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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


genitals (jen′i-talz)
SYN: genitalia. [see genitalia]

genitocrural (jen′i-to-kroo′ral)
SYN: genitofemoral.

genitofemoral (jen′i-to-fem′o-ral)
Relating to the genitalia and the thigh; denoting the g. nerve. SYN: genitocrural.

genitourinary (GU) (jen′i-to-u′ri-nar-e)
Relating to the organs of reproduction and urination. SYN: urinogenital, urinosexual, urogenital.

genius (jen′yus, jen′e-us)
1. Markedly superior intellectual or artistic abilities or exceptional creative power. 2. A person so endowed. 3. In psychology, an individual who ranks in the top 1% of all individuals on a test of intelligence. [L.]

genius epidemicus (ep-i-dem′i-kus)
The influence, atmospheric, telluric, or cosmic, or the combination of any two or three, regarded by the ancients as the cause of epidemic and endemic diseases. [Mod. L.]

Francesco, Italian anatomist, 1750–1795. See G. band, G. stria, line of G., stripe of G..

genoblast (jen′o-blast)
The nucleus of the fertilized ovum.

genocopy (jen′o-kop-e)
A genotype at one locus that produces a phenotype which at some levels of resolution is indistinguishable from that produced by another genotype; e.g., two types of elliptocytosis that are genocopies of each other, but are distinguished by the fact that one is linked to the Rh blood group locus and the other is not.

genodermatology (jen′o-der-ma-tol′o-je)
Study of the hereditary aspects of cutaneous disorders. [G. genos, birth, descent, + derma, skin, + logos, theory]

genodermatosis (jen′o-der-ma-to′sis)
A skin condition of genetic origin.

genome (je′nom, -nom)
1. A complete set of chromosomes derived from one parent, the haploid number of a gamete. 2. The total gene complement of a set of chromosomes found in higher life forms (the haploid set in a eukaryotic cell), or the functionally similar but simpler linear arrangements found in bacteria and viruses. SEE ALSO: Human G. Project. [gene + chromosome]

genomic (je-nom′ik)
Relating to a genome.

genomics (jen-om-′ks)
Study of the structure of the genome of particular organisms, including mapping and sequencing. functional g. the study of expressed genes in organisms, including the identity of the genes and the factors that control differential expression.

genospecies (je′no-spe-sez, jen′)
A group of organisms in which interbreeding is possible, as evidenced by genetic transfer and recombination.

genote (je′not)
In microbial genetics, an element of recombination in which one of the pair is not a complete chromosome; commonly used as a suffix ( e.g., endogenote, exogenote, F g.). [gene + G. -otes, toponymic suffix]

genotoxic (je-no-toks′ik)
Denoting a substance that by damaging DNA may cause mutation or cancer. [gene + toxic]

genotype (jen′o-tip)
1. The genetic constitution of an individual. 2. Gene combination at one specific locus or any specified combination of loci. For specific blood group genotypes, see Blood Groups appendix. [G. genos, birth, descent, + typos, type] ZZ g. individuals who have a deficiency of α1-antitrypsin and have emphysema.

genotypic (jen′o-tip-ik)
SYN: genotypical.

genotypical (jen-o-tip′i-kal)
Relating to the genotype. SYN: genotypic.

gentamicin (jen-ta-mi′sin)
A broad spectrum antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class, obtained from Micromonospora purpurea and M. echinospora, that inhibits the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; the sulfate salt is used medicinally.

gentian, gentian root (jen′shun)
The dried rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea (family Gentianaceae), an herb of southern and central Europe; a simple bitter.

gentianophil, gentianophile (jen′shun-o-fil, -fil)
Staining readily with gentian violet. SYN: gentianophilous. [gentian + G. philos, fond]

gentianophilous (jen-shun-of′i-lus)
SYN: gentianophil.

gentianophobic (jen′shun-o-fo′bik)
Not taking a gentian violet stain, or taking it poorly. [gentian + G. phobos, fear]

gentian root
See gentian.

gentian violet
An unstandardized dye mixture of violet rosanilins: it is also used topically as an antiinfective. See crystal violet.

