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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hemocryoscopy (he′mo-kri-os′ko-pe)
Determination of the freezing point of blood. [hemo- + G. kryos, cold, + skopeo, to examine]

hemocuprein (he-mo-koo′pre-in)
SYN: cytocuprein.

hemocyanin (he-mo-si′a-nin)
An oxygen-carrying pigment (molecular weights between 0.45 and 13 × 106) of lower sea animals (including molluscs and crustacea) and arthropods; copper is an essential component, but it contains no heme; used as an experimental antigen.

hemocyte (he′mo-sit)
Any cell or formed element of the blood. SYN: hematocyte. [hemo- + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]

hemocytoblast (he′mo-si′to-blast)
A blood cell derived from embryonic mesenchyme, characterized by basophilic cytoplasm and a relatively large nucleus with a spongy, loose network of chromatin and several nucleoli; mitochondria are extremely fine and delicate. Hemocytoblasts represent the primitive stem cells of the monophyletic theory of the origin of blood and have the potentiality of developing into erythroblasts, young forms of the granulocytic series, megakaryocytes, etc. SYN: hematocytoblast, hemoblast. [hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + blastos, germ]

hemocytocatheresis (he′mo-si′to-ka-ther′e-sis)
Hemolysis, or other type of destruction of red blood cells. [hemo- + G. kytos, a hollow (cell), + kathairesis, destruction]

hemocytolysis (he′mo-si-tol′i-sis)
The dissolution of blood cells, including hemolysis. SYN: hematocytolysis. [hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + lysis, dissolution]

hemocytometer (he′mo-si-tom′e-ter)
An apparatus for estimating the number of blood cells in a quantitatively measured volume of blood; it consists of a glass pipette with an ampulla for collecting and diluting the blood, and a counting chamber marked in squares. SYN: hemacytometer, hematimeter, hematocytometer. [hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + metron, measure]

hemocytometry (he′mo-si-tom′e-tre)
The counting of red blood cells.

hemocytotripsis (he′mo-si-to-trip′sis)
Fragmentation or disintegration of blood cells by means of mechanical trauma, e.g., compression between hard surfaces. [hemo- + G. kytos, + tripsis, a grinding]

hemocytozoon (he′mo-si-to-zo′on)
A protozoon parasite of the blood cells. SYN: hemacytozoon, hematocytozoon. [hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + zoon, animal]

hemodiagnosis (he′mo-di-ag-no′sis)
Diagnosis by means of examination of the blood.

hemodialysis (he′mo-di-al′i-sis)
Dialysis of soluble substances and water from the blood by diffusion through a semipermeable membrane; separation of cellular elements and colloids from soluble substances is achieved by pore size in the membrane and rates of diffusion.

hemodialyzer (he-mo-di′a-li-zer)
A machine for hemodialysis in acute or chronic renal failure; toxic substances in the blood are removed by exposure to dialyzing fluid across a semipermeable membrane. SYN: artificial kidney. ultrafiltration h. a h. that uses fluid pressure differentials to bring about loss (usually) of protein-free fluid from the blood to the bath.

hemodiastase (he-mo-di′as-tas)
Blood amylase.

hemodilution (he′mo-di-loo′shun)
Increase in the volume of plasma in relation to red blood cells; reduced concentration of red blood cells in the circulation.

hemodynamic (he′mo-di-nam′ik)
Relating to the physical aspects of the blood circulation.

hemodynamics (he′mo-di-nam′iks)
The study of the dynamics of the blood circulation. [hemo- + G. dynamis, power]

hemodyscrasia (he′mo-dis-kra′ze-a)
Any abnormal condition or disorder of the blood and hemopoietic tissue, used especially with reference to those resulting in changes in the formed elements. SYN: hematodyscrasia. [hemo- + G. dyscrasia, bad temperament]

hemodystrophy (he-mo-dis′tro-fe)
Any disease or abnormal condition of the blood and hemopoietic tissues, exclusive of simple transitory changes. SYN: hematodystrophy.

hemofiltration (he′mo-fil-tra′shun)
A process, similar to hemodialysis, by which blood is dialyzed using ultrafiltration, and usually to remove a specific product of fluid volume.

