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Medical Dictionary


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glandes (glan′dez)
Plural of glans.

glandilemma (glan-di-lem′a)
The capsule of a gland. [L. glandula, gland, + G. lemma, sheath]

glandula, pl .glandulae (glan′doo-la, -le) [TA]
1. [NA] SYN: gland. 2. SYN: glandule. [L. gland, dim. of glans, acorn] glandulae areolares [TA] SYN: areolar glands, under gland. g. atrabiliaris SYN: suprarenal gland. g. basilaris SYN: pituitary gland. glandulae bronchiales [TA] SYN: bronchial glands, under gland. glandulae buccales [TA] SYN: buccal glands, under gland. g. bulbourethralis [TA] SYN: bulbourethral gland. glandulae ceruminosae 1. SYN: ceruminous glands, under gland. 2. tubuloalveolar glands of the external auditory meatus believed to be modified apocrine sweat glands; they secrete the waxy substance cerumen. glandulae cervicales uteri [TA] SYN: cervical glands, under gland. glandulae ciliares [TA] SYN: ciliary glands, under gland. glandulae circumanales SYN: circumanal glands, under gland. glandulae conjunctivales [TA] SYN: conjunctival glands, under gland. glandulae cutis [TA] SYN: cutaneous glands, under gland. glandulae ductus biliaris glands of (common) bile duct, under gland. glandulae ductus choledochi [TA] SYN: glands of (common) bile duct, under gland. glandulae duodenales [TA] SYN: duodenal glands, under gland. glandulae endocrinae [TA] SYN: endocrine glands, under gland. glandulae esophageae SYN: esophageal glands, under gland. glandulae gastricae [TA] SYN: gastric glands, under gland. glandulae glomiformes 1. SYN: glomus (2) . 2. tubular glands of the skin, the blind extremity of which is coiled in the form of a ball or glomerulus; collective term for small eccrine and large apocrine sweat glands. glandulae intestinales [TA] SYN: intestinal glands, under gland. glandulae intestini crassi [TA] SYN: glands of large intestine, under gland. glandulae intestini tenuis [TA] SYN: glands of small intestine, under gland. glandulae labiales [TA] SYN: labial glands, under gland. glandulae lacrimales accessoriae [TA] SYN: accessory lacrimal glands, under gland. g. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal gland. glandulae laryngeae [TA] SYN: laryngeal glands, under gland. g. lingualis anterior SYN: anterior lingual gland. g. mammaria [TA] SYN: mammary gland. glandulae molares [TA] SYN: molar glands, under gland. g. mucosa SYN: mucous gland. glandulae mucosae biliosae SYN: glands of biliary mucosa, under gland. glandulae nasales [TA] SYN: nasal glands, under gland. glandulae olfactoriae [TA] SYN: olfactory glands, under gland. glandulae oris [TA] SYN: glands of mouth, under gland. glandulae palatinae [TA] SYN: palatine glands, under gland. g. parathyroidea [TA] SYN: parathyroid gland. g. parotidea [TA] SYN: parotid gland. g. parotidea accessoria [TA] SYN: accessory parotid gland. g. parotis SYN: parotid gland. g. parotis accessoria SYN: accessory parotid gland. glandulae pharyngeales [TA] SYN: pharyngeal glands, under gland. g. pinealis [TA] SYN: pineal body. g. pituitaria pituitary gland. glandulae preputiales [TA] SYN: preputial glands, under gland. g. prostatica SYN: prostate. glandulae pyloricae [TA] SYN: pyloric glands, under gland. g. salivaria [TA] SYN: salivary gland. glandulae salivariae majores [TA] SYN: major salivary glands, under gland. glandulae salivariae minores [TA] SYN: minor salivary glands, under gland. glandulae sebaceae [TA] SYN: sebaceous glands, under gland. g. seminalis seminal gland, seminal gland. g. seromucosa SYN: seromucous gland. g. serosa SYN: serous gland. glandulae sine ductibus SYN: endocrine glands, under gland. g. sublingualis [TA] SYN: sublingual gland. g. submandibularis [TA] SYN: submandibular gland. glandulae sudoriferae [TA] SYN: sweat glands, under gland. glandulae suprarenales accessoriae [TA] SYN: accessory suprarenal glands, under gland. g. suprarenalis [TA] SYN: suprarenal gland. glandulae tarsales [TA] SYN: tarsal glands, under gland. g. thyroidea [TA] SYN: thyroid gland. g. thyroidea accessoria, pl .glandulae thyroideae accessoriae [TA] SYN: accessory thyroid gland. glandulae tracheales [TA] SYN: tracheal glands, under gland. glandulae tubariae SYN: tubal glands of pharyngotympanic tube, under gland. glandulae urethrales femininae [TA] SYN: urethral glands of female, under gland. glandulae urethrales masculinae [TA] SYN: urethral glands of male, under gland. glandulae uterinae [TA] SYN: uterine glands, under gland. g. vesiculosa [TA] SYN: seminal gland. glandulae vestibulares minores [TA] SYN: lesser vestibular glands, under gland. g. vestibularis major [TA] SYN: greater vestibular gland.

