodose g.. g. inferius nervi glossopharyngei [TA] SYN: inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. g. inferius nervi vagi [TA] SYN: inferior g. of vagus nerve. intercrural g. SYN: interpeduncular nucleus. ganglia intermedia [TA] SYN: intermediate ganglia. intermediate ganglia [TA] small sympathetic ganglia most commonly found on the communicating branches in the cervical and lumbar region. SYN: ganglia intermedia [TA] . g. of intermediate nerve SYN: geniculate g.. interpeduncular g. SYN: interpeduncular nucleus. intervertebral g. SYN: spinal g.. intracranial g. SYN: superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. g. isthmi SYN: interpeduncular nucleus. jugular g. 1. SYN: superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. 2. SYN: superior g. of vagus nerve. Laumonier g. SYN: carotid g.. Lee g. SYN: uterovaginal (nervous) plexus. lenticular g. SYN: ciliary g.. Lobstein g. SYN: thoracic splanchnic g.. Ludwig g. a small collection of parasympathetic nerve cells in the interatrial septum. ganglia lumbalia [TA] SYN: lumbar ganglia. lumbar ganglia [TA] four or more ganglia on the medial border of the psoas major muscle on either side; they form, with the sacral and coccygeal ganglia and their interganglionic branches, the abdominopelvic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia lumbalia [TA] . Meckel g. SYN: pterygopalatine g.. g. mesentericum inferius [TA] SYN: inferior mesenteric g.. g. mesentericum superius [TA] SYN: superior mesenteric g.. middle cervical g. [TA] a sympathetic g., of small size and sometimes absent; located at the level of the cricoid cartilage. SYN: g. cervicale medium [TA] . nasal g. SYN: pterygopalatine g.. nerve g., neural g. SYN: g. (1) . g. of nervus intermedius SYN: geniculate g.. nodose g. SYN: inferior g. of vagus nerve. otic g. [TA] an autonomic g. situated inferior to the foramen ovale medial to the mandibular nerve; its postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers are secretomotor fibers distributed to the parotid gland. SYN: g. oticum [TA] , Arnold g., auricular g., otoganglion. g. oticum [TA] SYN: otic g.. parasympathetic ganglia [TA] those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system composed of cholinergic neurons receiving presynaptic fibers from visceral motor neurons in either the brainstem or the middle sacral spinal segments (S2 to S4); on the basis of their location with respect to the organs they innervate, most parasympathetic ganglia, at least outside the head, can be categorized as juxtamural or intramural ganglia ( i.e., located in or on the viscus being innervated). SEE ALSO: autonomic division of nervous system. SYN: ganglia parasympathetica [TA] . ganglia parasympathetica [TA] SYN: parasympathetic ganglia. paravertebral ganglia SYN: g. of sympathetic trunk. pelvic ganglia [TA] the parasympathetic ganglia scattered through the pelvic plexus of either side. SYN: ganglia pelvica [TA] , hypogastric ganglia. ganglia pelvica [TA] SYN: pelvic ganglia. periosteal g. a flattened subperiosteal cavity containing clear, yellow, viscous, synovial-like fluid. petrosal g., petrous g. SYN: inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. phrenic ganglia [TA] several small autonomic ganglia contained in the plexuses accompanying the inferior phrenic arteries. SYN: ganglia phrenica [TA] . ganglia phrenica [TA] SYN: phrenic ganglia. ganglia plexuum autonomicorum [TA] SYN: ganglia of autonomic plexuses. prevertebral ganglia the sympathetic ganglia (celiac, aorticorenal, superior and inferior mesenteric) lying in front of the vertebral column, as distinguished from the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk (paravertebral ganglia); these ganglia occur mostly around the origin of the major branches of the abdominal aorta; all are in the abdominopelvic cavity; the neurons comprising the ganglia send postsynaptic sympathetic fibers to abdominopelvic viscera via periarterial plexuses. pterygopalatine g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. in the upper part of the pterygopalatine fossa whose secretomotor postsynaptic fibers supply the lacrimal, nasal, palatine, and pharyngeal glands. SYN: g. pterygopalatinum [TA] , Meckel g., nasal g., sphenopalatine g.. g. pterygopalatinum [TA] SYN: pterygopalatine g.. Remak ganglia 1. groups of nerve cells in the wall of the venous sinus where it joins the right atrium of the heart; 2. autonomic ganglia in nerves of the stomach. renal ganglia [TA] small scattered sympathetic ganglia along the renal plexus. SYN: ganglia renalia [TA] . ganglia renalia [TA] SYN: renal ganglia. Ribes g. a small sympathetic g. situated on the anterior communicating artery of the brain. sacral ganglia [TA] three or four ganglia on either side constituting, with the g. impar and the interganglionic branches, the pelvic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia sacralia [TA] . ganglia sacralia [TA] SYN: sacral ganglia. Scarpa g. SYN: vestibular g.. Schacher g. SYN: ciliary g.. semilunar g. SYN: trigeminal g.. g. sensorium nervi spinalis [TA] SYN: spinal g.. sensory g. a cluster of primary sensory neurons forming a usually visible swelling in the course of a peripheral nerve or its dorsal root; such nerve cells establish the sole afferent neural connection between the sensory periphery (skin, mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities, muscle tissue, tendons, joint capsules, special sense organs, blood vessel walls, tissues of the internal organs) and the central nervous system; they are the cells of origin of all sensory fibers of the peripheral nervous system. Soemmerring g. SYN: substantia nigra. solar ganglia SYN: celiac ganglia. sphenopalatine g. SYN: pterygopalatine g.. spinal g. [TA] the g. of the posterior (dorsal) root of each spinal segmental nerve (commonly with the exception of the first cervical spinal nerve); contains the cell bodies of the pseudounipolar primary sensory neurons whose peripheral axonal branches become part of the mixed segmental nerve, while the central axonal branches enter the spinal cord as a component of the sensory posterior root. SYN: g. sensorium nervi spinalis [TA] , dorsal root g.