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Medical Dictionary


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humectation (hu-mek-ta′shun)
1. Therapeutic application of moisture. 2. Serous infiltration of the tissues. 3. Soaking of a crude drug in water preparatory to the making of an extract. [L. humecto, pp. -mectus, to moisten, fr. humeo, to be damp]

humeral (hu′mer-al)
Relating to the humerus.

humeroradial (hu′mer-o-ra′de-al)
Relating to both humerus and radius; denoting especially the ratio of length of one to the other.

humeroscapular (hu′mer-o-skap′u-lar)
Relating to both humerus and scapula.

humeroulnar (hu′mer-o-ul′nar)
Relating to both humerus and ulna; denoting especially the ratio of length of one to the other.

humerus, gen. and pl. humeri (hu′mer-us, -i) [TA]
The bone of the arm, articulating with the scapula above and the radius and ulna below. SYN: arm bone. [L. shoulder]

humidity (hu-mid′i-te)
Moisture or dampness, as of the air. [L. humiditas, dampness] absolute h. the mass of water vapor actually present per unit volume of gas or air. relative h. the actual amount of water vapor present in the air or in a gas, divided by the amount necessary for saturation at the same temperature and pressure; expressed as a percentage.

humin (hu′min)
An insoluble brownish or blackish residue obtained upon acid hydrolysis of glycoproteins.

Hummelsheim
Eduard K.M.J., German ophthalmologist, 1868–1952. See H. operation, H. procedure.

humor, gen. humoris (hu′mer, hu-mor′is) [TA]
1. [NA] Any clear fluid or semifluid hyaline anatomic substance. 2. One of the elemental body fluids that were the basis of the physiologic and pathologic teachings of the hippocratic school: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. SEE ALSO: humoral doctrine. [L. correctly, umor, liquid] aqueous h. [TA] the watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is secreted by the ciliary processes within the posterior chambers and passes through the the pupil into the anterior chamber where it filters through the trabecular meshwork and is reabsorbed into the venous system at the iridocorneal angle by way of the sinus venosus of the sclera; SYN: h. aquosus [TA] , intraocular fluid. h. aquosus [TA] SYN: aqueous h.. Morgagni h. SYN: Morgagni liquor. ocular h. one of the two humors of the eye: aqueous and vitreous. peccant humors based on the historic humoral theory of disease, such humors or deranged fluids in the body were regarded as the direct causes of various illnesses. vitreous h. [TA] the fluid component of the vitreous body, with which it is often erroneausly equated. SYN: h. vitreus [TA] . h. vitreus [TA] SYN: vitreous h..

humoral (hu′mor-al)
Relating to a humor in any sense.

humoralism, humorism (hu′mor-al-izm, -mor-izm)
SYN: humoral doctrine. [L. umor, humor, moisture]

hump (hump)
A rounded protuberance or bulge. buffalo h. SYN: buffalo type. dowager h. postmenopausal cervical kyphosis of older women due to osteoporosis and compression fractures of vertebra. Hampton h. a juxtapleural pulmonary soft tissue density on a chest radiograph, convex toward the hilum, usually at the costophrenic angle; described as a manifestation of pulmonary infarction, due to pulmonary embolism.

humpback (hump′bak)
Nonmedical term for kyphosis or gibbus.

Humphry
Sir George M., English surgeon, 1820–1896. See H. ligament.

humulin (hu′moo-lin)
SYN: lupulin.

humulus (hu′moo-lus)
The dried fruits (strobiles) of H. lupulus (family Moraceae), a climbing herb of central and northern Asia, Europe, and North America; an aromatic bitter, mildly sedative, and a diuretic; primarily used in the brewing industry for giving aroma and flavor to beer. SYN: hops. [Mediev. L.]

hunchback (hunch′bak)
Nonmedical term for kyphosis or gibbus.

Hünermann
Carl, German physician. See Conradi-H. disease.

hunger (hun′ger)
1. A desire or need for food. 2. Any appetite, strong desire, or craving. [A.S.] affect h. emotional h. for maternal love and feelings of protection and care implied in the mother-child relationship. narcotic h. the physiological craving for narcotics.

Hunner
Guy L., U.S. surgeon, 1868–1957. See H. ulcer, Fenwick-H. ulcer.

Hunt
James Ramsay, U.S. neurologist, 1872–1937. See H. neuralgia, H. paradoxic phenomenon, H. syndrome, Ramsay H. syndrome.

Hunt
William E., U.S. neurosurgeon, *1921. See Tolosa-H. syndrome.

