|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Common name for antidiabetic drugs that act by diminishing peripheral insulin resistance through poorly understood alterations in fatty acid metabolism. SYN: thiazolidinediones. [From the generic chemical names of the class member drugs.]
Symbol for glutamine or its acyl radical, glutaminyl.
The complete, generalized, overall, or total aspect.
global warming (glo′bal warm′ing)
An overall increase in the world's temperatures; could present a risk of malaria epidemics in the highland areas of tropical Africa by driving malaria transmission uphill into these populated areas.
SYN: globus. g. of eye SYN: eyeball. pale g. SYN: globus pallidus.
1. Plural of globus. 2. Brown bodies sometimes found in the granulomatous lesions of leprosy, in addition to the macrophages that contain the acid-fast bacilli; thought to be degenerate forms of such cells, in which the organisms are no longer viable and have become granular or amorphous.
The protein of hemoglobin; α-g. and β-g. represent the two types of chains found in adult hemoglobin. SYN: hematohiston.
A genus of hookworm (subfamily Uncinariinae, family Ancylostomatidae) consisting of about five species, found chiefly in the small intestine of pigs. The species G. urosubalatus, of worldwide distribution, is a common hookworm of wild and domestic pigs.
A glycosphingolipid; specifically, a ceramide tetrasaccharide (tetraglycosylceramide), isolated from kidney and erythrocytes; accumulates in individuals with Sandhoff disease.
A sphingolipid containing three sugar moieties that accumulates in individuals with Fabry disease. SYN: trihexosylceramide.
1. A small spherical body of any kind. 2. A fat droplet in milk. SYN: globulus. [L. globulus, dim. of globus, a ball] dentin g. calcospherites formed by calcification or mineralization of the dentin occurring in globular areas. Morgagni globules vesicles beneath the capsule and between lens fibers in early cataract. SYN: Morgagni spheres. polar g. SYN: polar body.
Containing globules or corpuscles, especially red blood cells. [L. globulus, globule, + fero, to bear]
Name for a family of proteins precipitated from plasma (or serum) by half-saturation with ammonium sulfate ( i.e., addition of an equal volume of saturated ammonium sulfate). Globulins may be further fractionated by solubility, electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and other separation methods into many subgroups. The main groups are α-, β-, and γ-g., which contains most antibodies. [L. globulus, globule] accelerator g. (AcG, ac-g) g. in serum that promotes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of thromboplastin and ionized calcium. See factor Va, factor V, serum accelerator g.. antihemophilic g. (AHG) 1. SYN: factor VIII. 2. SYN: human antihemophilic factor. antihemophilic g. A SYN: factor VIII. antihemophilic g. B SYN: factor IX. antihuman g. serum from a rabbit or other animal previously immunized with purified human g. to prepare antibodies directed against human immunoglobulin, some of which may be used in the direct and indirect Coombs tests. SYN: Coombs serum. antilymphocyte g. (ALG) SYN: antilymphocyte serum. β1C g. g. fraction of serum that contains the third component (C3) of complement. See component of complement. chickenpox immune g. (human) g. fraction of serum from persons recently recovered from herpes zoster infection; used to prevent infection of high-risk children. SYN: chickenpox immunoglobulin. corticosteroid-binding g. (CBG) SYN: transcortin. gonadal steroid-binding g. (GBG) a protein that transports 65% of the testosterone in plasma. SYN: sex steroid-binding g.. human gamma g. a preparation of the proteins of liquid human serum, containing the antibodies (primarily IgG) of normal adults; it is obtained from pooled liquid human serum from a number of donors and may be prepared by precipitation under controlled conditions of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. SYN: human normal immunoglobulin. immune serum g. a sterile solution of globulins that contains many antibodies normally present in adult human blood; a passive immunizing agent frequently used for prophylaxis against hepatitis A and for treatment of Kawasaki disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and some immunodeficiencies. measles immune g. (human) a