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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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handicap (hand′i-kap)
1. A physical, mental, or emotional condition that interferes with an individual's normal functioning. 2. Reduction in a person's capacity to fulfill a social role as a consequence of an impairment, inadequate training for the role, or other circumstances. SEE ALSO: disability. [fr. hand in cap, (game)]

handpiece (hand′pes)
A powered dental instrument held in the hand, used to hold rotary cutting, grinding, or polishing implements while they are being revolved.

handshapes (hand′shaps)
Manual symbols of speech sounds used in cued speech.

HANE
Acronym for hereditary angioneurotic edema.

hangnail (hang′nal)
A loose triangular tag of skin attached proximally in the medial or lateral nail fold.

Hanhart
Ernst, Swiss internist, 1891–1973. See H. syndrome.

Hanks
Horace Tracy, U.S. surgeon, 1837–1900. See H. dilators.

Hanks solution
See under solution.

Hanlon
C. Rollins, U.S. cardiovascular and thoracic surgeon, *1915. See Blalock-H. operation.

Hannover
Adolph, Danish anatomist, 1814–1894. See H. canal.

Hanot
Victor C., French physician, 1844–1896. See H. cirrhosis.

Hansen
Gerhard A., Norwegian physician, 1841–1912. See H. bacillus, H. disease.

Hantavirus (han′ta-va-rus)
A genus of Bunyaviridae responsible for pneumonia and hemorrhagic fevers. At least 7 members of the genus are thus far recognized: Hantaan, Puumala, Seoul, Prospect Hill, Thailand, Thottapalayam, and Sin Nombre virus. A number of other species have not been classified as yet. Hantaan virus causes Korean hemorrhagic fever. Various rodent species are the asymptomatic carriers of these viruses, which are shed in saliva, urine, and feces. Human infection is direct, or by the respiratory route from contaminated specimens; person-to-person spread is thought to be rare. An outbreak of h. infection, the H. Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), causing severe and often fatal pulmonary symptoms was identified in the Four-Corners region of the western U.S. in 1993 and the agent was subsequently named Sin Nombre virus.

hapalonychia (hap′a-lo-nik′e-a)
Thinning of nails resulting in bending and breaking of the free edge, with longitudinal fissures. SYN: egg shell nail. [G. hapalos, soft + G. onyx (onych-), nail]

haphalgesia (haf-al-je′ze-a)
Pain or an extremely disagreeable sensation caused by the merest touch. SYN: Pitres sign (1) . [G. haphe, touch, + algesis, sense of pain]

haphazard
Lacking any coherent system, organization, or objective; not to be confused with random or chaotic.

haphephobia (haf-e-fo′be-a)
A morbid dislike or fear of being touched. [G. haphe, touch, + phobos, fear]

haplo-
Simple, single. [G. haplous]

haplodont (hap′lo-dont)
Having molar teeth with simple crowns, i.e., simple conical teeth without ridges or tubercles. [haplo- + G. odous, tooth]

haploid (hap′loyd)
Denoting the number of chromosomes in sperm or ova, which is half the number in somatic (diploid) cells; the h. number in normal human beings is 23. SYN: monoploid. [G. haplos, simple, + eidos, appearance]

haplology (hap-lol′o-je)
The omission of syllables because of excessive speed of utterance. [haplo- + G. logos, study]

haploprotein (hap-lo-pro′ten)
The functional complex between an apoprotein and the prosthetic group that together are responsible for biologic activity.

haploscope (hap′lo-skop)
An instrument for presenting separate views to each eye so that they may be seen as one. [haplo- + G. skopeo, to view] mirror h. a h. using mirrors to displace the field of view of the two eyes, as in Worth amblyoscope and the synoptophore.

haploscopic (hap-lo-skop′ik)
Relating to a haploscope.