hemoflagellates (he-mo-flaj′e-lats)
Protozoan flagellates in the family Trypanosomatidae that are parasitic in the blood of many species of domestic and wild animals and birds, and of humans; they include the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma, several species of which are important pathogens. [hemo- + L. flagellum, dim. of flagrum, a whip]

hemofuscin (he-mo-fus′in)
A brown pigment derived from hemoglobin that occurs in urine occasionally along with hemosiderin, usually indicative of increased red blood cell destruction; occurs also in the liver with hemosiderin in cases of hemochromatosis.

hemogenesis (he-mo-jen′e-sis)
SYN: hemopoiesis.

hemogenic (he-mo-jen′ik)
SYN: hemopoietic.

hemoglobin (Hb) (he-mo-glo′bin) [MIM*141800–142310]
The red respiratory protein of erythrocytes, consisting of approximately 3.8% heme and 96.2% globin, with a molecular weight of 64,450, which as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues where the oxygen is readily released and HbO2 becomes Hb. When Hb is exposed to certain chemicals, its normal respiratory function is blocked; e.g., the oxygen in HbO2 is easily displaced by carbon monoxide, thereby resulting in the formation of fairly stable carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO), as in asphyxiation resulting from inhalation of exhaust fumes from gasoline engines. When the iron in Hb is oxidized from the ferrous to ferric state, as in poisoning with nitrates and certain other chemicals, a nonrespiratory compound, methemoglobin (MetHb), is formed. In humans there are at least five kinds of normal Hb: two embryonic Hb's (Hb Gower-1, Hb Gower-2), fetal (Hb F), and two adult types (Hb A, Hb A2). There are two α globin chains containing 141 amino acid residues, and two of another kind (β, γ, δ, ε, or ζ), each containing 146 amino acid residues in four of the Hb's. Hb Gower-1 has two ζ chains and two ε chains. The production of each kind of globin chain is controlled by a structural gene of similar Greek letter designation; normal individuals are homozygous for the normal allele at each locus. Substitution of one amino acid for another in the polypeptide chain can occur at any codon in any of the five loci and have resulted in the production of many hundreds of abnormal Hb types, most of no known clinical significance. In addition, deletions of one or more amino acid residues are known, as well as gene rearrangements due to unequal crossing over between homologous chromosomes. The Hb types below are the main abnormal types known to be of clinical significance. Newly discovered abnormal Hb types are first assigned a name, usually the location where discovered, and a molecular formula is added when determined. The formula consists of Greek letters to designate the basic chains, with subscript 2 if there are two identical chains; a superscript letter (A if normal for adult Hb, etc.) is added, or the superscript may designate the site of amino acid substitution (numbering amino acid residues from the N-terminus of the polypeptide) and specifying the change, using standard abbreviations for the amino acids. There is an exhaustive listing of variant hemoglobins in MIM where a composite numbering system is used. h. A [MIM*141800] normal adult Hb (Hb A) with formula α2Aβ2A or α2β2. h. A2 [MIM*141850] the normal Hb (Hb A2) of the formula α2Aδ2 or α2δ2, which makes up approximately 2.5% of the total adult h. concentration. At least 18 mutant variants of the δ chain have been reported. h. AIc the major fraction of glycosylated h.. aberrant h. a mutant Hb that functions abnormally. Cf.:variant h.. h. anti-Lepore a group of abnormal hemoglobins similar to h. Lepore. These hemoglobins have normal α chains, but the non-α chain consists of the N-terminal portion of the β chain joined to the C-terminal portion of the δ chain. This is the opposite crossing over pattern observed in h. Lepore. Examples of h. anti-Lepore include HbMiyada, Hb PCongo, Hb PNilotic, and HbLincoln Park. There is also one variant that is both h. Lepore and h. anti-Lepore (HbParchman). Cf.:h. Lepore. h. Bart [MIM*142309] a Hb homotetramer (all four polypeptides identical) of formula γ4, found in the early embryo and in α-thalassemia 2; not effective in oxygen transport; does not display a Bohr effect. bile pigment h. SYN: choleglobin. h. C [MIM*141900.0038] an abnormal Hb with substitution of lysyl residue for glutamyl at the 6th position of the β chain, of formula α22Aβ26Glu→Lys, this type reduces the normal plasticity of erythrocytes. Heterozygotes: Hb C trait, about 28–44% of total Hb is Hb C, no anemia. Homozygotes: nearly all Hb is Hb C, moderate normocytic hemolytic anemia. Individuals heterozygous for both Hb C and Hb S (Hb SC disease) and for Hb C and thalassemia are known, and have atypical hemolytic anemias; sickling is enhanced in Hb SC disease. h. CGeorgetown, h. CHarlem [MIM*141900.0039] two abnormal Hb's, both with the substitution of a valyl residue for a glutamyl residue at the 6th position of the β chain as in Hb S, and in addition, each has a second substitution of an asparaginyl residue for an aspartyl residue at position 73 of the β chain; both types cause sickling of erythrocytes similar to Hb S. carbon monoxide h. SYN: carboxyhemoglobin. h. Chesapeake (HbChesapeake) [MIM*141800.0018] an abnormal h. with a single α chain substitution, molecular formula α292Arg→Leuβ2A; heterozygotes have polycythemia, apparently to compensate for the increased oxygen affinity of this Hb, resulting in decreased liberation of oxygen in the tissues. h. Constant Spring an abnormal h. having an extended polypeptide chain (31 additional amino acyl residues) on the α chain (thus, the α chain is 172 amino acids long); approximately 20% of the individuals with Hb H disease also have this defect. h. DPunjab [MIM*141900.0065] an abnormal Hb with a single β chain substitution, molecular formula α2Aβ2121Glu→Gln; heterozygotes are asymptomatic, homozygotes have mild hemolytic anemia; there is an increase in O2 affinity; identical to h. DLos Angeles, h. DNorth Carolina, h. DPortugal, h. DChicago, and hemoblogin Oak Ridge. h. E [MIM*141900.0071] an abnormal Hb with a single β chain substitution, molecular formula α2Aβ226Glu→Lys, common in Southeast Asia, especially Thailand; heterozygotes are asymptomatic with 35–45% Hb E; homozygotes have mild to moderate hemolytic anemia with 90–100% Hb E and the remainder Hb F. embryonic h. h. Gower-1, h. Gower-2. h. F [MIM*142200] normal fetal Hb (Hb F) of molecular formula α2Aγ2F, which is the major Hb component during intrauterine life, decreasing rapidly during infancy to reach a concentration of less than 0.5% in normal children and adults; the concentration of Hb F is increased in some hemoglobinopathies and in some cases of hypoplastic anemia, pernicious anemia, and leukemia; Hb F has a weaker affinity for 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate than does Hb A. More than 50 mutant variants of the γ chain have been reported. SYN: fetal h.. fetal h. SYN: h. F. h. F (hereditary persistence of) [MIM*142200.0026] a condition due to an allele that depresses synthesis of β and δ chains (as in thalassemia), but this is fully compensated by increased γ chain synthesis and there is no anemia; there are 3 types: 1) African type, no β or δ chain synthesis by the chromosome with the abnormal gene, heterozygotes have 20–30% Hb F and Hb A2 slightly decreased, homozygotes form no Hb A or Hb A2; 2) Greek type, reduced β and δ chain synthesis, heterozygotes have 10–20% Hb F and normal Hb A2; 3) Swiss type, heterozygotes have only 1 to 3% Hb F and normal Hb A2. glycosylated h. any one of four h. A fractions (AIa1, AIa2, AIb, or AIc) to which d-glucose and related monosaccharides are covalently linked; concentrations are increased in the erythrocytes of patients with diabetes mellitus and can be used as a retrospective index of glucose control over time in such patients. h. Gower-1 a Hb of molecular formula ζ2ε2, found as a minor Hb in the early embryo; disappears by the third month of pregnancy in favor of h. Gower-2 and hemaglobin Portland and then by Hb F; the ζ chain has 141 amino acid residues. Synthesis of the ζ chain is deficient in cases of hydrops fetalis. Cf.:h. Gower-2, h. Portland. h. Gower-2 a normal Hb of molecular formula α2Aε2, which is a major Hb component of the early embryo; production of ε chains normally ceases at about the third month of fetal development and is replaced by Hb F. Cf.:h. Gower-1, h. Portland. green h. SYN: choleglobin. h. H [MIM*142309] a homotetramer of Hb (all four polypeptides identical) of molecular formula β4, found only when α chain synthesis is depressed