&star, g. spinale, intervertebral g.. g. spinale SYN: spinal g.. spiral g. of cochlea [TA] SYN: cochlear g.. spiral cochlear g. SYN: cochlear g.. g. spirale cochleae cochlear g.. stellate g. cervicothoracic g.. g. stellatum cervicothoracic g.. sublingual g. [TA] a tiny parasympathetic g. occasionally found anterior to the submandibular g., of which it is a displaced portion; its postsynaptic fibers are secretomotor to the sublingual gland. SYN: g. sublinguale [TA] . g. sublinguale [TA] SYN: sublingual g.. submandibular g. [TA] a small parasympathetic g. suspended from the lingual nerve; its postsynaptic fibers are secretomotor to the submandibular and sublingual glands; its presynaptic fibers come from the superior salvatory nucleus by way of the chorda tympani. SYN: g. submandibulare [TA] , submaxillary g.. g. submandibulare [TA] SYN: submandibular g.. submaxillary g. SYN: submandibular g.. superior cervical g. [TA] the superior-most and largest of the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, lying near the base of the skull between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein. All postsynaptic sympathetic fibers distributed to the head and upper neck are derived from the cell bodies that constitute this g.. SYN: g. cervicale superius [TA] . superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve [TA] the upper, smaller, and less significant of two ganglia on the glossopharyngeal nerve as it traverses the jugular foramen; it is usually regarded as a detached part of the inferior g.. SYN: g. superius nervi glossopharyngei [TA] , Ehrenritter g., intracranial g., jugular g. (1) . superior mesenteric g. [TA] an often paired sympathetic g. located at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. The neurons comprising the g. send postsynaptic fibers to the portions of the small and large intestines supplied by the superior mesenteric artery. SYN: g. mesentericum superius [TA] . superior g. of vagus nerve [TA] a small sensory g. on the vagus as it traverses the jugular foramen. SYN: g. superius nervi vagi [TA] , jugular g. (2) . g. superius nervi glossopharyngei [TA] SYN: superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve. g. superius nervi vagi [TA] SYN: superior g. of vagus nerve. sympathetic ganglia those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system that receive efferent fibers originating from preganglionic visceral motor neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments (T1–L2). On the basis of their location, the sympathetic ganglia can be classified as paravertebral ganglia (ganglia trunci sympathici) and prevertebral ganglia (ganglia celiaca). SEE ALSO: autonomic division of nervous system. g. of sympathetic trunk [TA] the clusters of postsynaptic neurons located at intervals along the sympathetic trunks, including the superior cervical, middle cervical, and cervicothoracic (stellate) g., the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral ganglia, and the g. impar. SYN: ganglia trunci sympathici [TA] , chain ganglia, paravertebral ganglia. terminal g. [TA] 1. one of the cells located along the terminal nerves; SYN: g. terminale [TA] . 2. one of the scattered postsynaptic autonomic neurons located in or close to the wall of the organ innervated; they are usually parasympathetic. g. terminale [TA] SYN: terminal g. (1) . thoracic ganglia [TA] sympathetic ganglia, 11 or 12 on either side, at the level of the head of each rib, constituting with the interganglionic branches the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk. SYN: ganglia thoracica [TA] . ganglia thoracica [TA] SYN: thoracic ganglia. thoracic splanchnic g. a small sympathetic g. often present in the course of the greater splanchnic nerve. SYN: g. thoracicum splanchnicum, Lobstein g.. g. thoracicum splanchnicum SYN: thoracic splanchnic g.. trigeminal g. [TA] the large flattened sensory g. of the trigeminal nerve lying adjacent to the cavernous sinus along the medial part of the middle cranial fossa in the trigeminal cave (cavity) of the dura mater. SYN: g. trigeminale [TA] , gasserian g., semilunar g.. g. trigeminale [TA] SYN: trigeminal g.. Troisier g. historic term for a lymph node immediately above the clavicle, especially on the left side, that is palpably enlarged as the result of a metastasis from a malignant neoplasm; the presence of such a node indicates that the probable site of primary involvement is in an abdominal organ. SEE ALSO: signal node. SYN: Troisier node. ganglia trunci sympathici [TA] SYN: g. of sympathetic trunk. g. of trunk of vagus SYN: inferior g. of vagus nerve. tympanic g. a small g. on the tympanic nerve during its passage through the petrous portion of the temporal bone. SYN: g. tympanicum&star. g. tympanicum tympanic g.. Valentin g. a g. on the superior alveolar nerve. vertebral g. [TA] an inconstant, small g. located along the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk or one of the interganglionic branches connecting the middle cervical g. and the cervicothoracic g.; it usually lies near the vertebral artery. SYN: g. vertebrale [TA] . g. vertebrale [TA] SYN: vertebral g.. vestibular g. [TA] a collection of bipolar sensory nerve cell bodies concerned with equilibration and forming a swelling on the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus; consists of a superior part and an inferior part connected by a narrow isthmus. SYN: g. vestibulare [TA] , Scarpa g.. g. vestibulare [TA] SYN: vestibular g.. Vieussens ganglia SYN: celiac ganglia. Walther g. SYN: g. impar. Wrisberg ganglia SYN: cardiac ganglia.

