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Medical Dictionary


hepatopetal (hep′a-to-pet′al)
Toward the liver, usually referring to the normal direction of portal blood flow.

hepatopexy (hep′a-to-pek-se)
Anchoring of the liver to the abdominal wall. [hepato- + G. pexis, fixation]

hepatophyma (hep′a-to-fi′ma)
Rounded or nodular tumor of the liver. [hepato- + G. phyma, tumor]

hepatopneumonic (hep′a-to-noo-mon′ik)
Relating to the liver and the lungs. SYN: hepaticopulmonary, hepatopulmonary. [hepato- + G. pneumonikos, pulmonary]

hepatoportal (hep′a-to-por′tal)
Relating to the portal system of the liver.

hepatoptosis (hep′a-top-to′sis, to-to′sis)
A downward displacement of the liver. SYN: wandering liver. [hepato- + G. ptosis, a falling]

hepatopulmonary (hep′a-to-pul′mo-nar′e)
SYN: hepatopneumonic.

hepatorenal (hep-a-to-re′nal)
Relating to the liver and the kidney. SYN: hepatonephric. [hepato- + L. renalis, renal, fr. renes, kidneys]

hepatorrhagia (hep′a-to-ra′je-a)
Hemorrhage into or from the liver. [hepato- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

hepatorrhaphy (hep-a-tor′a-fe)
Suture of a wound of the liver. [hepato- + G. rhaphe, a suture]

hepatorrhexis (hep′a-to-rek′sis)
Rupture of the liver. [hepato- + G. rhexis, rupture]

hepatoscopy (hep-a-tos′ko-pe)
Examination of the liver. [hepato- + G. skopeo, to examine]

hepatosplenitis (hep′a-to-sple-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the liver and spleen.

hepatosplenography (hep′a-to-sple-nog′ra-fe)
The use of a contrast medium to outline or depict the liver and spleen radiographically. SYN: hepatolienography.

hepatosplenomegaly (hep′a-to-sple-no-meg′a-le)
Enlargement of the liver and spleen. SYN: hepatolienomegaly. [hepato- + G. splen, spleen, + megas, large]

hepatosplenopathy (hep′a-to-sple-nop′a-the)
Disease of the liver and spleen.

hepatostomy (hep-a-tos′to-me)
Establishment of a fissure into the liver. [hepato- + G. stoma, mouth]

hepatotherapy (hep′a-to-thar′a-pe)
Rarely used term for: 1. Treatment of disease of the liver. 2. Therapeutic use of liver extract or of the raw substance of the liver.

hepatotomy (hep-a-tot′o-me)
Incision into the liver. [hepato- + G. tome, incision]

hepatotoxemia (hep′a-to-tok-se′me-a)
Autointoxication assumed to be due to improper functioning of the liver. [hepato- + G. toxikon, poison, + haima, blood]

hepatotoxic (hep′a-to-tok′sik)
Relating to an agent that damages the liver, or pertaining to any such action.

The capacity of a drug, chemical, or other exposure to produce injury to the liver. Agents with recognized h. include carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, dantrolene sodium, valproic acid, isonicotinic acid hydrazide.

hepatotoxin (hep′a-to-tok′sin)
A toxin that is destructive to parenchymal cells of the liver.

Hepatozoon (hep′a-to-zo′on)
A genus of coccidian parasites (family Haemogregarinidae), in which schizogony occurs in the visceral organs, gametogony in the leukocytes or erythrocytes of vertebrate animals, and sporogony in certain ticks and other blood-sucking invertebrates. H. canis occurs in dogs, cats, jackals, and hyenas, but is most pathogenic in dogs, in which it may cause serious disease and death; other species have been described from rats, mice, rabbits, and squirrels. [hepato- + G. zoon, animal]

A compound lacking in pharmacologic effects and widely used as a biological buffer in in vitro experiments.

Prefix denoting seven. Cf.:septi-, sept-. [G. hepta]

heptachlor (hep′ta-klor)
A chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide for control of cotton boll weevil. It is a poison which may enter the body via skin contamination, inhalation or ingestion. Because of human toxicity concerns, this chemical has only limited application.

heptad (hep′tad)
A septivalent chemical element or radical.

heptanal (hep′ta-nal)
Obtained from the ricinoleic acid of castor oil by chemical means; used in the manufacture of ethyl oenanthate, a constituent of many artificial essences (flavors). SYN: enanthal, oenanthal.

heptapeptide (hep-ta-pep′tid)
A peptide containing seven amino acids.

heptose (hep′tos)
A sugar with seven carbon atoms in its molecule; e.g., sedoheptulose.

heptulose (hep′too-los)
SYN: ketoheptose.