and not effective in oxygen transport. Hb H disease (α-thalassemia intermedia) is a thalassemialike syndrome in individuals heterozygous for both severe and mild genes for α-thalassemia; moderate anemia and red cell abnormalities with 25–35% Hb Bart at birth, but with Hb Bart later replaced by Hb H and with Hb A2 decreased. Hb H shows no cooperativity with O2 binding and does not exhibit a Bohr effect. h. I [MIM*141800.0055] an abnormal Hb with a single α chain substitution, molecular formula α216Lys→Gluβ2A; a thalassemialike syndrome has been found in persons heterozygous for both Hb I and α-thalassemia genes, with formation of about 70% Hb I. h. JCapetown [MIM*141800.0063] an abnormal Hb with a single α chain substitution, molecular formula α292Arg→Glnβ2A; heterozygotes have polycythemia because of increased oxygen affinity of this Hb. h. Kansas [MIM*141900.0145] an abnormal Hb of molecular formula α2Aβ2102Asn→Thr; found in association with familial cyanosis due to decreased oxygen affinity of this Hb. h. Lepore [MIM 142000-various] a group of abnormal Hb's with normal α chains, but the non-α chains consist of the N-terminal portion of the δ chain joined to the C-terminal portion of the β chain, apparently as the result of nonhomologous pairing and crossing over between the genes for β and δ chains. The major types are Hb LeporeBoston (identical to Hb LeporeWashington), Hb LeporeHollandia, and Hb LeporeBaltimore, which differ in the region of crossing over (δ87–β116, δ22–β50, and δ50–β86, respectively). Heterozygotes form about 10% Hb Lepore, normal amounts of Hb A2, and moderately increased amounts of Hb F and usually have mild anemia, microcytosis, and hypochromia; homozygotes form only Hb Lepore and Hb F and have severe anemia. Cf.:h. anti-Lepore. h. M [MIM*142310 & various] a group of abnormal Hb's in which a single amino acid substitution favors the formation of methemoglobin in spite of normal quantities of methemoglobin reductase. Strictly speaking, Hb's M are hemoglobins with mutations at the proximal or distal histidyl residues. Other Hb's M tend to favor the Fe(III) state. Heterozygotes have congenital methemoglobinemia; the homozygous state of these genes is unknown and is presumably lethal. Specific types include: Hb MIwate, α87His→Tyr (α chain, position 87, histidine replaced by tyrosine); Hb M Hyde Park, β92His→Tyr; Hb MBoston, α58His→Tyr; Hb MSaskatoon, β63His→Tyr; Hb MMilwaukee-1, β67Val→Glu. mean corpuscular h. (MCH) the h. content of the average red cell, calculated from the h. therein and the red cell count, in erythrocyte indices. muscle h. SYN: myoglobin. oxygenated h. SYN: oxyhemoglobin. h. Portland a form of embryonic h. containing the ζ chains of h. Gower-1 and the γ chains of Hb F, thus having the formula ζ2γ2; essentially disappears by the third month of pregnancy. Cf.:h. Gower-1, h. Gower-2. h. Rainier [MIM*141900-0232] an abnormal Hb of the molecular formula α2Aβ2145Tyr→Cys; heterozygotes have polycythemia because of increased oxygen affinity of this Hb. reduced h. the form of Hb in red blood cells after the oxygen of oxyhemoglobin is released in the tissues. h. S [MIM*141900] an abnormal Hb with substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the 6th position of the β chain; the formula is α2Aβ2S, or, more specifically, α2Aβ26Glu→Val. Heterozygous state: sickle cell trait, no anemia, Hb S 20–45% of total, the rest Hb A. Homozygous state: sickle cell anemia, Hb S 75–100% of total, the rest Hb F or Hb A2. SYN: sickle cell h.. sickle cell h. (Hb S) SYN: h. S. unstable hemoglobins a group of rare Hb's with amino acid substitutions (or amino acid deletions in three types) that alter the three-dimensional shape of the globin in a manner that renders the molecule unstable; they have an increased but variable tendency to autooxidation and Heinz body formation and are associated with congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The unstable β-chain abnormalities include Hb's Genova, Gun Hill, Hammersmith, Köln, Philly, Sabine, Santa Ana, Sydney, Wien, and Zürich; unstable α-chain abnormalities include Hb's Bibba, Sinai, and Torino. variant h. a harmless mutant form of Hb. h. Yakima [MIM*141900-0301] an abnormal Hb of the molecular formula α2Aβ299Asp→His; heterozygotes have polycythemia because of increased oxygen affinity of this Hb.

