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Medical Dictionary


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gonadopathy (gon-a-dop′a-the)
Disease affecting the gonads. [gonado- + G. pathos, suffering]

gonadorelin hydrochloride (go-nad-o-rel′in)
C55H75N17O13&chmpnt;xHCl;a gonadotropin-releasing hormone obtained from sheep, pigs, or other animals and used to evaluate the functional capacity of the gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary. [gonadotropin-releasing + -in]

gonadotroph (go-nad′o-trof, -gon′a-do-)
An endocrine cell of the adenohypophysis that affects certain cells of the ovary or testis.

gonadotrophic (go′nad-o-trof′ik, gon′a-do-)
SYN: gonadotropic. [gonado- + G. trophe, nourishment]

gonadotrophin (go′nad-o-tro′fin, gon′a-do-)
SYN: gonadotropin. [for g., fr. gonad + G. trophe, nourishment]

gonadotropic (go′nad-o-trop′ik, gon′a-do-)
1. Descriptive of or relating to the actions of a gonadotropin. 2. Promoting the growth and/or function of the gonads. SYN: gonadotrophic. [gonado- + G. trope, a turning]

gonadotropin (go′nad-o-tro′pin, gon′a-do-)
1. A hormone capable of promoting gonadal growth and function; such effects, as exerted by a single hormone, usually are limited to discrete functions or histologic components of a gonad, such as stimulation of follicular growth or of androgen formation; most gonadotropins exert their effects in both sexes, although the effect of a given g. will differ in males and females. 2. Any hormone that stimulates gonadal function. 3. Any substance that has the combined effects of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. SYN: gonadotrophin, gonadotropic hormone. anterior pituitary g. any g. of hypophysial origin; formerly used to designate a single hormone, because it was thought that the anterior hypophysis secreted only one g.. SYN: pituitary gonadotropic hormone. chorionic g. (CG) a glycoprotein with a carbohydrate fraction composed of d-galactose and hexosamine, extracted from the urine of pregnant women and produced by the placental trophoblastic cells; its most important role appears to be stimulation, during the first trimester, of ovarian secretion of the estrogen and progesterone required for the integrity of conceptus; it appears to play no significant role in the last two trimesters of pregnancy, as the estrogen and progesterone are then formed by the placenta. SYN: β-HCG, choriogonadotropin, chorionic gonadotropic hormone, chorionic gonadotrophic hormone, placenta g., placentagonadotropin. human chorionic g. (HCG, hCG) chorionic g.. β-human chorionic g. a 145-amino acid subunit unique to HCG, which has the same α-chain as FSH, LH, and TSH. Pregnancy tests specific for β-HCG are more sensitive since there is no confusion with other gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary. human menopausal g. (HMG, hMG) a hormone of pituitary originally obtained from the urine of postmenopausal women now produced synthetically; used to induce ovulation. SEE ALSO: menotropins. placenta g. (pla-sen′ta-go′nad-o-tro-pin) SYN: chorionic g..

gonaduct (gon′a-dukt)
1. SYN: seminal duct. 2. SYN: uterine tube. [gonado- + duct]

gonalgia (go-nal′je-a)
Obsolete term for pain in the knee. [G. gony, knee, + algos, pain]

gonane (gon′an)
The hypothetical parent (17-carbon) hydrocarbon molecule of gonadal steroid hormones, such as estrane or androstane, which was conceived to achieve forms of systematic nomenclature.

gonarthritis (gon-ar-thri′tis)
Inflammation arthritis of the knee joint. [G. gony, knee, + arthron, joint, + -itis, inflammation]

gonecyst, gonecystis (gon′e-sist, gon-e-sis′tis)
SYN: seminal gland. [G. gone, seed, + kystis, bladder]

Gongylonema (gon′ji-lo-ne′ma)
A genus of spiruroid nematodes that parasitize the alimentary canal of birds and mammals; transmitted via various insects, especially beetles, carrying the encysted infective larvae. Several species are of veterinary importance, and one is also known to parasitize humans. [Gr. gongylos, round, + nema, thread] G. pulchrum the gullet worm of cattle; a species that penetrates the submucosa of the esophagus or rumen of many domestic and wild ruminants, pigs, bears, and humans (human cases are chiefly caused by immature worms); it is transmitted by coprophagous beetles and is of worldwide distribution.