Haplosporidia (hap′lo-spo-rid′e-a)
An order of sporozoans, now placed in the protozoan phylum Ascetospora, class Stellatosporea, that reproduce asexually by schizogony and produce spores but no flagella, though pseudopodia may be present. [haplo- + G. sporos, seed]

haplotype (hap′lo-tip)
1. The genetic constitution of an individual with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes; individuals are of the same h. (but of different genotypes) if alike with respect to one allele of a pair but different with respect to the other allele of a pair. 2. In immunogenetics, that portion of the phenotype determined by a set of closely linked genes inherited from one parent ( i.e., genes located on one of the pair of chromosomes). [haplo- + G. typos, impression, model]

hapten (hap′-ten)
A molecule that is incapable, alone, of causing the production of antibodies but can, however, combine with a larger antigenic molecule called a carrier. A h.-carrier complex can stimulate production of antibodies, some of which combine with the h. portion of the complex. SEE ALSO: h. inhibition of precipitation. SYN: incomplete antigen, partial antigen. [G. hapto, to fasten, bind] conjugated h. a h. that may cause the production of antibodies when it has been covalently linked to protein. SYN: conjugated antigen. Forssman h. a glycolipid from mammalian organs; it is a ceramide pentasaccharide. Cf.:Forssman antibody, Forssman antigen. half h. half-h..

haptodysphoria (hap′to-dis-fo′re-a)
An unpleasant sensation derived from touching certain objects. [G. hapto, to touch, + dysphoria]

haptoglobin (HP) (hap-to-glo′bin) [MIM*140100 & MIM*140210]
A group of α2-globulins in human serum, so called because of their ability to combine with hemoglobin, preventing loss in the urine; variant types form a polymorphic system, with α- and β-polypeptide chains controlled by separate genetic loci. Levels are decreased in hemolytic disorders and increased in inflammatory conditions or with tissue damage. [G. hapto, to grasp, + hemoglobin]

haptometer (hap-tom′e-ter)
Instrument for measuring sensitivity to touch. [G. hapto, to touch, + metron, measure]

Har
Abbreviation for homoarginine.

Harada
Einosuke, Japanese surgeon, 1892–1947. See H. disease, H. syndrome, H.-Ito procedure.

Harada
T., 20th century Japanese pathologist. See H.-Mori filter paper strip culture.

Harden
Sir Arthur, English biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1865–1940. See H.-Young ester.

hardening (har′den-ing)
1. A condition of lessened reactions to allergens from repeated or prolonged nontherapeutic exposure, similar to hyposensitization. 2. Any procedure in tissue preparation for examinations, such as sectioning for microscopy, that renders the tissue firmer.

hardiness (har′di-nes)
A health-enhancing behavior trait believed to increase one's resistance to illness, characterized by a high level of personal control, commitment, and action in responding to events of daily life. [M.E., fr. O.Fr. hardi, fr. Germanic]

Harding
Harold E., 20th century British pathologist. See H.-Passey melanoma.

hardness (hard′nes)
1. The degree of firmness of a solid, as determined by its resistance to deformation, scratching, or abrasion. SEE ALSO: h. scale, number. 2. The relative penetrating power of a beam of x-rays, used both within the diagnostic range of energy and in radiation therapy; expressed in terms of half-value layer. indentation h. a number related to the size of the impression made by an indenter (or tool) of specific size and shape under a known load.

hardware
The electronic component of a computer.

Hardy
George H., English mathematician, 1877–1947. See H.-Weinberg equilibrium, H.-Weinberg law.

Hardy
LeGrand H., U.S. ophthalmologist, 1894–1954. See H.-Rand-Ritter test.

harelip (har′lip)
SYN: cleft lip.

harmaline (har′ma-lin)
An amine oxidase inhibitor and a central nervous system stimulant; obtained from the seeds of Peganum harmala (family Zygophyllaceae) and from Banisteria caapi (family Malpighiaceae); has been used in parkinsonism. SYN: harmidine.

harmidine (har′mi-den)
SYN: harmaline.

harmine (har′men)
A central nervous system stimulant and potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor obtained from Peganum harmala (family Zygophyllaceae) and Banisteria caapi (family Malpighaceae); psychic effects resemble those of LSD, but sedative and depressive qualities may predominate over hallucinatory manifestations. SYN: banisterine, leucoharmine, telepathine. [G. harmala, harmal, fr. Ar. harmalah, + -ine]

harmonia (har-mo′ne-a)
SYN: plane suture. [L. and G. a joining]

harmonic (har-mon′ik)
A component of complex sound, the frequency of which is a multiple of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency is called the first h.; the second h. has twice the frequency of the fundamental, and so forth.

harmony (har′mo-ne)
Denoting, in a complex sound, a mathematical relationship among the frequencies of the fundamental tone and its overtones so that the frequencies of the overtones are whole number multiples or partials of the frequency of the fundamental tone; the resulting auditory effect has a musical or pleasant quality, as opposed to noise. [G., L. harmonia, agreement, articulation, fr. harmos, joint] functional occlusal h. such occlusal relationship of opposing teeth in all functional ranges and movements as will provide the greatest masticatory efficiency without causing undue strain or trauma upon the supporting tissues, teeth, and muscles. occlusal h. occlusion without deflective or interceptive occlusal contacts in centric jaw relation as well as eccentric movements.

harpaxophobia (har′paks-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of robbers. [G. harpax, robber, + phobos, fear]

harpoon (har-poon′)
A small, sharp-pointed instrument with a barbed head used for extracting bits of tissue for microscopic examination.

