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Medical Dictionary


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gastrostaxis (gas′tro-stak′sis)
Rarely used term for oozing of blood from the mucous membrane of the stomach. [gastro- + G. staxis, trickling]

gastrostenosis (gas-tro-ste-no′sis)
Diminution in size of the cavity of the stomach. [gastro- + G. stenosis, narrowing]

gastrostogavage (gas-tros′to-ga-vahzh′)
SYN: gavage (1) .

gastrostolavage (gas-tros′to-la-vahzh′)
Lavage of the stomach through a gastric fistula.

gastrostomy (gas-tros′to-me)
Establishment of a new opening into the stomach. [gastro- + G. stoma, mouth] percutaneous endoscopic g. a g. performed without opening the abdominal cavity; usually involves gastroscopy, insufflation of the stomach, puncture of stomach and abdominal wall, followed by placement of a special tube.

gastrothoracopagus (gas′tro-thor-a-kop′a-gus)
Conjoined twins united at thorax and abdomen. See conjoined twins, under twin. [gastro- + G. thorax, chest, + pagos, something fixed]

gastrotome (gas′tro-tom)
A knife for incising the stomach.

gastrotomy (gas-trot′o-me)
Incision into the stomach. [gastro- + G. tome, incision]

gastrotonometer (gas′tro-to-nom′e-ter)
An apparatus used in gastrotonometry.

gastrotonometry (gas′tro-to-nom′e-tre)
The measurement of intragastric pressure. [gastro- + G. tonos, tension, + metron, measure]

gastrotoxic (gas-tro-tok′sik)
Poisonous to the stomach.

gastrotoxin (gas-tro-tok′sin)
A cytotoxin specific for the cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach.

gastrotropic (gas-tro-trop′ik)
Affecting the stomach. [gastro- + G. tropikos, turning]

gastroxia (gas-trok′se-a)
Rarely used term for gastroxynsis. [gastro- + G. oxys, keen, acid]

gastroxynsis (gas-trok-sin′sis)
Rarely used term for intermittent excessive secretion of the gastric juice. [gastro- + G. oxyno, to make sharp, acid]

gastrula (gas′troo-la)
The embryo in the stage of development following the blastula; in lower forms with minimal yolk, it is a simple double-layered structure consisting of ectoderm and endoderm enclosing the archenteron, which opens to the outside by way of the blastopore; in forms with considerable yolk, the configuration of the g. is greatly modified owing to the persistence of the yolk throughout the gastrulation process. SYN: invaginate planula. [Mod. L. dim. of G. gaster, belly]

gastrulation (gas-troo-la′shun)
Transformation of the blastula into the gastrula; the development and invagination of the embryonic germ layers.

Gatch
Willis D., U.S. surgeon, 1878–1961. See G. bed.

gate (gat)
1. To close an ion channel by electrical ( e.g., membrane potential) or chemical ( e.g., neurotransmitter) action. 2. Action of a special nerve fiber to block the transmission of impulses through a synapse, e.g., gating of pain impulses at synapses in the dorsal horns. 3. A device which can be switched electronically to control the passage of a signal. 4. To use a physiological signal, such as an ECG, to trigger an event such as an x-ray exposure or to partition continuously collected data. See gated radionuclide angiocardiography. SEE ALSO: cardiac gating. [O.E. geat]

gatekeeper (gat′kep-er)
A health professional, typically a physician or nurse, who has the first encounter with a patient and who thus controls the patient's entry into the health care system.

gating (gat′ing)
1. In a biologic membrane, the opening and closing of a channel, believed to be associated with changes in integral membrane proteins. 2. A process in which electrical signals are selected by a gate, which passes such signals only when the gate pulse is present to act as a control signal, or passes only the signals that have certain characteristics. See gate. cardiac g. using an electronic signal from the cardiac cycle to trigger an event, such as in imaging separate phases of cardiac contraction. respiratory g. any technique that derives a signal from breathing to trigger an electronic circuit, such as for data collection during expiration. SEE ALSO: navigator echo.

Gaucher
Philippe C.E., French physician, 1854–1918. See G. cells, under cell, G. disease, pseudo-G. cell.

Gauer
Otto Hans, German physiologist, 1909–1979. See Henry-G. response.

gauge (gaj)
A measuring device. SYN: gage. bite g. SYN: gnathodynamometer. Boley g. a caliper-type g. graduated in millimeters used to measure the thickness of various dental materials. catheter g. a metal plate with holes of graduated diameter used to determine the size of a catheter. strain g. a device, employing the Wheatstone bridge principle, used for accurate measurement of forces such as strain, stress, or pressure. undercut g. a device, used with a surveyor, to precisely locate areas for the placement of the retentive components of clasps when designing removable partial dentures.

gaultheria oil (gawl-ther′e-a)
SYN: methyl salicylate.

gaultherin (gawl′the-rin)
A glycoside from the bark of several species of Betula (birch); it yields methyl salicylate, d-glucose, and d-xylose on hydrolysis.

gauntlet (gawnt′let)
A glove. See bandage.

Gauss
Johann K.F., German physicist, 1777–1855. See g., gaussian curve, gaussian distribution.

Gauss
Karl J., German gynecologist, 1875–1957. See G. sign.

gauss (G) (gows)
A unit of magnetic field intensity, equal to 10−4 T. [J.K.F. G.]