gongylonemiasis (gon′ji-lo-ne-mi′a-sis)
Infection of animals and, rarely, humans with nematodes of the genus Gongylonema.

gonia (go′ne-a)
Plural of gonion.

gonio-
Angle. [G. gonia]

goniocraniometry (go′ne-o-kra-ne-om′e-tre)
Measurement of the angles of the cranium. [G. gonia, angle, + kranion, skull, + metron, measure]

goniodysgenesis (go′ne-o-dis-jen′e-sis)
Developmental aberration of the anterior ocular segment. [G. gonia, angle, + dysgenesis]

goniometer (go-ne-om′e-ter)
1. An instrument for measuring angles. 2. An appliance for the static test of labyrinthine disease, which consists of a plank, one end of which may be raised to any desired height; as one end of the plank is gradually raised, the point at which a patient loses balance is noted. 3. A calibrated device designed to measure the arc or range of motion of a joint. SYN: arthrometer, fleximeter, pronometer. 4. Device used to measure the amount of head turn in strabismus or nystagmus. [G. gonia, angle, + metron, measure]

gonion, pl .gonia (go′ne-on, go′ne-a) [TA]
The lowest posterior and most outward point of the angle of the mandible. In cephalometrics, it is measured by bisecting the angle formed by the tangents to the lower and the posterior borders of the mandible; when the angles of both sides of the mandible appear on the lateral radiograph, a point midway between the right and left side is used. [G. gonia, an angle]

goniopuncture (go′ne-o-punk-choor)
An operation for congenital glaucoma in which a puncture is made in the filtration angle of the anterior chamber.

gonioscope (go′ne-o-skop)
A lens designed to study the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye. [G. gonia, angle, + skopeo, to examine]

gonioscopy (go-ne-os′ko-pe)
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a gonioscope or with a contact prism lens.

goniosynechia (go′ne-o-si-nek′e-a)
Adhesion of the iris to the posterior surface of the cornea in the angle of the anterior chamber; associated with angle-closure glaucoma. SYN: peripheral anterior synechia. [G. gonia, angle, + synechis, holding together]

goniotomy (go-ne-ot′o-me)
Surgical opening of the trabecular meshwork in congenital glaucoma. [G. gonia, angle, + tome, incision]

gonochorism, gonochorismus (gon-ok′o-rizm, -o-riz′mus)
Normal gonadal differentiation appropriate to the sex. [G. gone, seed, sex, + chorizo, to separate]

gonocide (gon′o-sid)
1. Destructive to the gonococcus. 2. An agent that kills gonococci. SYN: gonococcicide.

gonococcal (gon′o-kok′al)
Relating to the gonococcus. SYN: gonococcic.

gonococcemia (gon′o-kok-se′me-a)
The presence of gonococci in the circulating blood. [gonococcus + G. haima, blood]

gonococci (gon-o-kok′si)
Plural of gonococcus.

gonococcic (gon′o-kok′sik)
SYN: gonococcal.

gonococcicide (gon-o-kok′si-sid)
SYN: gonocide. [gonococcus + L. caedo, to kill]

gonococcus, pl .gonococci (gon-o-kok′us, -si)
SYN: Neisseria gonorrhoeae. [G. gone, seed, + kokkos, berry]

gonocyte (gon′o-sit)
SYN: primordial germ cell. [G. gone, seed, + kytos, hollow (cell)]

gonohemia (gon-o-he′me-a)
Obsolete term for gonococcemia.

gono-opsonin (gon-o-op′so-nin)
A specific gonococcal opsonin.

gonophage (gon′o-faj)
A gonocidal bacteriophage.

gonophore, gonophorus (gon′o-for, go-nof′o-rus)
Any structure serving to store up or conduct the sexual cells; oviduct, spermatic duct, uterus, or seminal vesicle; an accessory generative organ. [G. gone, seed, + phoros, bearing]

gonorrhea (gon-o-re′a)
A contagious catarrhal inflammation of the genital mucous membrane, transmitted chiefly by coitus and due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae; may involve the lower or upper genital tract, especially the urethra, endocervix, and uterine tubes, or spread to the peritoneum and rarely to the heart, joints, or other structures by way of the bloodstream. [G. gonorrhoia, fr. gone, seed, + rhoia, a flow]

gonorrheal (gon-o-re′al)
Relating to gonorrhea.

