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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hematoxin (he-ma-toks′in, hem-a)
SYN: hemotoxin.

hematoxylin (he-ma-toks′i-lin, hem-a-) [C.I. 75290]
A crystalline compound, containing the coloring matter of Haematoxylon campechianum (logwood), from which it is obtained by extraction with ether. It is used as a dye in histology, especially for cell nuclei and chromosomes, muscle cross-striations, and enterochromaffin cells; its staining properties depend upon its oxidation to hematein and mordanting with chrome and iron alums. It is also used as an indicator (red to yellow at pH 0.0 to 1.0, yellow to violet at pH 5.0 to 6.0). Boehmer h. an alum type of h. in which natural ripening occurs in about 8 to 10 days, and the solution is good for many months. Delafield h. an alum type of h. used in histology; natural ripening takes about 2 months and the solution is good for years. Harris h. an alum type of h. similar to Delafield h., but which uses chemical ripening to produce oxidation of h. for immediate use. iron h. unique ferric lakes of hematein that produce deep blue-black stains; useful for studies of cytologic detail, such as chromosomes, spindle fibers, Golgi apparatus, myofibrils, and mitochrondria; also useful to demonstrate Entamoeba histolytica. SEE ALSO: Heidenhain iron h. stain, Weigert iron h. stain. phosphotungstic acid h. (PTAH) a stain with broad application in cytology and histology; nuclei, mitochrondria, fibrin, neuroglial fibrils, and cross-striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle stain blue; cartilage ground substance, bone reticulum, and elastin appear in shades of yellow-orange and brownish red; also useful for demonstrating abnormal or diseased astrocytes, often in combination with periodic acid-Schiff stain and Luxol fast blue. SYN: Mallory phosphotungstic acid h. stain.

hematozoic (he′ma-to-zo′ik, hem′a)
SYN: hemozoic.

hematozoon (he′ma-to-zo′on, hem′a-)
SYN: hemozoon.

hematuria (he-ma-too′-re-a, hem-a-)
Presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine. [hemato- + G. ouron, urine] Egyptian h. SYN: schistosomiasis haematobium. endemic h. SYN: schistosomiasis haematobium. false h. SYN: pseudohematuria. gross h. the presence of blood in the urine in sufficient quantity to be visible to the naked eye. initial h. the presence of blood only in the first fraction of voided urine, usually indicating a urethral or prostatic source of bleeding. microscopic h. presence of blood cells in urine, visible only under the microscope. painful h. h. associated with dysuria, usually indicating the coexistence of infection, trauma, calculi, or foreign bodies within the lower urinary tract. painless h. h. not associated with dysuria, often connoting a vascular or neoplastic etiology. renal h. h. resulting from extravasation of blood into the glomerular spaces, or tubules, or pelves of the kidneys. terminal h. the presence of blood only in the last fraction of voided urine, usually indicating a prostatic source of bleeding. total h. blood throughout all fractions of the voided urine, commonly indicating an upper or mid-urinary tract source of bleeding. urethral h. h. in which the site of bleeding is in the urethra. vesical h. h. in which the site of bleeding is in the urinary bladder.

heme (hem)
1. The porphyrin chelate of iron in which the iron is Fe(II) (or Fe2+); the oxygen-carrying, color-furnishing, prosthetic group of hemoglobin. 2. Iron complexed with nonporphyrins but related tetrapyrrole structures ( e.g., biliverdin h.). 3. Iron chelated with any porphyrin, irrespective of the valence state of the iron atom. SYN: ferroheme, ferroprotoporphyrin, reduced hematin. [G. haima, blood] h. a a derivative of h. found in cytochrome aa3. h. c a derivative of h. found in cytochromes c, b4, and f.

hemeralopia (hem′er-al-o′pe-a)
Inability to see as distinctly in a bright light as in reduced illumination; seen in patients with impaired cone function. SYN: day blindness, hemeranopia, night sight. [G. hemera, day, + alaos, obscure, + ops, eye]

hemeranopia (hem′er-a-no′pe-a)
SYN: hemeralopia. [G. hemera, day, + an-, priv., + ops, eye]

hemerythrins (he-me-rith′rinz, hem-e-)
Iron-containing, oxygen-binding proteins in certain invertebrates, with molecular weights approximately that of hemoglobin but differing from hemoglobin in that the molecules do not contain porphyrin groups. Oxygenated h. is oxyhemerythrin. [G. haima, blood, + G. erythros, red, + -in]

hemi-
One-half. Cf.:semi-. [G.]

hemiacardius (hem′e-a-kar′de-us)
One of twin fetuses, in which only a part of the circulation is effected by its own heart, the rest by the heart of the other twin. [hemi- + G. a- priv. + kardia, heart]

hemiacetal (hem′e-as′e-tal)
RCH(OH)OR′, a product of the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde (an acetal is formed by the addition of an alcohol to a h.). In the aldose sugars, the h. formation is internal and labile, brought about by the 4-OH or 5-OH attack on the carbonyl O, yielding the furanose or pyranose structures; the h. forms of the sugars are involved in all polysaccharides, as glycosyls or glycosides. SEE ALSO: hemiketal, acetal.

