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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


hydrophobia (hi-dro-fo′be-a)
SYN: rabies. [hydro- + G. phobos, fear; from reports of inability to swallow and resultant resistance to oral fluids in human and animal rabies]

hydrophobic (hi-dro-fob′ik)
1. Relating to or suffering from hydrophobia. 2. Lacking an affinity for water molecules, as opposed to hydrophilic. SYN: apolar (2) . 3. Tending not to dissolve in water. 4. Nonpolar.

hydrophthalmia, hydrophthalmos, hydrophthalmus (hi′drof-thal′me-a, -thal′mos)
SYN: buphthalmia. [hydro- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

Hydrophyidae (hi-dro-fi′i-de)
A family of snakes, the true sea snakes, characterized by a vertically compressed tail, giving it a paddle- or oarlike appearance; their fangs, like those of cobras, are small, grooved, and permanently erect. They are common in shallow waters along coastal margins in many regions of the Pacific basin and are important medically in western Malaysia and coastal Vietnam. There are numerous species, all venomous, but few bite humans.

hydropic (hi-drop′ik)
Containing an excess of water or of watery fluid. SYN: dropsical.

hydropneumatosis (hi-dro-noo-ma-to′sis)
Combined emphysema and edema; the presence of liquid and gas in tissues. [hydro- + G. pneuma, breath, spirit]

hydropneumopericardium (hi-dro-noo′mo-per-i-kar′de-um)
The presence of a serous effusion and of gas in the pericardial sac. SYN: pneumohydropericardium. [hydro- + G. pneuma, air, + pericardium]

hydropneumoperitoneum (hi-dro-noo′mo-par-i-to-ne′um)
The presence of gas and serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity. SYN: pneumohydroperitoneum. [hydro- + G. pneuma, air, + peritoneum]

hydropneumothorax (hi′dro-noo-mo-thor′aks)
The presence of both gas and fluids in the pleural cavity. SYN: pneumohydrothorax, pneumoserothorax. [hydro- + G. pneuma, air, + thorax]

hydroposia (hi-dro-po′ze-a)
Water-drinking, a characteristic of animals that ordinarily drink water. [hydro- + G. posis, drinking]

hydrops (hi′drops)
An excessive accumulation of clear, watery fluid in any of the tissues or cavities of the body; synonymous, according to its character and location, with ascites, anasarca, edema, etc. [G. h.] endolymphatic h. SYN: Ménière disease. fetal h., h. fetalis abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the fetal tissues, as in erythroblastosis fetalis. h. folliculi accumulation of fluid in a graafian follicle. h. of gallbladder accumulation of clear watery fluid in the gallbladder as a result of long-standing cystic duct obstruction. immune fetal h. fetal edema and ascites secondary to maternal/fetal blood group incompatibility. nonimmune fetal h. fetal edema and ascites unrelated to maternal/fetal blood group incompatibilities; multiple etiologies include fetal cardiac disease, fetal viral disease, and fetal structural anomalies. h. ovarii SYN: hydrovarium. h. pericardii (hi′drops per-i-kar′de-i) an obsolete term for pericardial effusion. h. tubae SYN: hydrosalpinx. h. tubae profluens SYN: intermittent hydrosalpinx.

hydropyonephrosis (hi′dro-pi′o-ne-fro′sis)
Presence of purulent urine in the pelvis and calices of the kidney following obstruction of the ureter. [hydro- + G. pyon, pus, + nephrosis]

hydroquinol (hi-dro-kwin′ol)
SYN: hydroquinone.

hydroquinone (hi-dro-kwin′on)
An antioxidant used in ointments. SYN: hydroquinol, quinol.

hydrorchis (hi-dror′kis)
A collection of fluid (hydrocele) around the testis, as in the tunica vaginalis or along the spermatic cord. [hydro- + G. orchis, testicle]

hydrorheostat (hi-dro-re′o-stat)
A rheostat in which resistance to the flow of electric current is provided by water.

hydrorrhea (hi-dro-re′a)
A profuse discharge of watery fluid from any part of the body. [hydro- + G. rhoia, flow] h. gravidae, h. gravidarum discharge of a watery fluid from the vagina during pregnancy.

hydrosalpinx (hi-dro-sal′pinks)
Accumulation of serous fluid in the fallopian tube, often an end result of pyosalpinx. SYN: hydrops tubae. [hydro- + G. salpinx, trumpet] intermittent h. intermittent discharge of watery fluid from the oviduct. SYN: hydrops tubae profluens.