Hunter
William, Scottish anatomist and obstetrician, 1718–1783. See H. ligament, H. line, H. membrane.

Hunter
John, Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist and pathologist, 1728–1793. See H. canal, H. gubernaculum, H. operation, H.-Schreger bands, under band, H.-Schreger lines, under line.

Hunter
Charles, Canadian physician, 1872–1955. See H. syndrome.

Hunter
William, English pathologist, 1861–1937. See H. glossitis.

hunting (hunt′ing)
The oscillation of a controlled variable, such as the temperature of a thermostat, around its set point. See h. reaction.

Huntington
George, U.S. physician, 1850–1916. See H. chorea, H. disease.

Hurler
Gertrud, Austrian pediatrician, 1889–1965. See H. disease, H. syndrome, Pfaundler-H. syndrome.

Hurst
Sir Arthur Frederick (born Hertz), English physician, 1879–1944.

Hurst
Edward Weston, 20th century Australian physician. See H. disease.

Hürthle
Karl W., German histologist, 1860–1945. See H. cell, H. cell adenoma, H. cell carcinoma.

Huschke
Emil, German anatomist, 1797–1858. See H. cartilages, under cartilage, H. foramen, H. auditory teeth, under tooth, H. valve.

Hutchinson
Sir Jonathan, British surgeon, 1828–1913. See H. facies, H. freckle, H. mask, H. crescentic notch, H. patch, H. pupil, H. teeth, under tooth, H. triad, H.-Gilford disease, H.-Gilford syndrome.

Hutchison
Sir Robert, English pediatrician, 1871–1960. See H. syndrome.

Huxley
Thomas H., English biologist, physiologist, and comparative anatomist, 1825–1895. See H. layer, H. membrane, H. sheath.

Huygens
Christian, Dutch physicist, 1629–1695. See H. ocular, H. principle.


Symbol for photon, and represents photon energy, where h = Planck's constant and ν = frequency of electromagnetic wave.

HV
Abbreviation for half-value.

HVA
Abbreviation for homovanillic acid.

HVL
Abbreviation for half-value layer.

hyal-
See hyalo-.

hyalin (hi′a-lin)
A clear, eosinophilic, homogeneous substance occurring in cellular degeneration; e.g., in arteriolar walls in arteriolar sclerosis and in glomerular tufts in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. [G. hyalos, glass] alcoholic h. SYN: Mallory bodies, under body.

hyaline (hi′a-lin, -len)
Relating to transparent or colorless hyphae or other fungal structures. SYN: hyaloid. [G. hyalos, glass]

hyalinization (hi′a-lin-i-za′shun)
The formation of hyalin.

hyalinosis (hi′a-li-no′sis)
hyaline degeneration, especially that of relatively extensive degree. h. cutis et mucosae SYN: lipoid proteinosis. systemic h. SYN: juvenile hyalin fibromatosis.

hyalinuria (hi-a-li-noo′re-a)
The excretion of hyalin or casts of hyaline material in the urine. [hyalin + G. ouron, urine]

hyalitis (hi-a-li′tis)
SYN: vitreitis. suppurative h. purulent vitreous humor due to exudation from adjacent structures, as in panophthalmitis.

hyalo-, hyal-
Glassy, hyalin; vitreous. Cf.:vitreo-. [G. hyalos, glass]

hyalobiuronic acid (hi′a-lo-bi-ur-on′ik)
A disaccharide made up of d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in a β1,3 linkage; occurs in hyaluronic acid as the repeating unit.

hyalocyte (hi′a-lo-sit)
SYN: vitreous cell. [hyalo- + G. kytos, cell]

hyalogens (hi-al′o-jenz)
Substances similar to mucoids that are found in many animal structures ( e.g., cartilage, vitreous humor, hydatid cysts) and yield sugars on hydrolysis.

hyalohyphomycosis (hi′a-lo-hi′fo-mi-ko′sis)
A general term for infection in tissue caused by a fungus with hyaline (colorless) mycelium. If the mold can be identified, disease should be given a specific name, such as aspergillosis or fusariosis. [hyalo- + G. hyphe, web, + mykes, fungus, + -osis, condition]

hyaloid (hi′a-loyd)
SYN: hyaline. [hyalo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

hyalomere (hi′a-lo-mer)
The clear periphery of a blood platelet. [hyalo- + G. meros, part]