sterile solution of globulins derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors with elevated titers to measles: it is prepared from immune serum g. that complies with the measles antibody reference standard; a passive immunizing agent. SYN: measles immunoglobulin. pertussis immune g. a sterile solution of globulins derived from the plasma of adult human donors who have been immunized with pertussis vaccine; used both prophylactically and therapeutically. SYN: pertussis immunoglobulin. plasma accelerator g. SYN: factor V. poliomyelitis immune g. (human) a sterile solution of globulins that contains antibodies normally present in adult human blood with elevated titers to poliomyelitis and confers temporary but significant protection against paralytic polio. SYN: poliomyelitis immunoglobulin. rabies immune g. (human) g. fraction of pooled plasma of high anti-rabies virus titer from immunized persons. SYN: rabies immunoglobulin. RHo(D) immune g. a g. fraction of antibody, derived from human donors, specific for the most common antigen, Rho(D), of the Rh group; used to prevent Rh-sensitization of an Rh-negative woman after delivery of an Rh-positive fetus. SYN: anti-D immunoglobulin, Rho(D) immunoglobulin. serum accelerator g. a substance in serum that accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of thromboplastin and calcium; produced by the action of traces of thrombin upon plasma accelerator g.. sex hormone-binding g. (SHBG) a plasma β-g., produced by the liver, that binds testosterone and, with a weaker affinity, estrogen; serum levels of SHBG in women are twice the levels seen in men; serum concentrations are increased in certain types of liver disease and in hyperthyroidism but are decreased with advancing age, by androgens, and in hypothyroidism. SYN: testosterone-estrogen-binding g.. sex steroid-binding g. SYN: gonadal steroid-binding g.. specific immune g. (human) g. fraction of pooled serums (or plasma) selected for high titer of antibodies specific for a particular antigen, or from persons specifically immunized. testosterone-estrogen-binding g. SYN: sex hormone-binding g.. tetanus immune g. a sterile solution of globulins derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors who have been immunized with tetanus toxoid; a passive immunizing agent. SYN: tetanus immunoglobulin. thyroxine-binding g. (TBG) an α-g. of blood with a strong binding affinity for thyroxine; triiodothyronine is bound to it much less firmly; a deficiency or excess of this protein may occur as a rare benign X-linked disorder. SYN: thyroxine-binding protein (1) . zoster immune g. a g. fraction of pooled plasma from individuals who have recovered from herpes zoster; used prophylactically for immunosuppressed children exposed to varicella and therapeutically to ameliorate varicella infection.
The excretion of globulin in the urine, usually, if not always, in association with serum albumin.
SYN: globule. [L.]
globus, pl .globi (glo′bus, -bi)
1. [TA] A round body; ball. 2. See globi. SYN: globe. [L.] g. hystericus difficulty in swallowing; a sensation as of a ball in the throat or as if the throat were compressed; a symptom of conversion disorder. g. major SYN: head of epididymis. g. minor SYN: tail of epididymis. g. pallidus [TA] the inner and lighter gray portion of the lentiform nucleus; composed of a lateral segment (g. pallidus lateralis [TA]) and a medial segment (g. pallidus medialis [TA]) separated by a vertically oriented lamina of fibers, the lamina medullaris medialis [TA] (medial medullary lamina [TA]). The medial segment may also be incompletely divided into a lateral part [TA] (pars laterallis [TA]) and a medial part [TA] (pars medialis [TA]) by the accessory medullary lamina [TA] (lamina medullaris accessoria [TA]). SEE ALSO: paleostriatum. SYN: pallidum [TA] , pale globe.
Relating to or involving a glomus.
A variant of glomus tumor, characterized often by multiple tumors resembling cavernous hemangioma q.v., lined by glomus cells. SEE ALSO: glomus.
The occurrence of multiple complexes of small vascular channels, each resembling a glomus. pulmonary g. g. occurring within small pulmonary arteries in severe pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart disease.
Excision of a glomus tumor. [L. glomus + G. ektome, cutting out]
Plural of glomus.
paraaortic bodies, under body.