glandular (glan′doo-lar)
Relating to a gland. SYN: glandulous.

glandule (glan′dool)
A small gland. SYN: glandula (2) [TA] . [L. glandula]

glandulous (glan′doo-lus)
SYN: glandular.

glans, pl .glandes (glanz, glan′dez) [TA]
A conical acorn-shaped structure. [L. acorn] g. clitoridis [TA] SYN: g. of clitoris. g. of clitoris [TA] a small mass of highly-sensitized erectile tissue capping the body of the clitoris. SYN: g. clitoridis [TA] . g. penis [TA] the conical expansion of the corpus spongiosum which forms the head of the penis. SYN: balanus.

glanular (glan′u-lar)
Pertaining to the glans penis. [irreg. fr. glans, by analogy with glandular]

Glanzmann
Eduard, Swiss clinician, 1887–1959. See G. disease, G. thrombasthenia.

glaphenine (gla-fen′en)
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties.

glare (glar)
A sensation caused by brightness within the visual field that is sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eyes are adapted; results in annoyance, discomfort, and decreased visual performance. blinding g. g. resulting from excessive illumination. SYN: veiling g.. dazzling g. g. produced by excessive illumination in the peripheral field. peripheral g. g. occurring when the surrounding brightness is greater than the brightness of the object of attention. specular g. g. arising from specularly reflected light. veiling g. SYN: blinding g..

glarometer (gla-rom′e-ter)
An instrument that measures sensitivity to central glare from the headlights of an approaching vehicle.

Glaser, Glaserius
Johann H., Swiss anatomist, 1629–1675. See glaserian artery, glaserian fissure.

glaserian (gla-ser′e-an)
Relating to or described by Johann H. Glaser.

Glasgow
William C., U.S. physician, 1845–1907. See G. sign.

Glasgow coma scale
See coma scale.

glass (glas)
A transparent substance composed of silica and oxides of various bases. [A.S. glaes] cover g. a thin g. disk or plate covering an object examined under the microscope. SYN: coverslip. Crookes g. a spectacle lens combined with metallic oxides to absorb ultraviolet or infrared rays. crown g. a compound of lime, potash, alumina, and silica; commonly used in lenses; has a low dispersion (52.2) relative to index of refraction (1.523). cupping g. a g. vessel, from which the air has been exhausted by heat or a special suction apparatus, formerly applied to the skin in order to draw blood to the surface. SEE ALSO: cupping, cup. SYN: cup (2) . flint g. g. that contains lead oxide instead of lime to increase index of refraction; used in reading segments of fused bifocal lenses. object g. SYN: objective (1) . quartz g. a transparent, colorless crystal, made by fusing pure quartz sand, which transmits ultraviolet light. soluble g. a silicate of potassium or sodium, soluble in hot water but solid at ordinary temperatures; used for fixed dressings. SYN: water g.. vita g. a specially prepared g. that is transparent to ultraviolet rays of the spectrum. water g. SYN: soluble g.. Wood g. a g. containing nickel oxide, used in Wood lamp.

glasses (glas′ez)
1. SYN: spectacles. 2. Lenses for correcting refractive errors in the eyes.

Glauber
Johann R., German chemist, 1604–1670. See G. salt.

glaucine (glaw′sen)
d-Form prevalent in nature. Found in Glaucium flavum, (G. luteum scop.), Papaveraceae and in Dicentra and Corydalis species, family Fumariceae. Antitussive agent. SYN: boldine dimethyl ether.