ganglionated (gang′gle-o-na′ted)
SYN: gangliate.

ganglionectomy (gang′gle-o-nek′to-me)
Excision of a ganglion. [ganglion + G. ektome, excision]

ganglioneuroblastoma (gang′le-o-noor-o-blas-to′ma)
A tumor of mixed cellular type, with elements of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma.

ganglioneuroma (gang′gle-o-noo-ro′ma)
A benign neoplasm composed of mature ganglionic neurons, in varying numbers, scattered singly or in clumps within a relatively abundant and dense stroma of neurofibrils and collagenous fibers; usually found in the posterior mediastinum and retroperitoneum, sometimes in relation to the adrenal glands. SYN: ganglioma. [ganglion + G. neuron, nerve, + -oma, tumor] central g. SYN: gangliocytoma. dumbbell g. a g. in which the gross configuration resembles a dumbbell, e.g., two spheroidal masses connected by a narrow portion, usually the result of the neoplasm being somewhat molded by a resistant structure such as two ribs.

ganglioneuromatosis (gang′gle-o-noor′o-ma-to′sis)
The condition of having many widespread ganglioneuromas.

ganglionic (gang-gle-on′ik)
Relating to a ganglion. SYN: ganglial.

ganglionitis (gang′gle-o-ni′tis)
1. Inflammation of a lymphatic ganglion. 2. Inflammation of a nerve ganglion. SYN: gangliitis.

ganglionostomy (gang′gle-o-nos′to-me)
Making an opening into a ganglion (2). [ganglion + G. stoma, mouth]

ganglioplegic (gang′gle-o-ple′jik)
A pharmacologic compound that paralyzes an autonomic ganglion, usually for a relatively short period of time. [ganglion + G. plege, stroke, shock]

gangliosialidosis (gang′gle-o-si-al-e-do′sis)
SYN: gangliosidosis.

ganglioside (gang′gle-o-sid)
A glycosphingolipid chemically similar to cerebrosides but containing one or more sialic (N-acetylneuraminic or N-glycolylneuraminic) acid residues; found principally in nerve tissue, spleen, and thymus; GM1 accumulates in generalized gangliosidosis; GM2 accumulates in Tay-Sachs disease. SYN: sialoglycosphingolipid.

