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Medical Dictionary


heparinase (hep′a-rin-as)
SYN: heparin lyase.

heparinemia (hep′a-ri-ne′me-a)
The presence of demonstrable levels of heparin in the circulating blood.

heparinic acid (hep-a-rin′ik)
SYN: heparin.

heparinize (hep′a-rin-iz)
To perform therapeutic administration of heparin.

heparitin sulfate (hep′a-rit-in)
A heteropolysaccharide that has the same repeating disaccharide as heparin but with fewer sulfates and more acetyl groups; accumulates in individuals with certain types of mucopolysaccharidosis. SYN: heparan sulfate.

hepat-, hepato-
The liver. [G. hepar (hepat-)]

hepatatrophia, hepatatrophy (hep′a-ta-tro′fe-a, hep-a-tat′ro-fe)
Atrophy of the liver.

hepatectomy (hep-a-tek′to-me)
Removal of the liver, whole or in part. [hepat- + G. ektome, excision]

hepatic (he-pat′ik)
Relating to the liver. [G. hepatikos]

hepaticodochotomy (he-pat′i-ko-do-kot′o-me)
Combined hepaticotomy and choledochotomy.

hepaticoduodenostomy (he-pat′i-ko-doo′o-de-nos′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the hepatic ducts and the duodenum. SYN: hepatoduodenostomy. [hepatico- + duodenostomy]

hepaticoenterostomy (he-pat′i-ko-en-ter-os′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the hepatic ducts and the intestine. SYN: hepatocholangioenterostomy. [hepatico- + enterostomy]

hepaticogastrostomy (he-pat′i-ko-gas-tros′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the hepatic duct and the stomach. [hepatico- + gastrostomy]

hepaticolithotomy (he-pat′i-ko-li-thot′o-me)
Removal of a stone from a hepatic duct. [hepatico- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, a cutting]

hepaticolithotripsy (he-pat′i-ko-lith′o-trip-se)
The crushing or fragmentation of a biliary calculus in a hepatic duct. [hepatico- + G. lithos, stone, + tripsis, a rubbing]

hepaticopulmonary (he-pat′i-ko-pul′mo-nar-e)
SYN: hepatopneumonic.

hepaticostomy (he-pat-i-kos′to-me)
Establishment of an opening into the hepatic duct. [hepatico- + G. stoma, mouth]

hepaticotomy (he-pat-i-kot′o-me)
Incision into the hepatic duct. [hepatico- + G. tome, incision]

hepatin (hep′a-tin)
SYN: glycogen.

hepatitic (hep-a-tit′ik)
Relating to hepatitis.