glaucoma (glaw-ko′ma)
A disease of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure, excavation, and atrophy of the optic nerve; produces defects in the field of vision. [G. glaukoma, opacity of the crystalline lens, fr. glaukos, bluish green] absolute g. the final stage of blindness in g.. acute g. SYN: angle-closure g.. angle-closure g. primary g. in which contact of the iris with the peripheral cornea excludes aqueous humor from the trabecular drainage meshwork. SYN: acute g., closed-angle g., narrow-angle g.. aphakic g. g. following cataract removal. chronic g. SYN: open-angle g.. α-chymotrypsin-induced g. transient secondary g. following the use of α-chymotrypsin in cataract extraction. closed-angle g. SYN: angle-closure g.. combined g. g. with angle-closure and open-angle mechanisms in the same eye. compensated g. SYN: open-angle g.. congenital g. SYN: buphthalmia. corticosteroid-induced g. g. caused by a hereditary predisposition in which local instillation of eyedrops containing corticosteroid causes increased intraocular pressure. g. fulminans acute angle-closure g. rapidly followed by blindness. ghost cell g. g. occurring after vitrectomy, arising from erythrocyte membranes blocking outflow channels of aqueous humor. hemorrhagic g. secondary g. after formation of new blood vessels in the iris. hypersecretion g. g. caused by excessive formation of the aqueous humor. low-tension g. optic nerve atrophy and excavation with typical field defects of g. but without abnormal increase in intraocular pressure. SYN: normal-tension g.. malignant g. secondary g. caused by forward displacement of the iris and lens, obliterating the anterior chamber; usually follows a filtering operation for primary g.. narrow-angle g. SYN: angle-closure g.. neovascular g. g. occurring in rubeosis iridis. normal-tension g. SYN: low-tension g.. open-angle g. primary g. in which the aqueous humor has free access to the trabecular meshwork. SYN: chronic g., compensated g., simple g., g. simplex. phacogenic g. SYN: phacomorphic g.. phacolytic g. g. secondary to hypermature cataract and occlusion of the trabecular drainage meshwork by lens material. phacomorphic g. secondary g. caused by either excessive size or spherical shape of the lens. SYN: phacogenic g.. pigmentary g. g. associated with erosion of pigment from the posterior iris, and with an accumulation of pigment particles in the trabecular meshwork. pseudoexfoliative g. g. occurring in association with widespread deposition of cellular organelles on the lens capsule, ocular blood vessels, iris, and ciliary body. SEE ALSO: pseudoexfoliation of lens capsule. pupillary block g. g. secondary to failure of the aqueous humor to pass through the pupil to the anterior chamber. secondary g. g. occurring as a sequel of preexisting ocular disease or injury. simple g., g. simplex SYN: open-angle g..

glaucomatocyclitic (glaw-ko′ma-to-si-klit′ik)
Denoting increased intraocular pressure associated with evidences of cyclitis. SEE ALSO: g. crisis.

glaucomatous (glaw-ko′ma-tus)
Relating to glaucoma.

glaucosuria (glaw′ko-soo′re-a)
Obsolete term for indicanuria. [G. glaukos, bluish green, + ouron, urine]

GLC
Abbreviation for gas-liquid chromatography.

Glc, GlcA, GlcN, GlcNAc, GlcUA
Symbols for the radicals of d-glucose, gluconic and glucuronic acid, glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and glucuronic acid, respectively.

Gleason
Donald F., U.S. pathologist, *1920. See G. tumor grade, G. score.

gleet (glet)
Obsolete term for a chronic urethral discharge following gonorrhea. [M.E. glet, slime, fr. O.Fr. glette, fr. L. glittus, sticky]

Glenn
William W., *1914. See G. shunt.

Glenner
George B., U.S. pathologist and histologist, *1927. See G.-Lillie stain for pituitary.

glenohumeral (gle′no-hu′mer-al)
Relating to the glenoid cavity and the humerus.

glenoid (gle′noyd, glen′oyd)
Resembling a socket; denoting the articular depression of the scapula entering into the formation of the shoulder joint. [G. glenoeides, fr. glene, pupil of eye, socket of joint, honeycomb, + eidos, appearance]

Gley
Marcel E., French physiologist, 1857–1930. See G. glands, under gland.

glia (gli′a)
SYN: neuroglia. [G. glue]

gliacyte (gli′a-sit)
A neuroglia cell. See neuroglia. [G. glia, glue, + kytos, cell]

gliadin (gli′a-din)
A class of protein, separable from wheat and rye glutens; a member of the prolamins (proline-rich proteins), which are insoluble in water, absolute alcohol, and neutral solvents, but soluble in 50–90% alcohol.

glial (gli′al)
Pertaining to glia or neuroglia.

gliclazide (gli′kla-zid)
A sulfonylurea oral antidiabetic agent used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. The drug releases endogenous insulin from beta cells of the islands of Langerhans located in the pancreas; resembles glipizide and tolbutamide.