gangliosidosis (gang′gle-o-si-do′sis)
Any disease characterized, in part, by the abnormal accumulation within the nervous system of specific gangliosides, e.g., GM2 g., Tay-Sachs disease, caused by hexosaminidase A enzyme deficiency with accumulation of GM2 ganglioside. SYN: gangliosialidosis, ganglioside lipidosis. GM1 g. three forms exist: infantile, generalized; juvenile; and adult; g. characterized by accumulation of a specific monosialoganglioside, GM1; due to deficiency of GM1-β-galactosidase. SYN: generalized g.. GM2 g. one of the hereditary metabolic disorders; several forms exist, including Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, AV variant and adult onset; characterized by accumulation of a specific metabolite, GM2 ganglioside, due to deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B, or GM2 activator factor. generalized g. SYN: GM1 g.. infantile GM2 g. SYN: Tay-Sachs disease. infantile, generalized GM1 g. one of the hereditary metabolic diseases of infancy; resembles Tay-Sachs disease, except other organ systems (bone, liver, kidney) are affected. SYN: familial neuroviscerolipidosis, pseudo-Hurler disease, Type 1 GM1 g.. Type 1 GM1 g. SYN: infantile, generalized GM1 g..

gangosa (gang-go′sa)
A destructive ulceration beginning on the soft palate and extending thence to the hard palate, nasopharynx, and nose, resulting in mutilating cicatrices. The disease, so far as is known, occurs only in certain portions of the tropics, especially the islands of the Pacific, and is generally regarded as a sequel to yaws. [Sp. gangoso, snuffling]

gangrene (gang′gren)
1. Necrosis due to obstruction, loss, or diminution of blood supply; it may be localized to a small area or involve an entire extremity or organ (such as the bowel), and may be wet or dry. SYN: mortification. 2. Extensive necrosis from any cause, e.g., gas g.. [G. gangraina, an eating sore, fr. grao, to gnaw] arteriosclerotic g. dry g. resulting from sclerotic changes in the arteries, with subsequent occlusion, as in the aged. cold g. SYN: dry g.. cutaneous g. g. of the skin characterized by sloughing; may occur in shingles or in any acute infection that interferes with superficial circulation. decubital g. SYN: decubitus ulcer. diabetic g. g. resulting from arteriosclerosis associated with diabetes. disseminated cutaneous g. SYN: dermatitis gangrenosa infantum. dry g. a form of g. in which the involved part is dry, sharply demarcated, and shriveled; usually due to slowly occlusive vascular disease. SYN: cold g., mummification (1) . embolic g. g. resulting from obstruction of an artery by an embolus. emphysematous g. SYN: gas g.. Fournier g. SYN: Fournier disease. gas g. g. occurring in a wound infected with various anaerobic sporeforming bacteria, especially Clostridium perfringens and C. novyi, which cause rapidly advancing crepitation of the surrounding tissues, due to gas liberated by bacterial fermentation, and constitutional toxic and septic symptoms including cytotoxic damage to kidney, liver, and other organs. SYN: clostridial myonecrosis, emphysematous g., gangrenous emphysema, progressive emphysematous necrosis. hemorrhagic g. 1. SYN: hemorrhagic infarct. 2. g. occurring rarely in advanced meningococcal septicemia. hospital g. SYN: decubitus ulcer. hot g. g. following inflammation of the part. Meleney g. SYN: Meleney ulcer. moist g. SYN: wet g.. presenile spontaneous g. g. occurring in middle life as a result of thromboangiitis obliterans. pressure g. SYN: decubitus ulcer. progressive bacterial synergistic g. SYN: Meleney ulcer. senile g. dry g. occurring in the aged in consequence of occlusion of an artery, particularly affecting the extremities. spontaneous g. of newborn g. due to vascular occlusion of unknown cause, usually in marasmic or dehydrated infants. static g. moist g. due to obstruction in the return circulation. SYN: venous g.. symmetrical g. g. affecting the extremities of both sides of the body; it is seen particularly in severe arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and ball-valve thrombus. thrombotic g. g. due to occlusion of an artery by a thrombus. trophic g. SYN: trophic ulcer. venous g. SYN: static g.. wet g. ischemic necrosis of an extremity with bacterial putrefaction, producing cellulitis adjacent to the necrotic areas. SYN: moist g.. white g. death of a part accompanied by the formation of grayish white sloughs. SYN: leukonecrosis.

gangrenous (gang′gre-nus)
Relating to or affected with gangrene.




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