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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


ganoblast (gan′o-blast)
SYN: ameloblast.

William F., U.S. physiologist, *1924. See Lown-G.-Levine syndrome.

Siegbert J.M., German psychiatrist, 1853–1931. See G. commissure, G. syndrome, nucleus basalis of G..

Samuel G., U.S. surgeon, 1869–1944. See G. clamp.

gantry (gan′tre)
A frame housing the x-ray tube, collimators, and detectors in a CT machine, with a large opening into which the patient is inserted; a mechanical support for mounting a device to be moved in a circular path. [M.E., fr. O.Fr., fr. L. cantherius, wooden frame, fr. G. kanthelia, pack saddle, fr. kanthos, pack ass]

Carol F.L., 17th century German anatomist. See G. accessory bundle, G. muscle.

William, U.S. cardiologist, *1919. See Swan-G. catheter.

1. A hiatus or opening in a structure. 2. An interval or discontinuity in any series or sequence. 3. (G) A period in the cell cycle. g. 1 (G1) in the somatic cell cycle, the g. that follows mitosis and is followed by synthesis in preparation for the next cycle. g. 2 (G2) in the somatic cell cycle, a pause between completion of synthesis and the onset of cell division. air-bone g. the difference between the threshold for hearing by bone conduction and by air conduction. anion g. the difference between the sum of the measured cations and anions in the plasma or serum calculated as follows: (Na + K) – (Cl + HCO3) = < 20 mmol/L. Elevated values may occur in diabetic or lactic acidosis; normal or low values occur in bicarbonate-losing metabolic acidoses. SYN: cation-anion difference. auscultatory g. the period during which Korotkoff sounds indicating true systolic pressure fade away and reappear at a lower pressure point; responsible for errors made in recording falsely low systolic blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients, of up to 25 mm Hg, and avoided by pumping the cuff 30 mm Hg beyond palpable systolic pressure. SYN: silent g.. Bochdalek g. SYN: lumbocostal triangle of diaphragm. chromosomal g. a localized area of thinning in a chromatid which may simulate a complete break. DNA g. a localized loss of one of the two strands in the double helix of DNA. excitable g. SYN: g. phenomenon. interocclusal g. SYN: freeway space. silent g. SYN: auscultatory g..

William, Canadian dermatologist, *1908. See Sulzberger-G. disease, Sulzberger-G. syndrome.

Eldon J., U.S. geneticist, *1909. See G. syndrome.

F.H. See G.-Diamond syndrome.

Gardnerella (gard′ner-el′a)
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-negative, nonsporeforming, nonencapsulated, nonmotile, pleomorphic bacteria with Gram-variable rods. G. vaginalis a species that is an etiologic agent of bacterial vaginosis in humans.

gargle (gar′gl)
1. To rinse the fauces with fluid in the mouth through which expired breath is forced to produce a bubbling effect while the head is held far back. 2. A medicated fluid used for gargling; a throat wash. [O. Fr. fr. L. gurgulio, gullet, windpipe]

Maurice, French physician, 1812–1878. See G. pessary.

Hugh G., British neurologist 1903–1967. See Marinesco-G. syndrome.

M., U.S. physician, 1848–1926. See G. triangle.

garlic (gar′lik)
SYN: allium. g. oil a volatile oil from the bulb or entire plant of Allium sativum (family Liliaceae); contains diallyl disulfide and allyl propyl disulfide; has been used as an anthelmintic and rubefacient.

Carl, Swiss surgeon, 1857–1928. See Garré disease, Garré osteomyelitis.

August, German physician, 1848–1934. See G. method, G. vein phenomenon, G. tonometer.

Herman T., Danish anatomist and surgeon, 1785–1827. See G. canal, G. cyst, G. duct.

Abbreviation for group A streptococci, under streptococcus.