Hyalomma (hi-a-lom′a)
An Old World genus (about 21 species) of large ixodid ticks with submarginal eyes, coalesced festoons, an ornate scutum, and a long rostrum. Adults parasitize all domestic animals and a wide variety of wild animals; larvae or nymphs may parasitize small mammals, birds, and reptiles. Species harbor a great variety of pathogens of humans and animals, and also cause considerable mechanical injury. [hyalo- + G. omma, eye] H. anatolicum former name for H. anatolicum anatolicum. H. anatolicum anatolicum a subspecies infesting cattle, camels and horses in Asia, the Near and Middle East, southeastern Europe, and North Africa; it is a vector of bovine tropical theileriosis, of equine babesiosis, and of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. H. marginatum a particularly common species of tick carried by birds migrating between Europe and Asia and Africa, and the probable vector of the virus of Crimean hemorrhagic fever. H. variegatum species of tick that is the vector of the viral agent of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in Ethiopia.

hyalophagia, hyalophagy (hi′a-lo-fa′je-a, hi-a-lof′a-je)
The eating or chewing of glass. [hyalo- + G. phago, to eat]

hyalophobia (hi′a-lo-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of glass objects. SYN: crystallophobia. [hyalo- + G. phobos, fear]

hyaloplasm, hyaloplasma (hi′a-lo-plazm, -plaz′ma)
The protoplasmic fluid substance of a cell. [hyalo- + G. plasma, thing formed] nuclear h. SYN: karyolymph.

hyaloserositis (hi′a-lo-ser-o-si′tis)
Inflammation of a serous membrane with a fibrinous exudate that eventually becomes hyalinized, resulting in a relatively thick, dense, opaque, glistening, white or gray-white coating; when the process involves the visceral serous membranes of various organs, the grossly apparent condition is sometimes colloquially termed icing liver, sugar-coated spleen, frosted heart, and so on, depending on the site. [hyalo- + Mod. L. serosa, serous membrane, + -itis, inflammation]

hyalosis (hi-a-lo′sis)
Degenerative changes in the vitreous body. [hyalo- + G. -osis, condition] asteroid h. numerous small spherical bodies (“snowball” opacities) in the corpus vitreum, visible ophthalmoscopically; an age change, usually unilateral, and not affecting vision. punctate h. a condition marked by minute opacities in the vitreous.

hyalosome (hi-al′o-som)
An oval or round structure within a cell nucleus that stains faintly but otherwise resembles a nucleolus. [hyalo- + G. soma, body]

hyalurate (hi-a-loo′rat)
SYN: hyaluronate.

hyaluronate (hi-a-loo′ron-at)
A salt or ester of hyaluronic acid. SYN: hyalurate. h. lyase a lyase that catalyzes the cleavage of hyaluronic acids, producing a number of 3-(4-deoxy-β-d-gluc-4-enuronosyl)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamines (hyalobiuronic acid). SEE ALSO: hyaluronidase (1) , hyaluronoglucosaminidase. SYN: hyaluronic lyase.

hyaluronic acid (hi′a-loo-ron′ik)
A mucopolysaccharide made up of alternating β1,4-linked residues of hyalobiuronic acid, forming a gelatinous material in the tissue spaces and acting as a lubricant and shock absorbant generally throughout the body; it is hydrolyzed to disaccharide or tetrasaccharide units by hyaluronidase.

hyaluronic lyase
SYN: hyaluronate lyase.

hyaluronidase (hi′a-loo-ron′i-das)
1. Term used loosely for hyaluronate lyase, hyaluronoglucosaminidase, and hyaluronoglucuronidase, one or more of which are present in testis, sperm, other organs, bee and snake venoms, type II pneumonococci, certain hemolytic streptococci, etc. SYN: diffusing factor, Duran-Reynals permeability factor, Duran-Reynals spreading factor, invasin, spreading factor. 2. A soluble enzyme product prepared from mammalian testes; it is used to increase the effect of local anesthetics and to permit wider infiltration of subcutaneously administered fluids, is suggested in the treatment of certain forms of arthritis to promote resolution of redundant tissue, is used to speed the resorption of traumatic or postoperative edema and hematoma, is used in combination with collagenase to dissociate organs such as liver and heart into viable cell suspensions, and in histochemistry is used on tissue secretions to verify the presence of hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfates.

hyaluronoglucosaminidase (hi-a-loo′ron-o-gloo′ko-sa-min′i-das)
An enzyme hydrolyzing β1,4 linkages in hyaluronates. SEE ALSO: hyaluronidase (1) , hyaluronate lyase.

hyaluronoglucuronidase (hi-a-loo′ron-o-gloo-kur-on′i-das)
An enzyme hydrolyzing β1,3 linkages in hyaluronates. SEE ALSO: hyaluronidase (1) .




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