Relating to or affecting a glomerulus or the glomeruli. SYN: glomerulose.
Inflammation of a glomerulus, specifically of the renal glomeruli, as in glomerulonephritis.
Renal disease characterized by diffuse inflammatory changes in glomeruli that are not the acute response to infection of the kidneys. SYN: glomerular nephritis. [glomerulus + G. nephros, kidney, + -itis, inflammation] acute g. g. that frequently occurs as a late complication of pharyngitisor or skin infection, due to a nephritogenic strain of β-hemolytic streptococci, characterized by abrupt onset of hematuria, edema of the face, oliguria, and variable azotemia and hypertension; the renal glomeruli usually show cellular proliferation or infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. SYN: acute hemorrhagic g., acute nephritis, acute poststreptococcal g.. acute crescentic g. SYN: rapidly progressive g.. acute hemorrhagic g. SYN: acute g.. acute poststreptococcal g. SYN: acute g.. anti–basement membrane g. g. resulting from anti-basement membrane antibodies, characterized by smooth linear deposits of IgG and C3 along glomerular capillary walls; includes rapidly progressive g. and g. in Goodpasture syndrome. Berger focal g. SYN: focal g.. chronic g. g. that presents with persisting proteinuria, chronic renal failure, and hypertension, of insidious onset or as a late sequel of acute g.; the kidneys are symmetrically contracted and granular, with scarring and loss of glomeruli and the presence of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. SYN: chronic nephritis. diffuse g. g. affecting most of the renal glomeruli; it may lead to azotemia. exudative g. g. with infiltration of glomeruli by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, occurring in acute g.. focal g. g. affecting a small proportion of renal glomeruli which commonly presents with hematuria and may be associated with acute upper respiratory infection in young males, not usually due to streptococci; associated with IgA deposits in the glomerular mesangium and may also be associated with systemic disease, as in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. SYN: Berger disease, Berger focal g., focal nephritis, IgA nephropathy. focal embolic g. g. associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis, frequently producing microscopic hematuria without azotemia. hypocomplementemic g. SYN: membranoproliferative g.. immune complex g. immune complexes are deposited in the renal glomerulus where they bind complement and initiate an inflammatory process attracting neutrophils and macrophages resulting in an alteration of the basement layer of the kidney. The disease state can lead to ultimate destruction of the glomerulus and renal failure. lobular g. SYN: membranoproliferative g.. local g. SYN: segmental g.. membranoproliferative g. chronic g. characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, increased lobular separation of glomeruli, thickening of glomerular capillary walls and increased mesangial matrix, and low serum levels of complement; occurs mainly in older children, with a variably slow progressive course, episodes of hematuria or edema, and hypertension. It is classified into three types: type 1, the commonest, in which there are subendothelial electron-dense deposits; type 2, dense-deposit disease, in which the lamina densa is greatly thickened by extremely electron-dense material; type 3, in which there are both subendothelial and subepithelial deposits. SYN: hypocomplementemic g., lobular g., mesangiocapillary g.. membranous g. g. characterized by diffuse thickening of glomerular capillary basement membranes, due in part to subepithelial deposits of immunoglobulins separated by spikes of basement membrane material, and clinically by an insidious onset of the nephrotic syndrome and failure of disappearance of proteinuria; the disease is most commonly idiopathic but may be secondary to malignant tumors, drugs, infections, or systemic lupus erythematosus. mesangial proliferative g. g. characterized clinically by the nephrotic syndrome and histologically by diffuse glomerular increases in endocapillary and mesangial cells and in mesangial matrix; in some cases, there are mesangial deposits of IgM and complement. SYN: diffuse mesangial proliferation, IgM nephropathy. mesangiocapillary g. SYN: membranoproliferative g.. proliferative g. g. with hypercellularity of glomeruli due to proliferation of endothelial or mesangial cells, occurring in acute g. and membranoproliferative g.. rapidly progressive g. g. usually presenting insidiously, without preceding streptococcal infection, with increasing renal failure leading to uremia within a few months; at autopsy the kidneys are normal in size, numerous glomerular capsular epithelial crescents are present, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies are frequently found. SYN: acute crescentic g.. segmental g. g. affecting only part of a glomerulus or glomeruli. SYN: local g.. subacute g. undesirable term for g. with proteinuria, hematuria and azotemia persisting for many weeks; renal changes are variable, including those of rapidly progressive and membranoproliferative g.. SYN: subacute nephritis.