1. A thin fluid, like air, capable of indefinite expansion but convertible by compression and cold into a liquid and, eventually, a solid. 2. In clinical practice, a liquid entirely in its vapor phase at one atmosphere of pressure because ambient temperature is above its boiling point. [coined by J.B. van Helmont, Flemish chemist and physician, 1577–1644] alveolar g. (symbol subscript A) the g. in the pulmonary alveoli, where O2-CO2 exchange with pulmonary capillary blood occurs. SYN: alveolar air. anesthetic g. inhalation anesthetic. blood gases a clinical expression for the determination of the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. carbonic acid g. SYN: carbon dioxide. expired g. 1. any g. that has been expired from the lungs; 2. often used synonymously with mixed expired g.. hemolytic g. a poisonous g., such as arsine, inhalation of which causes hemolysis with hemoglobinuria, jaundice, gastroenteritis, and nephritis. ideal alveolar g. the uniform composition of g. that would exist in all alveoli for a given total respiratory exchange if all alveoli had identical ventilation-perfusion ratios and achieved perfect equilibrium with the blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries. inert gases SYN: noble gases. inspired g. (I) (symbol subscript I) 1. any g. that is being inhaled; 2. specifically, that g. after it has been humidified at body temperature. laughing g. a historical term for nitrous oxide. [so called because its inhalation sometimes excites a hilarious delirium preceding insensibility] marsh g. SYN: methane. mixed expired g. one or more complete breaths of expired g. coming thoroughly mixed from the dead space and the alveoli. mustard g. (HD) a poisonous vesicating g. introduced in World War I; it is the progenitor of the so-called nitrogen mustards; used in chemical warfare; a known carcinogen. SYN: di(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, mustard (2) , sulfur mustard. noble gases elements in the zero group in the periodic series: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. SYN: inert gases. sewer g. g., probably mostly methane, resulting from decomposition of organic matter in sewers; potentially explosive and toxic. sneezing g. SYN: sternutator. suffocating g. a g., such as chlorine or phosgene, that causes intense irritation of the bronchial tubes and lungs, resulting in pulmonary edema. tear g. a g., such as acetone, benzene bromide, and xylol, that causes irritation of the conjunctiva and profuse lacrimation. SEE ALSO: lacrimator. vesicating g. a g., such as mustard g., which upon contact with the skin causes vesication and sloughing; inhalation may result in bronchopneumonia. vomiting g. a g., such as chloropicrin, that can cause vomiting and gastrointestinal disorders such as colic and diarrhea. water g. an illuminating and fuel g. produced by passing steam over red-hot coal; consists chiefly of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide.

gaseous (gas′e-us)
Of the nature of gas.

Walter H., English physiologist, 1847–1914. See G. bridge, G. clamp.

gasometer (gas-om′e-ter)
A calibrated instrument or vessel for measuring the volumes of gases. SEE ALSO: spirometer.

gasometric (gas-o-met′rik)
Relating to gasometry.

gasometry (gas-om′e-tre)
Measurement of gases; determination of the relative proportion of gases in a mixture.

John D.M., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1928. See Irvine-G. syndrome.

Gasser, Gasserio
Johann L., Austrian anatomist, 1723–1765. See gasserian ganglion.

gasserian (ga-ser′e-an)
Relating to or described by Johann L. Gasser.

gassing (gas′ing)
Poisoning by irrespirable or otherwise noxious gases.

Henri, French biologist, *1915. See Lennox-G. syndrome.

gaster (gas′ter) [TA]
1. SYN: stomach. 2. Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment. [G. g., belly]

Gasterophilidae (gas′ter-o-fil′i-de)
A family of botflies (or warble flies) that produce enteric myiasis in members of the horse family (genus Gasterophilus), in rhinoceroses (genus Gyrostigma), and in elephants (genera Cobboldia, Platycobboldia, and Rodhainomyia). SYN: Gastrophilidae. [G. gaster, belly, stomach, + philos, fond]

See gastro-.

gastralgia (gas-tral′je-a)
SYN: stomach ache. [gastr- + G. algos, pain]

gastrectasis, gastrectasia (gas-trek′ta-sis, gas-trek-ta′ze-a)
Dilation of the stomach. [gastr- + G. ektasis, extension]

gastrectomy (gas-trek′to-me)
Excision of a part or all of the stomach. [gastr- + G. ektome, excision] Hofmeister g. hofmeister operation in which a portion of the stomach is removed and a retrocolic gastrojejunostomy is constructed in an end-to-side fashion to only the greater curvature portion of the transected stomach. Pólya g. operation in which a portion of the stomach is removed and a retrocolic gastrojejunostomy is constructed in an end-to-side fashion to the entire cut end of the stomach. SYN: Pólya operation.

gastric (gas′trik)
Relating to the stomach. SYN: gastricus.

gastric cardia (gas′trik kar′de-a)
SYN: cardia.

gastricsin (gas-trik′sin)
An alternative term for a human peptidase now termed pepsin C. It is present in the gastric juices of most vertebrates.

gastricus (gas′tri-kus)
SYN: gastric. [L.]