H., English ophthalmic surgeon, 1865–1942.

herbivorous (her-biv′o-rus)
Feeding on plants. [L. herba, herb, + voro, to devour]

herd (herd)
A group of people or animals in a given area. [O.E. heord]

hereditary (he-red′i-ter-e)
Transmissible from parent to offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cell. [L. hereditarius; fr. heres (hered-), an heir]

heredity (he-red′i-te)
1. The transmission of characters from parent to offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells. 2. Genealogy. [L. hereditas, inheritance, fr. heres (hered-), heir]

Heredity. [L. heres, an heir]

heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (her′e-do-path′e-a a-tak′ti-ka pol′e-noo-ri-ti-for′mis)
SYN: Refsum disease.

SYN: Friedreich ataxia.

Felix H. See d'H..

Herellea (he-rel′e-a)
A bacterial generic name which has been officially rejected because its type species, H. vaginicola, is a member of the genus Acinetobacter.

Heinrich Ewald, German physiologist, 1866–1948. See sinus nerve of H., H.-Breuer reflex, Traube-H. curves, under curve.

Karl E.K., German physiologist, 1834–1918. See H. test, H. theory of color vision, canal of H., Traube-H. curves, under curve, Traube-H. waves, under wave, Semon-H. theory.

heritability (her′i-ta-bil′i-te)
1. In psychometrics, a statistical term used to denote the extent of variance of an individual's total score or response that is attributable to a presumed genetic component, in contrast to an acquired component. 2. In genetics, a statistical term used to denote the proportion of phenotypic variance due to variance in genotypes that is genetically determined, denoted by the traditional symbol h2. [see heredity] h. in the broad sense the proportion of the total phenotypic variance that can be ascribed to genetic factors of any kind (additive, those due to dominance effects, epistasis and hypostasis, and interactions of all kinds). h. in the narrow sense the proportion of the total phenotypic variance that can be ascribed to additive genetic variance alone. It reflects the similarity between parent and offspring, and is related to the commercial breeding value.

heritage (her′i-tij)
The total of all the inherited characters. [O. Fr.]

Gillis, Swedish pediatrician, *1902. See H. syndrome.

E., 20th century U.S. histologist. See Padykula-H. stain for myosin ATPase. See Padykula-H. stain for myosin ATPase.

Friedrich, German anatomist, 1859–1920. See H. fixative.

Frantisek, 20th century Czech physician. See H.-Pudlak syndrome.

hermaphrodism (her-maf′ro-dizm)
SYN: hermaphroditism.

hermaphrodite (her-maf′ro-dit)
A person with hermaphroditism. [G. Hermaphroditos, the son of Hermes, Mercury, + Aphrodite, Venus]

hermaphroditism (her-maf′ro-dit-izm)
The presence in one individual of both ovarian and testicular tissue; i.e., true h.. SYN: hermaphrodism. adrenal h. altered appearance of the genitalia due to disorders of adrenocortical function, most often female virilization; not an example of true h.. bilateral h. true h. with an ovotestis on both sides. dimidiate h. SYN: lateral h.. false h. SYN: pseudohermaphroditism. female h. ambiguity of reproductive organs so that the sex of the individual is neither exclusively male or female, but predominantly female h. in which only ovaries are present. lateral h. a form in which a testis is present on one side and an ovary on the other. SYN: dimidiate h.. male h. more correctly designated as male pseudohermaphroditism, as the term is commonly used; however, it may designate an instance of true h. in which overt bodily characteristics are predominantly male h. in which only testes are present. transverse h. pseudohermaphroditism in which the external genitalia are characteristic of one sex and the gonads are characteristic of the other sex. true h. h. in which both ovarian and testicular tissue are present. Somatic characteristics of both sexes are present; also called true intersex. unilateral h. h. in which the doubling of sex characteristics occurs on one side only: ovotestis on one side and either ovary or testis on the other.

hermetic (her-met′ik)
Airtight; denoting a vessel closed or sealed in such a way that air can neither enter it nor issue from it.