hydrosarca (hi-dro-sar′ka)
SYN: anasarca. [hydro- + G. sarx, flesh]

hydrosarcocele (hi-dro-sar′ko-sel)
A chronic swelling of the testis complicated with hydrocele. [hydro- + G. sarx, flesh, + kele, tumor]

hydrosol (hi′dro-sol)
A colloid in aqueous solution, the particles being in the dispersed or internal phase and the water in the external or dispersion phase. Cf.:hydrogel.

hydrosphygmograph (hi-dro-sfig′mo-graf)
A sphygmograph in which the pulse beat is transmitted to the recorder through a column of water.

hydrostat (hi′dro-stat)
A device for regulating water level. [hydro- + G. statikos, causing to stand]

hydrostatic (hi-dro-stat′ik)
Relating to the pressure of fluids or to their properties when in equilibrium.

hydrosudopathy (hi′dro-soo-dop′a-the)
SYN: hydrosudotherapy. [hydro- + L. sudor, sweat, + G. pathos, suffering]

hydrosudotherapy (hi′dro-soo′do-thar′a-pe)
Hydrotherapy combined with induced sweating, as in the Turkish bath. SYN: hydrosudopathy.

hydrosyringomyelia (hi′dro-si-rin′go-mi-e′le-a)
SYN: syringomyelia. [hydro- + G. hydor, water, + syrinx, a tube, + myelos, marrow]

hydrotaxis (hi-dro-tak′sis)
The movement of cells or organisms in relation to water. [hydro- + G. taxis, arrangement]

hydrotherapeutic (hi′dro-thar′a-pu′tik)
SYN: hydriatric.

hydrotherapeutics (hi′dro-thar′a-pu′tiks)
SYN: hydrotherapy.

hydrotherapy (hi-dro-thar′a-pe)
Therapeutic use of water by external application, either for its pressure effect or as a means of applying physical energy to the tissues. SYN: hydrotherapeutics. [hydro- + G. therapeia, therapy]

hydrothermal (hi-dro-ther′mal)
Relating to hot water. [hydro- + G. therme, heat]

hydrothionemia (hi′dro-thi-o-ne′me-a)
The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the circulating blood. [hydro- + G. theion, sulfur, + haima, blood]

hydrothionuria (hi′dro-thi-o-noo′re-a)
The excretion of hydrogen sulfide in the urine. [hydro- + G. theion, sulfur, + ouron, urine]

hydrothorax (hi-dro-thor′aks)
SYN: pleural effusion. chylous h. SYN: chylothorax.

hydrotomy (hi-drot′o-me)
In histology, tearing apart the tissue elements by injection of water. [hydro- + G. tome, a cutting]

hydrotropism (hi-dro-tro′pizm, hi-drot′ro-pizm)
The property in growing organisms of turning toward a moist surface (positive h.) or away from a moist surface (negative h.). [hydro- + G. tropos, a turning]

hydrotubation (hi′dro-too-ba′shun)
Injection of a liquid medication or saline solution through the cervix into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes for dilation and/or treatment of the tubes.

hydroureter (hi′dro-u-re′ter, -ur′e-ter)
SYN: ureterectasia.

hydroureteronephrosis (hi-dro-u-re′ter-o-net-ro′sis)
SYN: ureterohydronephrosis.

hydrous (hi′drus)
SYN: hydrated.

hydrovarium (hi-dro-va′re-um)
A collection of fluid in the ovary. SYN: hydrops ovarii.

hydroxamic acids (hi-drok-sam′ik)
R&cbond;CO&cbond;NH&cbond;OH ⇆ RC(OH)&dbond;N&cbond;OH;hydroxylamine derivatives of carboxylic acids, including amino acids, formed by the action of hydroxylamine.

hydroxide (hi-drok′sid)
1. A compound containing a potentially ionizable hydroxyl group; particularly a compound that liberates OH− upon dissolving in water. 2. The h. anion, OH−.

hydroxocobalamin (hi-drok′so-ko-bal′a-min)
Vitamin B12b, differing from cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) in the presence of a hydroxyl ion in place of the cyanide ion at the sixth coordinate position on the cobalt atom. SEE ALSO: vitamin B12. SYN: hydroxocobemine.

hydroxocobemine (hi-drok′so-ko-be-men)
SYN: hydroxocobalamin.

Prefix indicating addition or substitution of the –OH group to or in the compound whose name follows. SEE ALSO: oxa-, oxo-, oxy-.

hydroxyacetic acid (hi-drok′se-a-se′tik)
SYN: glycolic acid.

hydroxy acid (hi-drok′se)
An organic acid containing both OH and COOH groups; e.g., lactic acid.