hepatitis (hep-a-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the liver, due usually to viral infection but sometimes to toxic agents. [hepat- + -itis] Previously endemic throughout much of the developing world, viral h. now ranks as a major public health problem in industrialized nations. The 3 most common types of viral h. (A, B, and C) afflict millions worldwide. Acute viral h. is characterized by varying degrees of fever, malaise, weakness, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal distress. Hepatocellular damage causes bilirubin retention, often with jaundice, and a rise in serum levels of certain enzymes (particularly transaminases). H. A, caused by an enterovirus, is spread by the fecal-oral route, most often through ingestion of contaminated food or water. The case fatality rate is less than 1%, and recovery is complete. The presence of antibody to h. A virus indicates prior infection, noninfectivity, and immunity to future attacks. H. B, due to a small DNA virus, is transmitted through sexual contact, sharing of needles by IV drug abusers, needlestick injuries among health care workers, and from mother to fetus. The annual incidence in the U.S. is 300,000 cases. The incubation period is 6–24 weeks. Some patients become carriers, and in some an immune response to the virus induces a chronic phase leading to cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. H. B surface antigen (HBsAg) is detectable early in serum; its persistence correlates with chronic infection and infectivity. Core antigen (HBcAg) appears later and also indicates infectivity. H. C is the principal form of transfusion-induced h.; a chronic active form often develops. Acute infection with h. B or C has a higher mortality rate than h. A. Effective vaccines are available for active immunization against h. A and h. B. Interferon-alpha brings about clinical remission in some cases of h. B and h. C. H. D is due to an RNA virus capable of causing disease only in persons previously infected with h. B. H. E, which occurs chiefly in the tropics, resembles h. A in that it is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and does not become chronic or lead to a carrier state, but it has a much higher mortality rate. h. A SYN: viral h. type A. acute parenchymatous h. SYN: acute massive liver necrosis. anicteric h. h. without jaundice. anicteric virus h. a relatively mild h., without jaundice, due to a virus; the principal physical signs and symptoms are enlargement of the liver, lymph nodes, and often the spleen, together with headache, continuous fatigue, nausea, anorexia, sudden distaste for smoking, abdominal pains, and sometimes mild fever; laboratory tests reveal evidence of h.. h. B SYN: viral h. type B. h. C SYN: viral h. type C. cholangiolitic h. h. with inflammatory changes around small bile ducts, producing mainly obstructive jaundice; may be due to viral or bacterial infection ascending biliary tree because of obstruction. cholestatic h. jaundice with bile stasis in inflamed intrahepatic bile ducts; usually due to toxic effects of a drug. chronic h. any of several types of h. persisting for more than six months, often progressing to cirrhosis. SYN: chronic active liver disease. chronic active h. h. with chronic portal inflammation that extends into the parenchyma, with piecemeal necrosis and fibrosis which usually progresses to a coarsely nodular postnecrotic cirrhosis. SYN: juvenile cirrhosis, posthepatitic cirrhosis, subacute h.. chronic interstitial h. obsolete term for cirrhosis of the liver. chronic persistent h. SYN: chronic persisting h.. chronic persisting h. a form of chronic h. that is usually benign, not progressing to cirrhosis, and usually asymptomatic without physical findings but with continuing abnormalities of tests of liver status. SYN: chronic persistent h.. h. D SYN: viral h. type D. delta h. SYN: viral h. type D. drug-induced h. hepatocellular damage produced by a drug. h. E SYN: viral h. type E. epidemic h. SYN: viral h. type A. h. externa SYN: perihepatitis. h. F a disease caused by an as yet poorly characterized DNA virus. fulminant h. severe, rapidly progressive loss of hepatic function due to viral infection or other cause of inflammatory destruction of liver tissue. h. G a disease caused by an RNA virus similar to h. virus. giant cell h. SYN: neonatal h.. halothane h. hepatocellular damage said to result from the administration of halothane anesthesia. infectious h. (IH) SYN: viral h. type A. long incubation h. outdated name for h. B based on the longer incubation period (range 30–180 days, usually 60–90) compared with h. A (15–45 days, mean 30). lupoid h. jaundice with evidence of liver cell damage and positive antinuclear antibody or LE cell tests, but without evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus; liver biopsies usually show chronic active h. with infiltration by plasma cells, or postnecrotic cirrhosis; serum is negative for h. B antigen. SYN: plasma cell h.. MS-1 h. SYN: viral h. type A. NANB h. SYN: non-A, non-B h.. NANBNC h. abbreviation for non-A, non-B, non-C h.. neonatal h. h. in the neonatal period presumed to be due to any of a variety of causes, chiefly viral; characterized by direct and indirect bilirubinemia, hepatocellular degeneration, and appearance of multinucleated giant cells; may be difficult to distinguish from biliary atresia, but is more likely to end with recovery, although cirrhosis may develop. SYN: giant cell h.. non–A-E h. an acute h. not caused by any of the identified viral agents A through E. non-A, non-B h. h. caused by any number of infectious agents not detectable by methods that reveal the presence of h. viruses A and B. SYN: NANB h.. non-A, non-B, non-C h. (NANBNC h.) h. caused by viral organisms other than h. viruses A, B, or C. peliosis h. a rare condition in which the liver contains very numerous small blood-filled spaces, sometimes lined with endothelium; it may be found incidentally or rupture may cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage. plasma cell h. SYN: lupoid h.. serum h. (SH) SYN: viral h. type B. short incubation h. SYN: viral h. type A. subacute h. SYN: chronic active h.. suppurative h. h. with abscess formation; often amebic in origin. transfusion h. SYN: viral h. type B. viral h. 1. h. caused by any one of at least 7 immunologically unrelated viruses: h. A virus, h. B virus, h. C virus, h. D virus, h. E virus, h. F virus, h. G virus; 2. h. caused by a viral infection, including that by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus. SYN: virus h.. viral h. type A a virus disease with a short incubation period (usually 15–50 days), caused by h. A virus, a member of the family Picornaviridae, often transmitted by fecal-oral route; may be inapparent, mild, severe, or occasionally fatal and occurs sporadically or in epidemics, commonly in school-age children and young adults; necrosis of periportal liver cells with lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration is characteristic and jaundice is a common symptom. SYN: epidemic h., h. A, infectious h., MS-1 h., short incubation h., virus A h.. viral h. type B a virus disease with a long incubation period (usually 50–160 days), caused by a h. B virus, a DNA virus and member of the family Hepadnaviridae, usually transmitted by injection of infected blood or blood derivatives or by use of contaminated needles, lancets, or other instruments; clinically and pathologically similar to viral h. type A, but there is no cross-protective immunity; HBsAg is found in the serum and the h. delta virus occurs in some patients. SYN: h. B, serum h., transfusion h., virus B h.. viral h. type C (NANB); principal cause of non-A, non-B posttransfusion h. caused by an RNA virus that is classified with the Flaviviridae family. The incubation period is 6–8 weeks with about 75% of infections subclinical and giving rise to chronic persistent infection. A high percentage of these develop chronic liver disease leading to cirrhosis and possible hepatocellular carcinoma. SYN: h. C, virus C h.. viral h. type D acute or chronic h. caused by a satellite virus, the h. deltavirus, a defective RNA virus requiring HBV for replication since it uses HBsAg as its own coat. The acute type occurs in two forms: 1) coinfection, the simultaneous occurrence of h. B virus and h. delta virus infections, which usually is self-limiting; 2) superinfection, the appearance of h. delta virus infection in a h. B virus carrier, which often leads to chronic h. The chronic type appears to be more severe than other types of viral h.. SYN: delta h., h. D. viral h. type E h. caused by a nonenveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus 27–34 nm in diameter, unrelated to other h. and belonging to the family Caliciviridae; it is the principal cause of enterically transmitted, waterborne, epidemic NANB h. occurring primarily in Asia, Africa and South America. SYN: h. E. virus h. SYN: viral h.. virus A h. SYN: viral h. type A. virus B h. SYN: viral h. type B. virus C h. SYN: viral h. type C.