hemoglobinemia (he′mo-glo-bi-ne′me-a)
The presence of free hemoglobin in the blood plasma, as when intravascular hemolysis occurs. paroxysmal nocturnal h. an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by formation of defective platelets, granulocytes, erythrocytes, and possibly lymphocytes. The red cell abnormality causes complement-mediated intravascular lysis, which may be expressed in an irregular or even occult manner. puerperal h. SYN: postparturient hemoglobinuria.

hemoglobinocholia (he′mo-glo′bi-no-ko′le-a)
The presence of hemoglobin in the bile. [hemoglobin + G. chole, bile]

hemoglobinolysis (he′mo-glo-bi-nol′i-sis)
Destruction or chemical splitting of hemoglobin. SYN: hemoglobinopepsia. [hemoglobin + G. lysis, dissolution]

hemoglobinopathy (he′mo-glo-bi-nop′a-the)
A disorder or disease caused by or associated with the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood, e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin C, D, E, H, or I disorders. Occasionally, combinations of abnormal hemoglobins are seen in hemoglobinopathies. [hemoglobin + G. pathos, disease]

hemoglobinopepsia (he-mo-glo′bi-no-pep′se-a)
SYN: hemoglobinolysis. [hemoglobin + G. pepsis, digestion]

hemoglobinophilic (he′mo-glo′bi-no-fil′ik)
Denoting certain microorganisms that cannot be cultured except in the presence of hemoglobin. [hemoglobin + G. phileo, to love]

hemoglobinuria (he′mo-glo-bi-noo′re-a)
The presence of hemoglobin in the urine, including certain closely related pigments that are formed from slight alteration of the hemoglobin molecule; when present in sufficient quantities, they result in the urine being colored varying shades from light red-yellow to fairly dark red. [hemoglobin + G. ouron, urine] epidemic h. the presence of hemoglobin, or of pigments derived from it, in the urine of young infants, attended with cyanosis, jaundice, and other conditions; may be due to secondary methemoglobinemia; also called Winckel disease. intermittent h. recurrent episodic attacks of h. characteristic of paroxysmal nocturnal h. or paroxysmal cold h.. malarial h. a condition, now uncommon, resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection (malignant tertian malaria with severe hemolysis); seen in whites after interrupted treatment. SYN: blackwater fever, hemoglobinuric fever, West African fever. march h. a form occurring after marathon races, protracted marching, or heavy physical exercise. paroxysmal cold h. a rare disorder in which acute severe hemolysis follows exposure to cold. paroxysmal nocturnal h. an infrequent disorder with insidious onset (usually in the third or fourth decade) and chronic course, characterized by episodes of hemolytic anemia, h. (chiefly at night), pallor, icterus or bronzing of the skin, a moderate degree of splenomegaly, and sometimes hepatomegaly; red blood cells are usually macrocytic and vary considerably in size, but there is no evidence of spherocytosis, erythrophagocytosis, or abnormal leukocytes. The disorder is a result of an abnormality of the red cell membrane which makes the red cell unusually sensitive to lysis by complement. SYN: Marchiafava-Micheli anemia, Marchiafava-Micheli syndrome. postparturient h. a sudden, severe hemolytic disease that appears sporadically in well-nourished dairy cows 2–4 weeks after calving, and usually occurs in stabled animals in the winter and early spring; the cause is not known, although the disease is often associated with hypophosphatemia. SYN: puerperal hemoglobinemia. toxic h. h. occurring after the ingestion of various poisons, in certain blood diseases, and in certain infections.