3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (hi-drok′se-as′il)
β-Hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase;an enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of an l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA to a 3-ketoacyl-CoA with the concomitant reduction of NAD+; one of the enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acids. SYN: β-ketohydrogenase, β-ketoreductase.

hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (hi-drok′se-as′il-gloo-ta-thi′on)
An enzyme with catalytic activity similar to that of lactoylglutathione lyase, but more general; catalyzes the hydrolysis of an S-2-hydroxyacylglutathione, producing glutathione and a 2-hydroxy acid anion. SEE ALSO: glyoxalase.

3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (hi-drok′se-anth-ra-nil′ik)
A metabolite of tryptophan degradation that can serve as a precursor for the biosynthesis of NAD+.

hydroxyapatite (hi-drok′se-ap-a-tit)
A natural mineral structure that the crystal lattice of bones and teeth ( i.e., amorphous h.) closely resembles; used in chromatography of nucleic acids; also found in pathologic calcifications ( e.g., atherosclerotic aortas). SYN: hydroxylapatite. amorphous h. containing ion contaminants ( e.g., 6–8% CO32−, 3–5% Mg2+, F−, Cl−, etc.); found in mineralized connective tissue ( e.g., bone, dentin, cementum). SYN: poorly crystalline h.. poorly crystalline h. SYN: amorphous h..

3-hydroxybutanoic acid
SYN: 3-hydroxybutyric acid.

SYN: γ-hydroxybutyrate.

3-hydroxybutyric acid (hi-drok′se-bu-tir′ik)
The d-stereoisomer is one of the ketone bodies and is formed in ketogenesis; it is an important fuel for extrahepatic tissues; as an acyl derivative it is also an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. The l-isomer is found as a coenzyme A derivative in β oxidation of fatty acids. SYN: 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid. d-3-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the interconversion of the two main ketone bodies, catalyzing acetoacetate + NADH + H+ ⇆ d-3-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+.

4-hydroxybutyric aciduria (hi-drok′se-bu-tir′ik)
Elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyrate in the urine. An inherited disorder that can lead to hypotonia and mental retardation.

hydroxycarbamide (hi-drok′se-kar′ba-mid)
SYN: hydroxyurea.

hydroxychloroquine sulfate (hi-drok′se-klor′o-kwin)
A quinoline derivative; an antimalarial agent whose actions and uses resemble those of chloroquine phosphate; also used in the treatment of lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

25-hydroxycholecalciferol (HCC) (hi-drok′se-ko′le-kal-sif′er-ol)
SYN: calcidiol.

hydroxychroman (hi-drok-se-kro′man)
SYN: chromanol.

hydroxychromene (hi-drok-se-kro′men)
SYN: chromenol.

hydroxyephedrine (hi-drok′se-e-fed′ren)
A sympathomimetic agent for the treatment of shock.

25-hydroxyergocalciferol (hi-drok′ser′go-kal-sif′er-ol)
A biologically active and major circulatory metabolite of vitamin D2. SYN: ercalcidiol.

hydroxyfatty acid (hi-drok′se-fat′te)
A fatty acid that has a hydroxyl group covalently attached to it ( E.G., in hydroxynervone).

3-hydroxyglutaric acid (hi-drok′se-gloo-tar′ik)
A dicarboxylic acid that accumulates in individuals with glutaric acidemia type I.

hydroxyhemin (hi-drok-se-he′min)
SYN: hematin.

hydroxykynureninuria (hi-drok′se-ki-noo′re-ni-noo′re-a) [MIM*236800]
An abnormality in tryptophan metabolism, probably due to a defect in kynureninase, characterized by mild mental retardation, migraine-like headaches, and urinary excretion of large amounts of kynurenine, 3-hydoxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid; autosomal recessive inheritance.

hydroxyl (hi-drok′sil)
The radical or moiety, –OH.

hydroxylamine (hi-drok′sil-a′men)
1. NH2OH;a partially oxidized derivative of ammonia; reacts with carbonyl groups to produce oximes; forms acid salts, e.g., h. hydrochloride. It is a chemical mutagen that causes deamination of cytosine residues in DNA. 2. Any compound containing RNH&cbond;OH. h. reductase an enzyme catalyzing the reversible reduction of h. to ammonia with a variety of donors ( e.g., methylene blue, flavin). SEE ALSO: NADH-h. reductase.


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