hepatization (hep′a-ti-za′shun)
Conversion of a loose tissue into a firm mass like the substance of the liver macroscopically, denoting especially such a change in the lungs in the consolidation of pneumonia. gray h. the second stage of h. in pneumonia, when the exudate is beginning to degenerate prior to breaking down; the color is a yellowish gray or mottled. red h. the first stage of h. in which the exudate is blood-stained. yellow h. the final stage of h. in which the exudate is becoming purulent.

See hepat-.

hepatoblastoma (hep′a-to-blas-to′ma)
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues.

hepatocarcinoma (hep′a-to-kar-si-no′ma)
SYN: hepatocellular carcinoma.

hepatocele (hep′a-to-sel, he-pat′o-sel)
Protrusion of part of the liver through the abdominal wall or the diaphragm. [hepato- + G. kele, hernia]

hepatocholangioenterostomy (hep′a-to-ko-lan′je-o-en-ter-os′to-me)
SYN: hepaticoenterostomy. [hepato- + G. chole, bile, + angeion, vessel, + enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]

hepatocholangiojejunostomy (hep′a-to-ko-lan′je-o-je-joo-nos′to-me)
Union of the hepatic duct to the jejunum. [hepato- + G. chole, bile, + angeion, vessel, + jejunostomy]

hepatocholangiostomy (hep′a-to-ko-lan-je-os′to-me)
Creation of an opening into the common bile duct to establish drainage.

hepatocholangitis (hep′a-to-ko-lan-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the liver and biliary tree.

hepatocuprein (hep′a-to-koo′pre-in)
SYN: cytocuprein.

hepatocystic (hep′a-to-sis′tik)
Relating to the gallbladder, or to both liver and gallbladder. [hepato- + G. kystis, bladder]