hernia (her′ne-a)
Protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues normally containing it. SYN: rupture (1) . [L. rupture] abdominal h. a h. protruding through or into any part of the abdominal wall. SYN: laparocele. Barth h. a loop of intestine between a persistent vitelline duct and the abdominal wall. Béclard h. a h. through the opening for the saphenous vein. bilocular femoral h. SYN: Cooper h.. h. of the broad ligament of the uterus a coil of intestine contained in a pouch projecting into the substance of the broad ligament. cecal h. a h. containing cecum. cerebral h. protrusion of brain substance through a defect in the skull. Cloquet h. a femoral h. perforating the aponeurosis of the pectineus and insinuating itself between this aponeurosis and the muscle, lying therefore behind the femoral vessels. complete h. an indirect inguinal h. in which the contents extend into the tunica vaginalis. concealed h. a h. not found on inspection or palpation. congenital diaphragmatic h. 1. absence of the left pleuroperitoneal membrane; 2. SYN: Morgagni foramen h.. Cooper h. a femoral h. with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing immediately beneath the skin. SYN: bilocular femoral h., Hey h.. crural h. SYN: femoral h.. diaphragmatic h. protrusion of abdominal contents into the chest through a weakness in the respiratory diaphragm; a common type is the hiatal h.. direct inguinal h. inguinal h.. double loop h. SYN: “w” h.. dry h. a h. with adherent sac and contents. duodenojejunal h. a h. in the subperitoneal tissues. SYN: retroperitoneal h., Treitz h.. h. en bissac SYN: properitoneal inguinal h.. epigastric h. h. through the linea alba above the navel. extrasaccular h. SYN: sliding h.. fascial h. a bulging of muscle through a defect in its fascia. fat h. a h. in which the tissue protruding out of its normal location is composed only of fat. fatty h. SYN: pannicular h.. femoral h. h. through the femoral ring. SYN: crural h., femorocele. foramen of Bochdalek h. SYN: Morgagni foramen h.. gastroesophageal h. a hiatal h. into the thorax. gluteal h. SYN: sciatic h.. Hesselbach h. h. with diverticula through the cribriform fascia, presenting a lobular outline. Hey h. SYN: Cooper h.. hiatal h., hiatus h. h. of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; they are classified as sliding (esophagogastric junction above the diaphragm) or paraesophageal (esophagogastric junction below the diaphragm). Holthouse h. inguinal h. with extension of the loop of intestine along Poupart ligament. iliacosubfascial h. a h. the sac of which passes through the iliac fascia and lies in the iliac fossa in contact with the iliacus muscle. incarcerated h. SYN: irreducible h.. incisional h. h. occurring through a surgical incision or scar. indirect inguinal h. inguinal h.. infantile h. a h. in which an intestinal loop descends behind the tunica vaginalis, having, therefore, three peritoneal layers in front of it. inguinal h. a h. at the inguinal region: direct inguinal h. involves the abdominal wall between the deep epigastric artery and the edge of the rectus muscle; indirect inguinal h. involves the internal inguinal ring and passes into the inguinal canal. inguinocrural h., inguinofemoral h. a bilocular or double h., both inguinal and femoral. inguinolabial h. an inguinal h. descending into the labium. inguinoscrotal h. an inguinal h. descending into the scrotum. inguinosuperficial h. an inguinal h. that has turned cephalad away from the scrotum and lies subcutaneously on the abdominal wall. internal h. protrusion of an intraperitoneal viscus into a compartment or under a constricting band within the abdominal cavity. intersigmoid h. a h. into the intersigmoid fossa on the under surface of the root of the mesosigmoid near the inner border of the psoas magnus muscle. interstitial h. a h. in which the protrusion is between any two of the layers of the abdominal wall. intraepiploic h. a coil of intestine incarcerated in an omental sac. intrailiac h. an interstitial h. projecting from the internal inguinal ring. intrapelvic h. an interstitial h. projecting into the pelvis from the internal inguinal ring. irreducible h. a h. that cannot be reduced without operation. SYN: incarcerated h.. ischiatic h. a h. through the sacrosciatic foramen. Krönlein h. SYN: properitoneal inguinal h.. labial h. h. through the canal of Nuck. lateral ventral h. SYN: spigelian h.. Laugier h. a h. passing through an opening in the lacunar ligament. levator h. SYN: perineal h.. Littré h. 1. SYN: parietal h.. 2. h. of Meckel diverticulum. lumbar h. a h. between