hemiacrosomia (hem′e-ak-ro-so′me-a)
A congenital form of hemihypertrophy of an extremity. [hemi- + G. akron, extremity, + soma, body]

hemiageusia (hem′e-a-goo′se-a)
Loss of taste from one side of the tongue. SYN: hemiageustia, hemigeusia. [hemi- + G. a- priv. + geusis, taste]

hemiageustia (hem′e-a-goos′te-a)
SYN: hemiageusia.

hemialgia (hem-e-al′je-a)
Pain affecting one entire half of the body. [hemi- + G. algos, pain]

hemianalgesia (hem′e-an′al-je′ze-a)
Analgesia affecting one side of the body.

hemianencephaly (hem′e-an-en-sef′a-le)
Anencephaly on one side only, or involving one side much more extensively than the other.

hemianesthesia (hem′e-an-es-the′-ze-a)
Anesthesia on one side of the body. SYN: unilateral anesthesia. alternate h. h. affecting the head on one side and the body and extremities on the other side. SYN: crossed h.. crossed h. SYN: alternate h..

hemianopia (hem′e-a-no′pe-a)
Loss of vision for one half of the visual field of one or both eyes. SYN: hemianopsia. absolute h. hemianopsia in which the affected field is totally insensitive to all visual stimuli. SYN: complete h.. altitudinal h. a defect in the visual field in which the upper or lower half is lost; may be unilateral or bilateral. binasal h. blindness in the nasal field of vision of both eyes. bitemporal h. blindness in the temporal field of vision of both eyes. complete h. SYN: absolute h.. congruous h. hemianopsia in which the visual field defects in both eyes are completely symmetric in extent and intensity. crossed h. SYN: heteronymous h.. heteronymous h. attitudinal h. involving the upper field of one eye and the lower field of the other; or a binasal or bitemporal h.. SYN: crossed h.. homonymous h. blindness in the corresponding (right or left) field of vision of each eye. incomplete h. hemianopsia involving less than half the visual field of each eye. incongruous h. an incomplete or asymmetric homonymous hemianopsia. pseudo-h. a condition in which individual stimuli are seen correctly, but when the nasal visual field of one eye and the temporal visual field of the fellow eye are stimulated simultaneously, one field is blind. SYN: visual extinction. quadrantic h. SYN: quadrantanopia. unilateral h. loss of sight in one-half of the visual field of one eye only. SYN: unilocular h.. unilocular h. SYN: unilateral h..

hemianopic (hem′e-an-op′ik)
Pertaining to hemianopia.

hemianopsia (hem′e-an-op′se-a)
SYN: hemianopia. [hemi- + G. an- priv. + opsis, vision]

hemianosmia (hem′e-an-oz′me-a)
Loss of the sense of smell on one side. [hemi- + G. an- priv. + osme, smell]

hemiaplasia (hem′e-a-pla′ze-a)
Absence of one lobe of a bilobed organ; used especially with reference to the thyroid gland. [hemi- + aplasia]

hemiapraxia (hem′e-a-prak′se-a)
Apraxia affecting one side of the body.

hemiarthroplasty (hem-e-ar′thro-plas-te)
Arthroplasty in which one joint surface is replaced with artificial material, usually metal.

hemiasynergia (hem′e-a-sin-er′je-a)
Asynergia affecting one side of the body.

hemiataxia (hem′e-a-tak′se-a)
Ataxia affecting one side of the body.

hemiathetosis (hem′e-ath′e-to′sis)
Athetosis affecting one hand, or one hand and foot, only.

hemiatrophy (hem-e-at′ro-fe)
Atrophy of one lateral half of a part or of an organ, as the face or tongue. facial h. atrophy, usually progressive, affecting the tissues of one side of the face. SYN: facial h. of Romberg, Romberg disease, Romberg syndrome. facial h. of Romberg SYN: facial h.. lingual h. atrophy of one lateral half of the tongue.

hemiballism (hem-e-bal′izm)
SYN: hemiballismus. [hemi- + G. ballismos, jumping about]

hemiballismus (hem-e-bal-iz′mus)
Ballism involving one side of the body. SYN: hemiballism. [hemi- + G. ballismos, jumping about]

hemiblock (hem′e-blok)
SYN: divisional block.

hemic (he′mik)
SYN: hematic (1) .

hemicardia (hem-e-kar′de-a)
1. Either lateral half, including atrium and ventricle, of the heart. 2. A congenital malformation of the heart in which only two of the usual four chambers are formed. [hemi- + G. kardia, heart] h. dextra right side of the heart. h. sinistra left side of the heart.