Hepatocystis (hep′a-to-sis′tis)
A genus of blood-parasitizing hemosporines (family Plasmodiidae) with gametocytes in red cells and cystlike exoerythrocytic schizonts in the liver parenchyma; parasitic in Old World primates, bats, and squirrels, but not in domestic animals or in the western hemisphere. The species H. kochi, a common parasite of African baboons and other monkeys, is transmitted by the biting midge, Culicoides. [hepato- + G. kystis, bladder]

hepatocyte (hep′a-to-sit)
A parenchymal liver cell.

hepatoduodenostomy (hep′a-to-doo-o-de-nos′to-me)
SYN: hepaticoduodenostomy.

hepatodysentery (hep′a-to-dis′en-ter-e)
Dysentery associated with liver disease.

hepatoenteric (hep′a-to-en-ter′ik)
Relating to the liver and the intestine. [hepato- + G. enteron, intestine]

hepatofugal (hep′a-to-fu′gal)
Away from the liver, usually referring to portal blood flow.

hepatogastric (hep′a-to-gas′trik)
Relating to the liver and the stomach.

hepatogenic, hepatogenous (hep-a-to-jen′ik, -toj′en-us)
Of hepatic origin; formed in the liver.

hepatography (hep-a-tog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the liver. [hepato- + G. graphe, a writing]

hepatohemia (hep′a-to-he′me-a)
Rarely used term for congestion of the liver. [hepato- + G. haima, blood]

hepatoid (hep′a-toyd)
Resembling or like the liver. [hepato- + G. eidos, resemblance]

hepatojugularometer (hep′a-to-jug′u-la-rom′e-ter)
An apparatus for the quantitative control and measurement of the pressure and force applied over the liver to test the hepatojugular reflux. [hepato- + L. jugulum, throat, + G. metron, measure]

hepatolienography (hep′a-to-li-en-og′ra-fe)
SYN: hepatosplenography. [hepato- + L. lien, spleen, + G. graphe, a writing]

hepatolienomegaly (hep′a-to-li′e-no-meg′a-le)
SYN: hepatosplenomegaly.

hepatolith (hep′a-to-lith)
A concretion in the liver. [hepato- + G. lithos, stone]

hepatolithectomy (hep′a-to-li-thek′to-me)
Removal of a calculus from the liver. [hepato- + G. lithos, stone, + ektome, excision]

hepatolithiasis (hep′a-to-li-thi′a-sis)
Presence of calculi in the liver. [hepato- + G. lithiasis, presence of a calculus]

hepatologist (hep-a-tol′o-jist)
A specialist in hepatology.

hepatology (hep-a-tol′o-je)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases of the liver. [hepato- + G. logos, study]

hepatolysin (hep-a-tol′i-sin)
A cytolysin that destroys parenchymal cells of the liver.

hepatoma (hep-a-to′ma)
See malignant h.. [hepato- + G. -oma, tumor] malignant h. SYN: hepatocellular carcinoma.

hepatomalacia (hep′a-to-ma-la′she-a)
Softening of the liver. [hepato- + G. malakia, softening]

hepatomegaly, hepatomegalia (hep′a-to-meg′a-le, -me-ga′le-a)
Enlargement of the liver. [hepato- + G. megas, large]

hepatomelanosis (hep′a-to-mel′a-no′sis)
Heavy pigmentation of the liver. [hepato- + G. melas, black, + -osis, condition]

hepatomphalocele (hep′a-tom-fal′o-sel, hep-a-tom′fa-lo-sel)
Umbilical hernia with involvement of the liver. SYN: hepatomphalos. [hepato- + omphalocele]

hepatomphalos (hep-a-tom′fa-los)
SYN: hepatomphalocele.

hepatonecrosis (hep′a-to-ne-kro′sis)
Death of liver cells.

hepatonephric (hep′a-to-nef′rik)
SYN: hepatorenal.

hepatonephromegaly (hep′a-to-nef′ro-meg′a-le)
Enlargement of both liver and kidney or kidneys. [hepato- + G. nephros, kidney, + megas, great]

hepatopathic (hep′a-to-path′ik)
Damaging the liver.

hepatopathy (hep-a-top′a-the)
Disease of the liver. [hepato- + G. pathos, suffering]

hepatoperitonitis (hep′a-to-par′i-to-ni′tis)
SYN: perihepatitis.


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