gentiobiase (jen′shi-o-bi′as)
SYN: β-d-glucosidase.

gentiobiose (jen′te-o-bi′os)
A disaccharide containing two d-glucopyranose molecules linked β-1,6; a structural moiety in many compounds ( E.G., amygdalin). SYN: amygdalose.

gentisic acid (jen-tis′ik)
This compound is chemically related to salicylate and aspirin (acetylsalicylate) and shares with the latter agent analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. A metabolite of aspirin.

genu, gen. genus, pl .genua (je′noo, je′nus, jen′oo-a) [Latin]

1. The place of articulation between the thigh and the leg. SYN: knee. SEE ALSO: knee joint, geniculum.

2. Any structure of angular shape resembling a flexed knee.

  • genu capsulae internae SYN: genu of internal capsule.
  • genu corporis callosi SYN: genu of corpus callosum.
  • genu of corpus callosum: the anterior extremity of the corpus callosum that folds downward and backward on itself, terminating in the rostrum. SYN: genu corporis callosi.
  • genu of facial canal SYN: geniculum of facial canal.
  • genu of facial nerve: the curve which the fibers of the root of the facial nerve describe around the abducens nucleus in the pontine tegmentum; the internal genu of the facial nerve. SYN: genu nervi facialis.
  • genu of internal capsule: the obtuse angle, opening laterally in the horizontal plane, formed by the union of the two limbs (crus anterius and crus posterius) of the internal capsule. SYN: genu capsulae internae.
  • genu nervi facialis SYN: genu of facial nerve.
  • genu recurvatum: hyperextension of the knee, the lower extremity having a forward curvature. SYN: back-knee.
  • genu valgum: a deformity marked by lateral angulation of the leg in relation to the thigh. SYN: knock-knee, tibia valga.
  • genu varum: a deformity marked by medial angulation of the leg in relation to the thigh; an outward bowing of the legs. SYN: bandy-leg, bowleg, bow-leg, tibia vara.

genual (jen′u-al)
Relating to the knee. [L. genu, knee]

genus, pl .genera (je′nus, jen′er-a)
In natural history classification, the taxonomic level of division between the family, or tribe, and the species; a group of species alike in the broad features of their organization but different in detail, and incapable of fertile mating. [L. birth, descent]

genyantrum (jen-e-an′trum)
SYN: maxillary sinus. [G. genys, cheek, + antron, cave]

The earth, soil. [G. ge, earth]

geode (je′od)
A cystlike space (or spaces) with or without an epithelial lining, observed radiologically in subarticular bone, usually in arthritic disorders. [Fr., fr. L. geodes, precious stone, fr. G. ge, earth, + -odes, appearance]

geomedicine (je-o-med′i-sin)
The science concerned with the influence of climatic and environmental conditions on health and disease. SYN: nosochthonography, nosogeography.

geopathology (je′o-pa-thol′o-je)
The study of disease in relation to regions, climates, and other environmental influences.

geophagia, geophagism, geophagy (je-o-fa′je-a, je-of′a-jizm, -of′a-je)
The practice of eating dirt or clay. SYN: dirt-eating. [geo- + G. phago, to eat]

Terrestrial, soil inhabiting. [geo- + G. philos, love, attraction, + -ic]

Geophilus (je-of′i-lus)
A genus of centipedes, characterized by very large numbers of legs (47–67 pairs); includes G. californius, G. rubens, and G. umbraticus, in the U.S.

Walter, German bacteriologist, 1889–1920. See Sachs-G. test.

geotaxis (je-o-tak′sis)
A form of positive barotaxis in which there is a tendency to growth or movement toward or into the earth. SYN: geotropism. [geo- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement]

geotrichosis (je′o-tri-ko′sis)
An opportunistic systemic hyalohyphomycosis caused by Geotrichum candidum; ascribed symptoms are diverse and suggestive of secondary or mixed infections. [geo- + G. thrix, hair, + -osis, condition]

Geotrichum (je-ot′ri-kum)
A genus of yeastlike fungi that produce arthroconidia but rarely blastoconidia. G. candidum was once thought to cause infection in humans.

