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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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histionic (his-te-on′ik)
Relating to any tissue.

histo-
Tissue. [G. histos, web (tissue)]

histoangic (his-to-an′jik)
Relating to the structure of blood vessels, especially in terms of their function. SYN: histangic. [histo- + G. angeion, vessel]

histoblast (his′to-blast)
SYN: histioblast.

histochemistry (his′to-kem′is-tre)
SYN: cytochemistry.

histocompatibility (his′to-kom-pat-i-bil′i-te)
A state of immunologic similarity (or identity) that permits successful homograft transplantation.

histocyte (his′to-sit)
SYN: histiocyte.

histocytosis (his′to-si-to′sis)
SYN: histiocytosis.

histodifferentiation (his′to-dif-er-en-she-a′shun)
The morphologic appearance of tissue characteristics during development.

histofluorescence (his-to-flor-es′ens)
Fluorescence of the tissues under exposure to ultraviolet rays following the injection of a fluorescent substance or as a result of a natural fluorescing substance.

histogenesis (his-to-jen′e-sis)
The origin of a tissue; the formation and development of the tissues of the body. SYN: histogeny. [histo- + G. genesis, origin]

histogenetic (his-to-je-net′ik)
Relating to histogenesis.

histogenous (his-toj′e-nus)
Formed by the tissues; e.g., the h. cells in an exudate arising from proliferation of the fixed tissue cells. SYN: histiogenic. [histo- + G. -gen, producing]

histogeny (his-toj′e-ne)
SYN: histogenesis.

histogram (his′to-gram)
1. A graphic columnar or bar representation to compare the magnitudes of frequencies or numbers of items. 2. Graphical representation of the frequency distribution of a variable, in which rectangles are drawn with their bases on a uniform linear scale representing intervals, and their heights are proportional to the values within each of the intervals. [histo- + G. gramma, a writing]

histoid (his′toyd)
1. Resembling in structure one of the tissues of the body. 2. Sometimes used with reference to the histologic structure of a neoplasm derived from and consisting of a single, relatively simple type of neoplastic tissue that closely resembles the normal, as in certain fibromas and leiomyomas. SYN: histioid. [histo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

histoincompatibility (his′to-in′kom-pat-i-bil′i-te)
A state of immunologic dissimilarity of tissues sufficient to cause rejection of a homograft when tissue is transplanted from one individual to another; implies a difference in histocompatibility genes in donor and recipient.

histologic, histological (his-to-loj′ik, i-kal)
Pertaining to histology.

histologist (his-tol′o-jist)
One who specializes in the science of histology. SYN: microanatomist.

histology (his-tol′o-je)
The science concerned with the minute structure of cells, tissues, and organs in relation to their function. See microscopic anatomy. SYN: microanatomy. [histo- + G. logos, study] pathologic h. SYN: histopathology.

histolysis (his-tol′i-sis)
Disintegration of tissue. [histo- + G. lysis, dissolution]

histoma (his-to′ma)
A benign neoplasm in which the cytologic and histologic elements are closely similar to those of normal tissue from which the neoplastic cells are derived. SYN: histioma. [histo- + G. -oma, tumor]

histometaplastic (his′to-met-a-plas′tik)
Exciting tissue metaplasia.

histomorphometry (his′to-mor-fom′e-tre)
The quantitative measurement and characterization of microscopical images using a computer; manual or automated digital image analysis typically involves measurements and comparisons of selected geometric areas, perimeters, length angle of orientation, form factors, center of gravity coordinates, as well as image enhancement. [histo- + G. morphe, shape, + metron, measure]

histone (H) (his′ton)
One of a number of simple proteins (often found in the cell nucleus) that contains a high proportion of basic amino acids, are soluble in water, dilute acids, and alkalies, and are not coagulable by heat; e.g., the proteins associated with nucleic acids in the nuclei of plant and animal tissues. They constitute about half of the mass of the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells.

histonectomy (his-to-nek′to-me)
SYN: periarterial sympathectomy. [histo- + G. ektome, excision]

histoneurology (his-to-noo-rol′o-je)
SYN: neurohistology.

histonomy (his-ton′o-me)
A law of the development and structure of the tissues of the body. [histo- + G. nomos, law]

histonuria (his-to-noo′re-a)
The excretion of histone in the urine, as observed in certain instances of leukemia, febrile illnesses, and wasting diseases. [histone + G. ouron, urine]

histopathogenesis (his′to-path-o-jen′e-sis)
Abnormal embryonic development or growth of tissue. [histogenesis + pathogenesis]

histopathology (his′to-pa-thol′o-je)
The science or study dealing with the cytologic and histologic structure of abnormal or diseased tissue. SYN: pathologic histology.

histophysiology (his′to-fiz-e-ol′o-je)
The microscopic study of tissues in relation to their functions.

Histoplasma capsulatum (his-to-plaz′ma kap-soo-la′tum)
A dimorphic fungus species of worldwide distribution that causes histoplasmosis in humans and other mammals; its ascomycetous state is Ajellomyces capsulatum. The organism's natural habitat is soil fertilized with bird and bat droppings, where it grows as a mold, fragments of which, following inhalation, produce the primary pulmonary infection; within the mammalian host tissues, inhaled mycelial fragments grow as uninuclear yeasts that reproduce by budding. This parasitic form may also be induced in the laboratory by culturing the mycelial phase at 37°C on a blood-enriched medium; growth reverts to the mycelial form when the temperature is below 37°C. H. var. duboisii causes a clinically distinct disease, African histoplasmosis, in which large yeast cells with thicker walls are found in tissues, in contrast to the small yeast cells of H. var. farciminosum, which causes epizootic lymphangitis. [histo- + G. plasma, something formed]

histoplasmin (his′to-plas′min)
An antigenic extract of Histoplasma capsulatum, used in immunological tests for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis; also used in skin test surveys of populations to determine the geographic distribution of the fungus and to predict those that are endemic for histoplasmosis.