glide (glid)
A smooth, or effortless, continuous movement. mandibular g. the side-to-side, protrusive, and intermediate movement of the mandible occurring when the teeth or other occluding surfaces are in contact.

glidewire (glid′wir)
A hydrophilic or lubricated guidewire, generally used in the urinary tract. SEE ALSO: guidewire.

glio-
Glue, gluelike (relating specifically to the neuroglia). [G. glia, glue]

glioblast (gli′o-blast)
An early neural cell developing, like the neuroblast, from the early ependymal cell of the neural tube; gives rise to neuroglial and ependymal cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. SEE ALSO: spongioblast. [glio- + G. blastos, germ]

glioblastoma multiforme (gli′o-blas-to′ma)
A glioma consisting chiefly of undifferentiated anaplastic cells of astrocytic origin that show marked nuclear pleomorphism, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation; frequently, tumor cells are arranged radially about an irregular focus of necrosis; these neoplasms grow rapidly, invade extensively, and occur most frequently in the cerebrum of adults. [G. glia, glue, + blastos, germ, + -oma, tumor] giant cell g. a histologic form of glioblastoma with large, often multinucleated, bizarre, tumor cells. SYN: giant cell monstrocellular sarcoma of Zülch, gigantocellular glioma.

glioblastosis cerebri
SYN: gliomatosis cerebri.

glioma (gli-o′ma)
Any neoplasm derived from one of the various types of cells that form the interstitial tissue of the brain, spinal cord, pineal gland, posterior pituitary gland, and retina. [G. glia, glue, + -oma, tumor] brainstem g. a g., generally an astrocytoma, arising in the medulla, pons, or midbrain. gigantocellular g. SYN: giant cell glioblastoma multiforme. mixed g. a g. composed of two or more malignant elements, most frequently astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. nasal g. term for a lesion that is probably not a true neoplasm, but a teratoma consisting of glial tissue with reactive astrocytes, ganglionic neurons, and ependymal cells in small nodules at the dorsum of the nose, often with intracranial connections. g. of optic chiasm a slow-growing tumor, usually an astrocytoma, of the optic chiasm in children. optic nerve g. a g., generally an astrocytoma, involving the optic nerve or chiasm. g. of the spinal cord a glial tumor of the spinal cord, commonly an ependymoma; neoplasms of the spinal cord are relatively rare, but gliomas constitute approximately one-fourth of the total. telangiectatic g., g. telangiectodes a g. in which the stroma has numerous, conspicuous, frequently dilated small blood vessels and capillaries, as well as large, endothelium-rimmed lakes of blood.

gliomatosis (gli-o-ma-to′sis)
Neoplastic growth of neuroglial cells in the brain or spinal cord; the term is used especially with reference to a relatively large neoplasm or to multiple foci. SYN: neurogliomatosis. g. cerebri (gli′o-blas-to′sis ser′e-bri) a diffuse intracranial neoplasm of astrocytic origin. SYN: astrocytosis cerebri, glioblastosis cerebri.

gliomatous (gli-o′ma-tus)
Pertaining to or characterized by a glioma.

gliomyxoma (gli′o-mik-so′ma)
A myxoma that contains a considerable amount of proliferating glial cells and fibers.

glioneuroma (gli′o-noo-ro′ma)
A ganglioneuroma derived from neurons, with numerous glial cells and fibers in the matrix.

gliosarcoma (gli′o-sar-ko′ma)
A glioblastoma multiforme with an associated malignant mesenchymal component. Sometimes used as a term for a malignant neoplasm derived from connective tissue ( e.g., that associated with blood vessels in the brain) in which there are proliferating glial cells.

gliosis (gli-o′sis)
Overgrowth of the astrocytes in an area of damage in the brain or spinal cord. isomorphous g. a g. in which there is a regular and ordered arrangement of glial fibers. piloid g. an area of chronic, reactive astrocytosis composed of thin, hairlike cells in vaguely parallel array. g. uteri fetal neural tissue persisting or recurring locally as a benign condition in the endometrium or cervix; possibly derived from a homograft of fetal glial stroma.

GLIP
Abbreviation for glucagonlike insulinotropic peptide.

glipizide (glip′i-zid)
An oral sulfonylurea used in the treatment of type II diabetes.

Glisson
Francis, English physician, anatomist, physiologist and pathologist, 1597–1677. See G. capsule, G. cirrhosis, G. sphincter.

glissonitis (glis-o-ni′tis)
Inflammation of Glisson capsule, or the connective tissue surrounding the portal vein and the hepatic artery and bile ducts.




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