gonosome (gon′o-som)
SYN: sex chromosomes, under chromosome. [G. gone, seed + soma, body]

gonotoxemia (gon′o-tok-se′me-a)
Toxic condition resulting from the hematogenous dissemination of gonococci and the effects of the absorbed endotoxin.

gonotoxin (gon-o-tok′sin)
The endotoxin elaborated by the gonococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

gonotyl (gon′o-til)
A sucker-like structure enclosing the genital pore of flukes of the family Heterophyidae. [G. gonos, offspring, + tyle, knob]

Gonyaulax catanella (gon-e-aw′laks kat-a-nel′a)
A marine dinoflagellate protozoan that produces a powerful toxin that accumulates in the tissues of mussels and other filter-feeding shellfish and may cause fatal mussel poisoning in humans. [G. gony, knee, + aulakos, a furrow]

gonycampsis (gon-e-kamp′sis)
Obsolete term for ankylosis or any abnormal curvature of the knee. [G. gony, knee, + kampsis, a bending or curving]

Goodell
William, U.S. gynecologist, 1829–1894. See G. sign.

goodness of fit
Degree of agreement between an empirically observed distribution and a mathematical or theoretical distribution.

Goodpasture
Ernest W., U.S. pathologist, 1886–1960. See G. stain, G. syndrome.

Goormaghtigh
Norbert, Belgian physician, 1890–1960. See G. cells, under cell.

gooseflesh (goos′flesh)
SYN: cutis anserina.

Gopalan
C., 20th century Indian biochemist. See G. syndrome.

Gordius (gor′de-us)
An old name for the nematode genus Dracunculus, properly applied to members of the phylum Nematomorpha, commonly called the gordian or horsehair worms, hair worms, or hair snakes. [L., fr. G. Gordios, king of Gordium in Phrygia; an allusion to the knotlike twistings of these worms]

Gordon
Alfred, U.S. neurologist, 1869–1953. See G. reflex, G. sign, G. symptom.

Gordona (gor′do-na)
A genus of aerobic bacteria that are Gram-positive or Gram-variable actinomycetes found in the human respiratory tract; some species are associated with bronchiectasis and with mixed flora pulmonary abscesses; the type species is G. bronchialis.

Gordon and Sweet stain
See under stain.

gorget (gor′jet)
A director or guide with wide groove for use in lithotomy. probe g. a g. with a probe-pointed tip.

Gorham
Lemuel W., U.S. physician, 1885–1968. See G. disease, G. syndrome.

Goriaew rule
See under rule.

Gorlin
Richard, U.S. physiologist and cardiologist, *1926. See G. formula.

Gorlin
Robert J., U.S. oral pathologist, *1923. See G. sign, G. syndrome, G.-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome.

gorondou (go-ron′doo)
SYN: goundou.

goserelin (gos′er-e-lin)
A synthetic decapeptide agonist analog of the LHRH (GnRH). It inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion and is used in the treatment of prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, and for prethinning the endometrium before endometrial ablation or resection.

Gosselin
Léon Athanese, French surgeon, 1815–1887. See G. fracture.

Gosset
William Sealy, British statistician and chemist who used the pseudonym Student, 1876–1937.

gossypol (gos′i-pol)
A toxic principle isolated from the seed of the cotton plant (Gossypium) that reduces sperm count; used in China as an oral male contraceptive.

gossypose (gos′i-pos)
SYN: raffinose.

GOT
Abbreviation for glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase.

Göthlin
Gustaf F., Swedish physiologist, 1874–1949. See G. test.

Gottlieb
Bernard, Austrian dentist, 1885–1950 See epithelial attachment of G..

gouge (gowj)
A strong curved chisel used in operations on bone.

Gougerot
Henri, French dermatologist, 1881–1955. See G. and Blum disease, G.-Sjögren disease, G.-Carteaud syndrome.

Gould
Sir Alfred P., English surgeon, 1852–1922. See G. suture.

Gouley
John W.S., U.S. urologist, 1832–1920. See G. catheter.

goundou (goon′doo)
A disease, endemic in West Africa, characterized by exostoses from the nasal processes of the maxillary bones, producing a symmetrical swelling on each side of the nose; believed to be an osteitis connected with yaws. SYN: anákhré, dog nose, gorondou, henpuye. [native name]




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