hemicellulose (hem-e-sel′u-los)
Plant cell-wall polysaccharides closely associated with cellulose, such as xylans, mannans, and galactans. SYN: cellulosan.

hemicentrum (hem′e-sen′trum)
One of the two lateral halves of the body of the vertebra. [hemi- + G. kentron, center]

hemicephalalgia (hem′e-sef′a-lal′je-a)
The unilateral headache characteristic of typical migraine. SYN: hemicrania (2) . [hemi- + G. kephale, head, + algos, pain]

hemicephalia (hem-e-se-fa′le-a)
Congenital failure of the cerebrum to develop normally; usually the cerebellum and basal ganglia are represented at least in rudimentary form. SYN: partial anencephaly. [hemi- + G. kephale, head]

hemicerebrum (hem′e-ser′e-brum)
A cerebral hemisphere.

hemicholinium (hem′e-ko-lin′e-um)
A chemical which interferes with the synthesis of acetylcholine in cholinergic nerve terminals.

Hemichorda (hem-e-kor′da)
SYN: Hemichordata.

Hemichordata (hem′e-kor-da′ta)
A phylum composed of soft-bodied, bilaterally symmetric wormlike marine animals with gill-slits to the pharynx and a conical proboscis; a ciliated larval stage resembles that of echinoderms. SYN: Hemichorda. [hemi- + Mod. L. chordata, having a notochord, fr. G. chorde, string]

hemichorea (hem′e-kor-e′a)
Chorea involving the muscles on one side only. SYN: hemilateral chorea.

hemicolectomy (hem′e-ko-lek′to-me)
Removal of the right or left side of the colon. [hemi- + G. kolon, colon, + ektome, excision]

hemicorporectomy (hem′e-kor-po-rek′to-me)
Surgical removal of the lower half of the body, including the lower extremities, bony pelvis, genitalia, and various of the pelvic contents including the lower part of the rectum and the anus. [hemi- + L. corpus, body, + G. ektome, excision]

hemicrania (hem-e-kra′ne-a)
1. SYN: migraine. 2. SYN: hemicephalalgia. [hemi- + G. kranion, skull]

hemicraniectomy (hem′e-kra-ne-ek′tome)
SYN: hemicraniotomy. [hemi- + G. kranion, skull, + ektome, excision]

hemicraniosis (hem′e-kra-ne-o′sis)
Enlargement of one side of the cranium.

hemicraniotomy (hem′e-kra-ne-ot′o-me)
Separation and reflection of the greater part or all of one half of the cranium, as a preliminary to an operation upon the brain. SYN: hemicraniectomy. [hemi- + G. kranion, skull, + tome, cut]

hemidesmosomes (hem-e-des′mo-somz)
Half desmosomes that occur on the basal surface of the stratum basalis of stratified squamous epithelium.

hemidiaphoresis (hem′e-di-a-fo-re′sis)
Diaphoresis, or sweating, on one side of the body. SYN: hemidrosis, hemihidrosis.

hemidrosis (hem-i-dro′sis)
SYN: hemidiaphoresis.

hemidysesthesia (hem′e-dis-es-the′-ze-a)
Dysesthesia affecting one side of the body.

hemidystrophy (hem-e-dis′tro-fe)
Underdevelopment of one lateral half of the body. [hemi- + G. dys-, ill, + trophe, nourishment, growth]

hemiectromelia (hem′e-ek-tro-me′le-a)
Defective development of the limbs on one side of the body. [hemi- + ectromelia]

hemifacial (hem-e-fa′shal)
Pertaining to one side of the face.

hemigastrectomy (hem′e-gas-trek-to-me)
Excision of the distal one-half of the stomach.

hemigeusia (hem′e-goo′se-a)
SYN: hemiageusia.

hemiglossal (hem′e-glos′al)
SYN: hemilingual. [hemi- + G. glossa, tongue]

hemiglossectomy (hem′e-glos-ek′to-me)
Surgical removal of one-half of the tongue. [hemi- + G. glossa, tongue, + ektome, excision]

hemiglossitis (hem′e-glos-i′tis)
A vesicular eruption on one side of the tongue and the corresponding inner surface of the cheek, probably herpetic. [hemi- + G. glossa, tongue, + -itis, inflammation]

hemignathia (hem-e-nath′e-a)
Defective development of one side of the mandible. [hemi- + G. gnathos, jaw]

hemihepatectomy (hem′e-hep-a-tek′to-me)
Surgical removal of one-half or a lobe of the liver.

hemihidrosis (hem′e-hi-dro′sis)
SYN: hemidiaphoresis.

hemihydranencephaly (hem-e-hi′dran-en-sef′a-le)
A unilateral form of hydranencephaly.

hemihypalgesia (hem′e-hi-pal-je′ze-a)
Hypalgesia affecting one side of the body.




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