geotropism (je-ot′ro-pizm)
SYN: geotaxis. [geo- + G. trope, a turning]

gephyrin (je-fir′in)
A protein in the ataxia telangiectasia mutation–related family, essential for glycine receptor clustering on neuronal membranes.

gephyrophobia (je-fi-ro-fo′be-a)
Fear of crossing a bridge. [G. gephyra, bridge, + phobos, fear]

gepirone (je-pi′ron)
A nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic which resembles buspirone both chemically and pharmacologically. Acts on serotonergic receptors rather than benzodiazepine receptors. Lacks dependence-producing properties and tolerance of benzodiazepine-type agents.

geraniol (je-ra′ne-ol)
An olefinic terpene alcohol that is the principal constituent of oil of rose and oil of palmarosa; also found in many other volatile oils, such as citronella and lemon grass. An isomer of linalool; an oily liquid with sweet rose odor used in perfumery. Also used as an insect attractant.

geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (jer′a-nil-jer-a-nil pi-ro-fos′fat)
A key intermediate in the biosynthesis of many terpenes; the key substrate for introducing the geranylgeranyl group into proteins.

geranyl pyrophosphate (jer′a-nil-pi-ro-fos′fat)
A key intermediate in the biosynthesis of sterols, dolichols, ubiquinone, and prenylated proteins.

geratology (jar-a-tol′o-je)
SYN: gerontology.

Gerbich antigen
See under antigen.

Frank, U.S. cardiothoracic surgeon, 1907–1984. See G. defect.

Abbreviation for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Pierre N., French surgeon, 1797–1856. See G. fibers, under fiber, G. fontanelle, G. hyoid fossa, G. ligament, G. interatrial loop, G. tubercle.

Carl A.C.J., German physician, 1833–1902. See G. reaction, G. test for acetoacetic acid, G.-Mitchell disease.

Charles F., French chemist, 1816–1856. See G. test for urobilin in the urine.

geriatric (jar-e-at′rik)
Relating to old age or to geriatrics.

geriatrics (jar-e-at′riks)
The branch of medicine concerned with the medical problems and care of the aged. [G. geras, old age, + iatrikos, healing] dental g. treatment of dental problems peculiar to advanced age. SYN: gerodontics, gerodontology.

Joseph, German anatomist, 1820–1896. See G. annular tendon, G. tonsil, valve of vermiform appendix, G. valvula.

Felix, Swiss physician, 1840–1914. See G. disease.

germ (jerm)
1. A microbe; a microorganism. 2. A primordium; the earliest trace of a structure within an embryo. [L. germen, sprout, bud, g.] dental g. SYN: tooth g.. enamel g. the enamel organ of a developing tooth; one of a series of knoblike projections from the dental lamina, later becoming bell-shaped and receiving in its hollow the dental papilla. reserve tooth g. enamel organ and papilla of a permanent tooth. tooth g. the enamel organ and dentin papilla, constituting the developing tooth. SYN: dental g.. wheat g. the embryo of wheat; contains thiamine, riboflavin, and other vitamins.

germanium (Ge) (jer-man′e-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 32, atomic wt. 72.61. [L. Germania, Germany]

germicidal (jer-mi-si′dal)
SYN: germicide (1) .

germicide (jer′mi-sid)
1. Destructive to germs or microbes. SYN: germicidal. 2. An agent with this action. [germ + L. caedo, to kill]

germinal (jer′mi-nal)
Relating to a germ or, in botany, to germination.

germine (jer′min)
An alkaloid that occurs in Veratrum and Zygandenus species. The drug, like veratrine and veratridine, induces repetitive discharges in nerve cells, seemingly because of derangements in sodium channel function. Often used as the acetate or diacetate derivative.

germinoma (jer-mi-no′ma)
A neoplasm of the germinal tissue of gonads, mediastinum, or pineal region such as seminoma. [L. germen, bud, + -oma, tumor]

gero-, geront-, geronto-
Old age. SEE ALSO: presby-. [G. geron, old man]

geroderma (jar-o-der′ma)
1. The atrophic skin of the aged. 2. Any condition in which the skin is thinned and wrinkled, resembling the integument of old age. [gero- + G. derma, skin]


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