gastrinoma (gas-tri-no′ma)
A gastrin-secreting tumor associated with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

gastrins (gas′trinz)
Hormones secreted in the pyloric-antral mucosa of the mammalian stomach that stimulate secretion of HCl by the parietal cells of the gastric glands; there are three main types: big gastrin (34 amini acyl residues), little gastrin (17 residues), and minigastrin (14 residues), as well as sulfated derivatives. The C-terminal pentapeptide is also seen in cholecystokinin and cerulein. [G. gaster, stomach, + -in]

gastritis (gas-tri′tis)
Inflammation, especially mucosal, of the stomach. [gastr- + G. -itis, inflammation] alkaline reflux g. an inflammation of the gastric mucosa believed to be caused by irritating factors that reflux from the intestine into the stomach; most common after a procedure that resects or ablates the pylorus. SYN: bile g.. atrophic g. chronic g. with atrophy of the mucous membrane and destruction of the peptic glands, sometimes associated with pernicious anemia or gastric carcinoma; also applied to gastric atrophy without inflammatory changes. bile g. SYN: alkaline reflux g.. catarrhal g. g. with excessive secretion of mucus. g. cystica polyposa large sessile mucosal polyps arising in the stomach proximal to an old gastroenterostomy. eosinophilic g. SYN: eosinophilic gastroenteritis. exfoliative g. g. with excessive shedding of mucosal epithelial cells. hypertrophic g. SYN: Ménétrier disease. interstitial g. inflammation of the stomach involving the submucosa and muscle coats. polypous g. a form of chronic g., in which there is irregular atrophy of the mucous membrane with cystic glands giving rise to a knobby or polypous appearance of the surface. pseudomembranous g. g. characterized by the formation of a false membrane. sclerotic g. a fibrous thickening of the walls of the stomach with diminution in the capacity of the organ.

gastro-, gastr-
The stomach, abdomen. [G. gaster, the belly]

gastroacephalus (gas′tro-a-sef′a-lus)
Unequal conjoined twins in which an acephalous parasite is attached to the abdomen of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + G. a- priv. + kephale, head]

gastroalbumorrhea (gas′tro-al-bu-mo-re′a)
Loss of albumin into the stomach. [gastro- + albumin, + G. rhoia, flow]

gastroamorphus (gas′tro-a-mor′fus)
An included amorphous parasitic twin within the abdomen of the autosite. [gastro- + G. amorphos, unshapely]

gastroanastomosis (gas′tro-an-as-to-mo′sis)
SYN: gastrogastrostomy.

gastroatonia (gas′tro-a-to′ne-a)
Obsolete term for loss of tone in the stomach musculature. [gastro- + G. atonia, languor]

gastroblennorrhea (gas′tro-blen-o-re′a)
Excessive proliferation of mucus by the stomach. [gastro- + blennorrhea]

gastrocardiac (gas′tro-kar′de-ak)
Relating to both the stomach and the heart.

gastrocele (gas′tro-sel)
Hernia of a portion of the stomach. [gastro- + G. kele, hernia]

gastrochronorrhea (gas′tro-kron-o-re′a)
Excessive continuous gastric secretion. [gastro- + G. chronos, time (chronic), + rhoia, a flow]

gastrocnemius (gas-trok-ne′me-us)
SYN: g. (muscle). [G. gastroknemia, calf of the leg, fr. gaster (gastr-), belly, + kneme, leg]

gastrocolic (gas′tro-kol′ik)
Relating to the stomach and the colon.

gastrocolitis (gas′tro-ko-li′tis)
Inflammation of both stomach and colon.

gastrocoloptosis (gas′tro-ko-lo-to′sis)
Displacement downward of stomach and colon. [gastro- + G. kolon, colon, + ptosis, a falling]

gastrocolostomy (gas′tro-ko-los′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between stomach and colon usually secondary to gastric ulcer disease or a malignant process in either the colon or stomach. [gastro- + G. kolon, colon, + stoma, mouth]

gastrocystoplasty (gas′tro-sis′to-plas-te)
Augmentation of the bladder by a piece of vascularized stomach.

gastrodialysis (gas′tro-di-al′i-sis)
Dialysis across the mucous membrane of the stomach.

Gastrodiscoides hominis (gas′tro-dis-koy′dez hom′i-nis)
A species of trematode sometimes found in the intestinal canals of humans in India, Southeast Asia, and China; its normal host is the pig. SYN: Gastrodiscus hominis. [gastro- + G. diskos, disk; L. homo, gen. hominis, man]

Gastrodiscus hominis (gas-tro-dis′kus)
SYN: Gastrodiscoides hominis.

gastroduodenal (gas′tro-doo′o-de′nal, -du-od′e-nal)
Relating to the stomach and duodenum.

gastroduodenitis (gas′tro-doo-o-de-ni′tis)
Inflammation of both stomach and duodenum.


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