hemoglobinuric (he′mo-glo-bi-noo′rik)
Relating to or marked by hemoglobinuria.

hemogram (he′mo-gram)
A complete detailed record of the findings in a thorough examination of the blood, especially with reference to the numbers, proportions, and morphologic features of the formed elements. [hemo- + G. gramma, a drawing]

hemohistioblast (he′mo-his′te-o-blast)
A primitive mesenchymal cell believed to be capable of developing into all types of blood cells, including monocytes, and into histiocytes. SYN: Ferrata cell, hematohistioblast. [hemo- + G. histion, web, + blastos, germ]

hemolamella (he′mo-la-mel′a)
Obsolete term for platelet.

hemolipase (he-mo-lip′as)
Blood lipase.

hemolith (he′mo-lith)
A concretion in the wall of a blood vessel. [hemo- + G. lithos, stone]

hemology (he-mol′o-je)
SYN: hematology.

hemolymph (he′mo-limf)
1. The blood and lymph, in the sense of a “circulating tissue.” 2. The nutrient fluid of certain invertebrates. [hemo- + L. lympha, clear water]

hemolysate (he-mol′i-sat)
Preparation resulting from the lysis of erythrocytes.

hemolysin (he-mol′i-sin)
1. Any substance elaborated by a living agent and capable of causing lysis of red blood cells and liberation of their hemoglobin. SYN: erythrocytolysin, erythrolysin. 2. A sensitizing (complement-fixing) antibody that combines with red blood cells of the antigenic type that stimulated formation of the h., a fixing complement with the antibody-cell union resulting in lysis of the cells. α h. α′ hemolysis. β h. β hemolysis. bacterial h. any hemolytic agent elaborated by various species of bacteria, or by certain strains within a species. cold h. SYN: Donath-Landsteiner cold autoantibody. heterophil h. a sensitizing antibody that can combine with red blood cells of various species (in addition to those used as the antigen in stimulating the formation of the h.), resulting in hemolysis when the proper amount of complement is present. immune h. a sensitizing, complement-fixing, hemolytic antibody formed in an animal as the result of parenteral administration of red blood cells or whole blood from another species; immune h. may also be formed in human beings who are transfused with human blood that is antigenic in the recipient, e.g., the formation of anti-Rh antibody in an Rh-negative person who is treated with Rh-positive red blood cells. natural h. h. occurring in the plasma of an animal of one species, e.g., a dog, which fixes complement with the red blood cells of some other species, e.g., a rabbit, thereby causing hemolysis of the cells of the rabbit, although the dog was not previously exposed to antigenic stimulation with such cells. specific h. a sensitizing, complement-fixing, hemolytic antibody that reacts totally or completely with red blood cells of the antigenic type used to stimulate the formation of the h.. warm-cold h. h. which combines with red blood cells at temperatures below 20°C and are eluted at warmer temperatures, e.g., 30–37°C. See Donath-Landsteiner cold autoantibody, hemagglutinating cold autoantibody.

hemolysinogen (he′mo-li-sin′o-jen)
The antigenic material in red blood cells that stimulates the formation of hemolysin.