Gaussel
Amans, French physician, 1871–1937. See Grasset-G. phenomenon.

gaussian (gows′e-an)
Relating to or described by Johann K.F. Gauss. See g. curve.

gauze (gawz)
A bleached cotton cloth of plain weave, used for dressings, bandages, and absorbent sponges; petrolatum g. is saturated with petrolatum. [Fr. gaze, fr. Ar. gazz, raw silk]

gavage (ga-vahzh′)
1. Forced feeding by stomach tube. SYN: gastrogavage, gastrostogavage. 2. Therapeutic use of a high-potency diet administered by stomach tube. [Fr. gaver, to gorge fowls]

Gavard
Hyacinthe, French anatomist, 1753–1802. See G. muscle.

Gay
Alexander H., Russian anatomist, 1842–1907. See G. glands, under gland.

gay (ga)
1. A homosexual, especially male. 2. Denoting a homosexual individual or the male homosexual lifestyle. See lesbian.

Gay-Lussac
Joseph L., French naturalist, 1778–1850. See Gay-Lussac equation, Gay-Lussac law.

gaze (gaz)
The act of looking steadily at an object. conjugate g. movement of both eyes with the visual axes parallel. dysconjugate g. failure of the eyes to turn together in the same direction.

G-banding
See G-banding stain.

GBG
Abbreviation for gonadal steroid-binding globulin.

GBH
Abbreviation for gamma benzene hexachloride.

GC
Abbreviation for the guanine and cytosine base pair in polynucleic acids.

G-CSF
Abbreviation for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

Gd
Symbol for gadolinium.

GDP
Abbreviation for guanosine 5′-diphosphate.

GDPmannose phosphorylase
SYN: mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (GDP).

Ge
Symbol for germanium.

Gedoelstia (ge-del′ste-a)
A genus of nasal botflies (family Oestridae) that includes the species G. cristata and G. haessleri which parasitize wildebeest, hartebeeste, and other African antelopes, and may also cause an ophthalmomyiasis in sheep and humans.

gedoelstiosis (ge-del-sti-o′sis)
Infection of herbivores and, rarely, humans with larvae of flies of the genus Gedoelstia, causing ophthalmomyiasis in humans. SYN: bulging eye disease.

Gehrig
Henry Louis, U.S. baseball player; 1903–1941, victim of Lou G. disease. See Lou G. disease.

Geigel
Richard, German physician, 1859–1930. See G. reflex.

Geiger
Hans, German physicist, 1882–1945. See G.-Müller counter, G.-Müller tube.

gel (jel)
1. A jelly, or the solid or semisolid phase of a colloidal solution. SYN: gelatum. 2. To form a g. or jelly; to convert a sol into a g.. [Mod. L. gelatum] colloidal g. a colloid that has developed resistance to flow because of chemical or thermal change. pharmacopeial g. a suspension, in a water medium, of an insoluble drug in hydrated form wherein the particle size approaches or attains colloidal dimensions.

gelate (jel′at)
SYN: gelatinize.

gelatin (jel′a-tin)
A derived protein formed from the collagen of tissues by boiling in water; it swells up when put in cold water, but dissolves only in hot water; used as a hemostat, plasma substitute, and protein food adjunct in malnutrition. [L. gelo, pp. gelatus, to freeze, congeal] glycerinated g. a preparation made of equal parts of g. and glycerin; a firm mass liquefying at gentle heat; it is used as a vehicle for suppositories and urethral bougies. SYN: glycerin jelly, glycerogelatin, glycogelatin. Irish moss g. g. extracted from Irish moss; used to make the mucilage of Irish moss that is used as a substitute for gum arabic in making emulsions. vegetable g. a substance similar to g., obtained from gluten. zinc g. See zinc g..

gelatinase (jel′a-tin-as)
Pepsin B; a metalloproteinase that hydrolyzes gelatin and a number of types of collagen. See pepsin.

gelatiniferous (jel′a-ti-nif′er-us)
Producing or containing gelatin or having a gel-like quality. [gelatin + L. fero, to bear]

gelatinization (je-lat′i-ni-za′shun)
Conversion into gelatin or a substance resembling it.

gelatinize (je-lat′i-niz)
1. To convert into gelatin. 2. To become gelatinous. SYN: gelate.

gelatinoid (je-lat′i-noyd)
SYN: gelatinous (2) .

gelatinous (je-lat′i-nus)
1. Pertaining to or characteristic of gelatin. 2. Jellylike or resembling gelatin. SYN: gelatinoid.

gelation (je-la′shun)
1. In colloidal chemistry, the transformation of a sol into a gel. 2. The solidification of a liquid by cold temperatures.

gelatum (je-la′tum)
SYN: gel (1) . [Mod. L.]

Gélineau
Jean Baptiste Edouard, French physician, 1859–1906. See G. syndrome.

Gell
Philip G.H., British immunologist. See G. and Coombs reactions, under reaction.

Gellé
Marie-Ernst, French otologist, 1834–1923. See Gellé test.

Gellerstedt
Nils, *1896. See Ceelen-G. syndrome.

gelosis (je-lo′sis)
An extremely firm mass in tissue (especially in a muscle), with a consistency resembling that of frozen tissue. [L. gelo, to freeze, congeal, + G. -osis, condition]

gelsemine (jel′se-men)
A crystallizable alkaloid derived from gelsemium (yellow jasmine); a mydriatic and central nervous system stimulant. [Mod. L. gelsemium, fr. Pers. yasmin, jasmine]




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