the last rib and the iliac crest where the aponeurosis of the transversus muscle is covered only by the latissimus dorsi. Malgaigne h. infantile inguinal h. prior to the descent of the testis. meningeal h. herniation of meninges through a spina bifida or cranioschesis. mesenteric h. h. through a hole in the mesentery. Morgagni foramen h. a congenital anterior, retrosternal h. of abdominal contents, most often only omentum but occasionally stomach, usually through the right retrosternal Morgagni foramen, through which the internal mammary artery passes to become the superior epigastric artery; often asymptomatic. SYN: congenital diaphragmatic h. (2) , foramen of Bochdalek h., parasternal h., retrosternal h.. obturator h. h. through the obturator foramen. orbital h. displacement of orbital fat through a defect in the orbital septum or Tenon capsule into the subcutaneous tissues of the eyelid or subconjunctivally. pannicular h. the escape of subcutaneous fat through a gap in a fascia or an aponeurosis. SYN: fatty h.. pantaloon h. an inguinal h. that involves both an indirect and a direct component. paraduodenal h. a type of internal h., resulting from abnormal or incomplete midgut rotation, which involves one of several paraduodenal spaces. paraesophageal h. a h. through or adjacent to the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm in which the esophagogastric junction remains below the diaphragm and the stomach rolls up into the chest. parahiatal h. a h. through the diaphragm that occurs at a point separate from the esophageal hiatus. paraperitoneal h. a vesical h. in which only a part of the protruded organ is covered by the peritoneum of the sac. parasaccular h. SYN: sliding h.. parasternal h. SYN: Morgagni foramen h.. parietal h. a h. in which only a portion of the wall of the intestine is engaged. SYN: Littré h. (1) , partial enterocele, Richter h.. perineal h. a h. protruding through the pelvic diaphragm. SYN: levator h., pudendal h.. Petit h. lumbar h., occurring in Petit triangle. posterior vaginal h. downward displacement of Douglas pouch. properitoneal inguinal h. a complicated h. having a double sac, one part in the inguinal canal, the other projecting from the internal inguinal ring in the subperitoneal tissues. SYN: h. en bissac, Krönlein h.. pudendal h. SYN: perineal h.. reducible h. a h. in which the contents of the sac can be returned to their normal location. retrograde h. a double loop h. the central loop of which lies in the abdominal cavity. retroperitoneal h. SYN: duodenojejunal h.. retropubic h. a h. projecting downward, in the subperitoneal tissues, from the internal inguinal ring. retrosternal h. SYN: Morgagni foramen h.. Richter h. SYN: parietal h.. Rokitansky h. a separation of the muscular fibers of the bowel allowing protrusion of a sac of the mucous membrane. sciatic h. protrusion of intestine through the great sacrosciatic foramen. SYN: gluteal h., ischiocele. scrotal h. complete inguinal h., located in the scrotum. sliding h. a h. in which an abdominal viscus forms part of the sac. SYN: extrasaccular h., parasaccular h., slipped h.. sliding esophageal hiatal h. displacement of the cardioesophageal junction and the stomach through the esophageal hiatus into the mediastinum. SYN: sliding hiatal h.. sliding hiatal h. SYN: sliding esophageal hiatal h.. slipped h. SYN: sliding h.. spigelian h. abdominal h. through the semilunar line. SYN: lateral ventral h.. strangulated h. an irreducible h. in which the circulation is arrested; gangrene occurs unless relief is prompt. synovial h. protrusion of a fold of the stratum synoviale through a rent in the stratum fibrosum of a joint capsule. Treitz h. SYN: duodenojejunal h.. umbilical h. a h. in which bowel or omentum protrudes through the abdominal wall under the skin at the umbilicus. SEE ALSO: omphalocele. SYN: exomphalos (2) , exumbilication (2) . h. uteri inguinale SYN: persistent müllerian duct syndrome. Velpeau h. femoral h. in which the intestine is in front of the blood vessels. ventral h. an abdominal incisional h.. vesicle h. protrusion of a segment of the bladder through the abdominal wall or into the inguinal canal and into the scrotum. vitreous h. prolapse of the vitreous humor into the anterior chamber; may follow removal or displacement of the lens from the lenticular space. “w” h. the presence of two loops of intestine in a hernial sac. SYN: double loop h..

hernial (her′ne-al)
Relating to hernia.

herniated (her′ne-a-ted)
Denoting any structure protruded through a hernial opening.


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