histoplasmoma (his′to-plaz-mo′ma)
An infectious granuloma caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.

histoplasmosis (his′to-plaz-mo′sis)
A widely distributed infectious disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and occurring occasionally in outbreaks; usually acquired by inhalation of spores of the fungus in soil dust and manifested by a self-limited pneumonia. In patients with emphysema, infection may be chronic and cause pulmonary fibrocavitary disease resembling tuberculosis; in immunosuppressed patients and, rarely, in normals, h. may cause disseminated disease of the reticuloendothelial system, which is manifested by fever, emaciation, splenomegaly, and leukopenia. SYN: Darling disease. acute h. caused by inhalation of microconidia, resulting in illness ranging from flulike to the acute diffuse pneumonitis seen with heavy exposure. Often, following illness, lesions heal, leaving calcified nodules. African h. a form of h. caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, observed only in tropical Africa; infection is manifest as chronic granulomatous lesions in bone, skin, and other organs. chronic h. disease usually seen in patients with underlying abnormal lung parenchyma, particularly emphysema and bullous lung disease. The disease is indolent, characterized by cough and sputum production, and radiographically by gradual loss of lung volume. chronic mediastinal h. mediastinal fibrosis caused by lymph node involvement by h.. Can cause a huge fibrotic mass involving many critical structures in the mediastinum. disseminated h. widespread infection that involves many organs; occurs in infants and immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS. presumed ocular h. subretinal neovascularization in the macular region associated with chorioretinal atrophy and pigment proliferation adjacent to the optic disk, and peripheral chorioretinal atrophy (“histo-spots”).

historadiography (his′to-ra-de-og′ra-fe)
Radiography of tissue, specifically microscopic sections; usually microradiography.

historrhexis (his-to-rek′sis)
Breakdown of tissue by some agency other than infection. [histo- + G. rhexis, rupture]

histotome (his′to-tom)
SYN: microtome. [histo- + G. tome, cut]

histotomy (his-tot′o-me)
SYN: microtomy.

histotope (his′to-top)
That part of the Class II major histocompatibility molecule that interacts with the T cell receptor. [histo- + -tope]

histotoxic (his-to-tok′sik)
Relating to poisoning of the respiratory enzyme system of the tissues.

histotroph (his′to-trof)
The part of the nutrition of the embryo derived from cellular sources other than blood. Cf.:embryotroph, hemotroph.

histotrophic (his-to-trof′ik)
Providing nourishment for or favoring the formation of tissue. [histo- + G. trophe, nourishment]

histotropic (his-to-trop′ik)
Attracted toward the tissues; denoting certain parasites, stains, and chemical compounds. [histo- + G. tropikos, turning]

histozoic (his-to-zo′ik)
Living in the tissues outside of a cell body; denoting certain parasitic protozoa. [histo- + G. zoikos, relating to an animal]

histozyme (his′to-zim)
SYN: aminoacylase.

hitchhiker (hitch′hik-er)
A gene that has no selective advantage, or may even be harmful, but that nevertheless temporarily becomes widespread because it is closely linked and coupled with a highly advantageous gene that is strongly selected.

Hitzig
Eduard, German psychiatrist, 1838–1907. See H. girdle.

HIV
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus.

HIV-1
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus-1.

HIV-2
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus-2. See human immunodeficiency virus.

hives (hivz)
1. SYN: urticaria. 2. SYN: wheal. giant h. SYN: angioedema.

hK3
Abbreviation for human glandular kallikrein 3.

HL-7
Abbreviation for Health Level 7, a medical informatics standard that facilitates communication among different digital systems.

HLA
Abbreviation for human leukocyte antigens, under antigen.

HMB-45
An antibody to a premelanosome glycoprotein found to be present in melanomas and other tumors derived from melanocytes.

HME
Abbreviation for human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

HMG, hMG
Abbreviation for human menopausal gonadotropin.

HMG-CoA
Abbreviation for β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA.

HMO
Abbreviation for hypothetical mean organism; health maintenance organization.

HMPAO
Abbreviation for hexametazime or hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime.

HMS
Abbreviation for hypothetical mean strain.

HN2
Symbol for nitrogen mustard. See nitrogen mustards, under mustard.

hnRNA
Abbreviation for heterogeneous nuclear RNA.

Ho
Symbol for holmium.

Hoagland sign
See under sign.

hoarse (hors)
Having a noisy voice. [A.S. has]

hoarseness (hors′nes)
A noisy quality of the voice.

Hoboken
Nicholaus van, Dutch anatomist and physician, 1632–1678. See H. gemmules, under gemmule, H. nodules, under nodule, H. valves, under valve.

HOCA
SYN: HOCM.

Hoche
Alfred E., German psychiatrist, 1865–1943. See H. bundle, H. tract.

HOCM
Abbreviation for high osmolar contrast medium. SYN: HOCA.

Hodge
Hugh L., U.S. gynecologist, 1796–1873. See H. pessary.

Hodgkin
Alan L., British physiologist and Nobel laureate, *1914. See Goldman-H.-Katz equation.

Hodgkin
Thomas, British physician, 1798–1866. See H. disease, H.-Key murmur, non-H. lymphoma.

Hodgson
Joseph, British physician, 1788–1869. See H. disease.

hodoneuromere (ho-do-noo′ro-mer)
In embryology, obsolete term for a metameric segment of the neural tube with its pair of nerves and their branches. [G. hodos, path, + neuron, nerve, + meros, part]




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