Harrington
David O., U.S. ophthalmologist, *1904. See H.-Flocks test.

Harris
Henry A., English anatomist, 1886–1968. See H. lines, under line.

Harris
Henry F., U.S. physician, 1867–1926. See H. hematoxylin.

Harris
R.I., 20th century Canadian orthopedist. See Salter-H. classification of epiphysial plate injuries.

Harris
Seale, U.S. physician, 1870–1957, investigated food conditions and nutritional diseases. See H. syndrome.

Harris
Wilfred, English neurologist, 1869–1960. See H. migraine.

Harrison
Edward, English physician, 1766–1838. See H. groove.

Harris and Ray test
See under test.

Hartel
Fritz, German surgeon. See H. technique.

Hartman
LeRoy L., U.S. dentist, 1893–1951. See H. solution.

Hartmann
Alexis F., U.S. pediatrician, 1898–1964. See H. solution, Shaffer-H. method.

Hartmann
Arthur, German laryngologist, 1849–1931. See H. curette.

Hartmann
Henri A.C.A., French surgeon, 1860–1952. See H. operation, H. pouch.

Hartmannella (hart-ma-nel′a)
A common free-living ameba found in soil, sewage, and water, known to invade invertebrates (snails, grasshoppers, oysters); suspected but not established as an agent of human primary amebic meningoencephalitis.

Hartnup
Surname of British family in which the disease was first described. See H. disease, H. syndrome.

hartshorn (harts′horn)
A mixture of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate obtained from ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate by sublimation; used as an expectorant and in smelling salts; so called because originally obtained from deer antlers.

harvest bug
The larva of Trombicula species.

Harvey
William, 1578–1657. English anatomist, physiologist, and physician who first described the circulation of the blood in 1628. He understood that the interventricular septum is not porous so blood cannot pass through it. He demonstrated the volume of blood that passes unidirectionally through a segment of a peripheral vein exceeds the volume of blood within the body, so blood must recirculate. He described the organization of the fetal circulation and the transition to the postnatal organization.

hasamiyami (has′a-me-yah′me)
A fever occurring in Japan in the autumn; resembles Weil disease, but is milder and is caused by the autumnalis serovar of Leptospira interrogans. SYN: akiyami, autumn fever (2) , sakushu fever, seven-day fever (2) .

Häser
Heinrich, German physician, 1811–1884. See H. formula, Trapp-H. formula.

Hashimoto
Japanese surgeon, 1881–1934. See H. disease, H. struma, H. thyroiditis.

hashish (hash′ish)
A form of cannabis that consists largely of resin from the flowering tops and sprouts of cultivated female plants; contains the highest concentration of cannabinols among the preparations derived from cannabis. [Ar. hay]

Hasner
Joseph Ritter von, Czechoslovakian ophthalmologist, 1819–1892. See H. fold.

Hassall
Arthur, British physician, 1817–1894. See H. bodies, under body, H. concentric corpuscle, under corpuscle, H.-Henle bodies, under body, Virchow-H. bodies, under body.

Hasselbalch
Karl, Danish biochemist and physician, 1874–1962. See Henderson-H. equation.

hatchet
A dental instrument with an end cutting blade set at an angle to the axis of the handle and having one or two bevels; in the former case, made as right and left pairs called enamel hatchets; used for removing enamel and dentin on teeth.

Haubenfelder (how′ben-fel′der)
See fields of Forel, under field. [Ger.]

Hauch (H) (howkh)
A term used to designate the flagellar antigen of bacteria. SEE ALSO: H antigen. [Ger. breath]

Haudek
Martin, Austrian roentgenologist, 1880–1931. See H. niche.

Hauser
G.A., 20th century German gynecologist. See Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-H. syndrome, Rokitansky-Küster-H. syndrome.

haustorium, pl .haustoria (haw-sto′re-um, -sto′re-a)
An organ for the absorption of nutriment. [Mod. L. fr. L. haustus, a drinking]




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