hemolysis (he-mol′i-sis)
Alteration, dissolution, or destruction of red blood cells in such a manner that hemoglobin is liberated into the medium in which the cells are suspended, e.g., by specific complement-fixing antibodies, toxins, various chemical agents, tonicity, alteration of temperature. SYN: erythrocytolysis, erythrolysis, hematolysis. [hemo- + G. lysis, destruction] α′ h. h. observed in blood agar cultures of occasional strains of pneumococci or streptococci; the zone of h. about the colony is greenish caused by a partial decomposition of hemoglobin. β h. complete or “true” h. observed in blood agar cultures of various bacteria, especially hemolytic streptococci and staphylococci; virtually all of the erythrocytes are destroyed in a relatively wide, regularly circumscribed, circular zone about the colony, thereby resulting in a clear “halo” of transparent agar; the zone of h. is frequently much wider than the diameter of the colony; the degree of change varies with species of erythrocytes. biologic h. h. caused by materials elaborated by various living organisms. conditioned h. SYN: immune h.. γ h. a term sometimes used to indicate that there is no h. in relation to bacterial colonies in or on blood agar; thus, nonhemolytic organisms may be referred to as producing γ h.. immune h. h. caused by complement when erythrocytes have been sensitized by specific complement-fixing antibody. SYN: conditioned h.. phenylhydrazine h. (fen′il-hi′-dra-zin) an in vitro test for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency; hem olysis resulting from in vitro addition of phenylhydrazine to blood with red cells which are deficient in G6PD, with the appearance of Heinz-Ehrlich bodies. venom h. that caused by hemolytic material in the venom of various species of snakes or other venomous animals. viridans h. α′ h..

hemolytic (he-mo-lit′ik)
Destructive to blood cells, resulting in liberation of hemoglobin. SYN: hematolytic, hemotoxic (2) , hematotoxic, hematoxic.

hemolyzation (he′mol-i-za′shun)
The production or occurrence of hemolysis.

hemolyze (he′mo-liz)
To produce hemolysis or liberation of the hemoglobin from red blood cells.

hemomediastinum (he′mo-me-de-a-sti′num)
Blood in the mediastinum.

hemometra (he-mo-me′tra)
SYN: hematometra.

hemometry (he-mom′e-tre)
SYN: hematometry.

hemopathology (he′mo-pa-thol′o-je)
SYN: hematopathology.

hemopathy (he-mop′a-the)
Any abnormal condition or disease of the blood or hemopoietic tissues. SYN: hematopathy. [hemo- + G. pathos, suffering]

hemoperfusion (he′mo-per-fu′zhun)
Passage of blood through columns of adsorptive material, such as activated charcoal, to remove toxic substances from the blood. [hemo- + L. perfusio, to pass through]

hemopericardium (he′mo-par′-i-kar′de-um)
Blood in the pericardial sac.

hemoperitoneum (he′mo-par-i-to-ne′um)
Blood in the peritoneal cavity.

hemopexin (hem-o-peks′in)
A serum glycoprotein related to β-globulins, with molecular weight around 57,000, containing 22% carbohydrate; important in binding heme and porphyrins, preventing excretion, and perhaps regulating heme in drug metabolism. [hemo- + G. pexis, fixation, + -in]

hemophagia (he-mo-fa′je-a)
SYN: hematophagia. [hemo- + G. phagein, to eat]

hemophagocytosis (he′mo-fag′o-si-to′sis)
The process of engulfment (and usually destruction) of blood cells by the various types of phagocytic cells; used especially with reference to the engulfment of erythrocytes and others of the erythroid series.

hemophil, hemophile (he′mo-fil, -fil)
A microorganism growing preferably in media containing blood. [hemo- + G. philos, fond]

hemophilia (he-mo-fil′e-a)
An inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhages, spontaneous or traumatic, because of a defect in the blood coagulating mechanism. [hemo- + G. philos, fond] h. A [MIM*306700-various] h. due to deficiency of factor VIII; an X-linked recessive condition, occurring almost exclusively in human males and also affecting several breeds of dogs, characterized by prolonged clotting time, decreased formation of thromboplastin, and diminished conversion of prothrombin. SYN: classic h.. h. B [MIM*306900-various] a clotting disorder resembling h. A, caused by hereditary deficiency of factor IX; also seen as an X-linked recessive condition in the Cairn terrier breed of dogs. SYN: Christmas disease. h. C h. due to deficiency of factor XI; clinically resembles h. A and B but is transmitted as an autosomal dominant inheritance; occurs primarily in persons of Jewish ancestry. classic h. SYN: h. A.

hemophiliac (he-mo-fil′e-ak)
A person suffering from hemophilia.




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