Glomerular disease of any type. [glomerulus + G. pathos, suffering] focal sclerosing g. focal, segmental glomerulosclerosis reported in adults and children with normal serum complement, progressing to chronic glomerulonephritis.
Hyaline deposits or scarring within the renal glomeruli, a degenerative process occurring in association with renal arteriosclerosis or diabetes. SYN: glomerular sclerosis. [glomerulus + G. sklerosis, hardness] diabetic g. proteinuria and ultimately, renal failure occuring in long standing diabetes and characterized by rounded hyaline or laminated nodules in the periphery of the glomeruli with capillary basement membrane thickening and increased mesangial matrix. SYN: intercapillary g.. focal segmental g. segmental collapse of glomerular capillaries with thickened basement membranes and increased mesangial matrix; seen in some glomeruli of patients with nephrotic syndrome or mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. intercapillary g. SYN: diabetic g..
glomerulus, pl .glomeruli (glo-mar′u-lus, -u-li)
1. A plexus of capillaries. 2. A tuft formed of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephric tubule in the kidney; this tuft with its capsule (Bowman capsule) constitutes the corpusculum renis (malpighian body). SYN: malpighian g., malpighian tuft. 3. The twisted secretory portion of a sweat gland. 4. A cluster of dendritic ramifications and axon terminals forming a complex synaptic relationship and surrounded by a glial sheath. SYN: glomerule. [Mod. L. dim. of L. glomus, a ball of yarn] juxtamedullary g. a g. close to the medullary border. malpighian g. SYN: g. (2) . g. of mesonephros one of the tufts of capillary vessels within the mesonephros derived from a lateral branch of the primary aorta; each g. is connected to a tubule. olfactory g. one of the small spherical territories in the olfactory bulb in which dendrites of mitral and tufted cells synapse with axons of olfactory receptor cells. g. of pronephros one of the tufts of capillary vessels in the pronephros derived from a lateral branch of the aorta.
glomus, pl .glomera (glo′mus, glom′er-a)
1. [TA] A small globular body. 2. A highly organized arteriolovenular anastomosis forming a tiny nodular focus in the nailbed, pads of the fingers and toes, ears, hands, and feet and many other organs of the body. The afferent arteriole enters the connective tissue capsule of the g., becomes devoid of an internal elastic membrane, and develops a relatively thick epithelioid muscular wall and small lumen; the anastomosis may be branched and convoluted, richly innervated with sympathetic and myelinated nerves, and connected with a short, thin-walled vein that drains into a periglomic vein and then into one of the veins of the skin. The g. functions as a shunt- or bypass-regulating mechanism in the flow of blood, temperature, and conservation of heat in the part as well as in the indirect control of the blood pressure and other functions of the circulatory system. SYN: glandulae glomiformes (1) , glomiform glands, g. body. SYN: glome. [L. g., a ball] aortic glomera paraaortic bodies, under body. g. aorticum [TA] SYN: paraaortic bodies, under body. g. caroticum [TA] SYN: carotid body. choroid g. SYN: choroid enlargement. g. choroideum [TA] SYN: choroid enlargement. g. coccygeum SYN: coccygeal body. intravagal g. a minute collection of chemoreceptor cells on the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. A tumor of this g. may cause deafness and tinnitus. SYN: g. intravagale. g. intravagale SYN: intravagal g.. jugular g. a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the jugular bulb; a tumor of this g. may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. SYN: g. jugulare. g. jugulare SYN: jugular g.. g. pulmonale SYN: pulmonary g.. pulmonary g. a structure similar to the carotid body, found in relation to the pulmonary artery. SYN: g. pulmonale.
SYN: tongue (1) . [G.]
Glossalgia of gouty origin. [gloss- + G. agra, a seizure]
SYN: lingual (1) .
SYN: glossodynia. [gloss- + G. algos, pain]
Resection or amputation of the tongue. SYN: elinguation, glossosteresis. [gloss- + G. ektome, excision]
A genus of bloodsucking Diptera (tsetse flies) confined to Africa; they serve as vectors of the pathogenic trypanosomes that cause various forms of African sleeping sickness in humans and in domestic and wild animals. [G. glossa, tongue] G. morsitans a species originally thought to be the sole transmitter of Trypanosoma brucei brucei, the cause of nagana in central Africa; this species transmits this disease in some regions, but it is not the sole or even always the principal transmitting agent; it is the vector of T. brucei rhodesiense, one of the pathogenic agents of East African, Rhodesian, or acute sleeping sickness. G. pallidipes a species that is the principal transmitter of nagana; it also transmits Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. G. palpalis a species of G. that transmits Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, one of the pathogenic parasites of West African, Gambian, or chronic sleeping sickness.
Inflammation of the tongue. [gloss- + G. -itis, inflammation] g. areata exfoliativa SYN: geographic tongue. atrophic g. an erythematous, edematous, and painful tongue which appears smooth due to loss of the filiform and sometimes the fungiform papillae secondary to certain nutritional deficiencies, especially B-vitamin deficencies, as seen in pellagra, thiamin deficiency, and disorders such as pernicious anemia (Hunter or Moeller g.). SYN: bald tongue. benign migratory g. SYN: geographic tongue. g. desiccans a painful affection of the tongue, of unknown origin, in which the surface becomes raw and fissured. Hunter g. atrophic g.. median rhomboid g. an asymptomatic, ovoid or rhomboid, macular, erythematous area with absence of papillae on the median portion of the dorsum of the tongue just anterior to the circumvalate papillae; thought to represent a persistent tuberculum impar. Moeller g. atrophic g..
Language; corresponds to L. linguo-. Cf.:linguo-. [G. glossa, tongue]
Swelling and protrusion of the tongue from the mouth. SEE ALSO: macroglossia. [glosso- + G. kele, tumor, hernia]
A manifestation of tension or anxiety in which the tongue is attracted to the teeth or to dental faults. [glosso- + G. odous (odont-), tooth, + trope, a turning]
An apparatus for estimating the contractile force of the tongue muscles. [glosso- + G. dynamis, power, + metron, measure]
A condition characterized by burning or painful tongue. SYN: burning tongue, glossalgia, glossopyrosis. [glosso- + G. odyne, pain]
Apparent satisfaction from subjecting the tongue to a pain-inducing dental fault; considered by some to be a masochistic behavior or manifestation. [glosso- + G. odyne, pain, + trope, a turning]
glossoepiglottic, glossoepiglottidean (glos′o-ep-i-glot′ik, glos′o-ep-i-glo-tid′e-an)
Relating to the tongue and the epiglottis.
An instrument for recording the movements of the tongue in speaking. [glosso- + G. grapho, to write]
Denoting the subjective sensation of the movements of the tongue. SYN: glossocinesthetic. [glosso- + G. kinesis, movement, + aisthetikos, perceptive]
Rarely used term for unintelligible jargon or babbling. [glosso- + G. lalia, talk, chat]
The branch of medical science concerned with the tongue and its diseases. SYN: glottology. [glosso- + G. logos, study]
Any swelling involving the tongue, including neoplasms. [glosso- + G. onkos, mass, tumor]
SYN: palatoglossus (muscle). [glosso- + Mod. L. palatinus, fr. L. palatum, palate]
A disease of the tongue. [glosso- + G. pathos, suffering]
Relating to the tongue and the pharynx.
See superior pharyngeal constrictor (muscle).
Plastic surgery of the tongue. [glosso- + G. plastos, formed]
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