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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hypacusis (hi′pa-koo′sis, hip′a-)
Hearing impairment of a conductive or sensorineural nature. SYN: hypacusia, hypoacusis. [hypo- + G. akousis, hearing]

hypalbuminemia (hi′pal-bu-mi-ne′me-a, hip′al-)
SYN: hypoalbuminemia. [G. hypo, under, + albuminemia]

hypalgesia (hi′pal-je′ze-a, hip′al-)
Decreased sensibility to pain. SYN: hypoalgesia. [G. hypo, under, + algesis, sense of pain]

hypalgesic, hypalgetic (hi′pal-je′sik, hip′al-; -jet′ik)
Relating to hypalgesia; having diminished sensitiveness to pain.

hypamnion, hypamnios (hi-pam′ne-on, -ne-os)
SYN: oligohydramnios.

hypanakinesia, hypanakinesis (hi-pan′a-ki-ne′se-a, -kin-e′sis)
Diminution in the normal gastric or intestinal movements. [G. hypo, under, + anakinesis, a to-and-fro movement]

hyparterial (hi′par-ter′e-al, hip′ar-)
Below or beneath an artery. [G. hypo, beneath, + arteria, artery]

hypaxial (hi-pak′se-al, hip-ak′)
Below any axis, such as the spinal axis or the axis of a limb. See hypomere. [G. hypo, beneath, + axis]

hypazoturia (hi′paz-o-too′re-a)
SYN: hypoazoturia.

hypencephalon (hi′pen-sef′a-lon)
The midbrain, pons, and medulla. [G. hypo, under, + enkephalos, brain]

hypengyophobia (hi-pen′gi-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of responsibility. [G. hypengyos, responsible, + phobos, fear]

hyper-
Excessive, above normal; opposite of hypo-. [G. hyper, above, over]

hyperabduction
SYN: superabduction.

hyperacidity (hi′per-a-sid′i-te)
An abnormally high degree of acidity, as of the gastric juice.

hyperactivity (hi′per-ak-tiv′i-te)
1. SYN: superactivity. 2. General restlessness or excessive movement such as that characterizing children with attention deficit disorder or hyperkinesis.

hyperacusis, hyperacusia (hi′per-a-koo′sis, -koo′se-a)
Abnormal hearing sensitivity. SYN: auditory hyperesthesia. [hyper- + G. akousis, a hearing]

hyperadenosis (hi′per-ad-e-no′sis)
Glandular enlargement, especially of the lymphatic glands. [hyper- + G. aden, gland, + -osis, condition]

hyperadiposis, hyperadiposity (hi′per-ad-i-po′sis, -pos′i-te)
An extreme degree of adiposis or fatness.

hyperadrenalcorticalism (hi′per-a-dre′nal-kor′ti-kal-izm)
SYN: hypercorticoidism.

hyperadrenocorticalism (hi′per-a-dre′no-kor′ti-kal-izm)
SYN: hypercorticoidism.

hyperalaninemia (hi′per-al′a-nen-e′me-a)
Elevated levels of alanine in the serum.

hyper-β-alaninemia (hi′per-ba′ta-al′a-nen-e′me-a)
Elevated levels of β-alanine in the serum; believed to be due to a deficiency of β-alanine:pyruvate aminotransferase; leads to impaired CNS function.

hyperaldosteronism (hi′per-al-dos′ter-on-izm)
SYN: aldosteronism.

hyperalgesia (hi-per-al-je′ze-a)
Extreme sensitivity to painful stimuli. [hyper- + G. algos, pain]

hyperalgesic, hyperalgetic (hi′per-al-je′sik, -jet′ik)
Relating to hyperalgesia.

hyperalimentation (hi′per-al′i-men-ta′shun)
Administration or consumption of nutrients beyond minimum normal requirements, in an attempt to replace nutritional deficiencies. SYN: superalimentation, suralimentation. enteral h. h. by the administration of elemental nutrients via a catheter placed within the intestinal tract; usually used in patients with at least a portion of functional small intestine. parenteral h. h. of nutrients via central venous catheter in patients who cannot consume adequate nutrition by the enteral route.

hyperallantoinuria (hi′per-a-lan′to-i-noo′re-a)
Increased excretion of allantoin in the urine.

hyperalphalipoproteinemia (hi′per-al′fa-lip-o-pro′ten-e′me-a)
An inherited defect that results in elevated levels of high-density lipoproteins in the serum.

hyperaminoaciduria (hi′per-am′i-no-as-i-doo′re-a)
SYN: aminoaciduria.

hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria
Elevated levels of β-aminoisobutyric acid in the urine; believed to be due to a deficiency of liver β-aminoisobutyrate:pyruvate aminotransferase.

hyperammonemia (hi′per-am-o-ne′me-a)
SYN: ammonemia.

hyperamylasemia (hi′per-am′i-la-se′me-a)
Elevated serum amylase, usually seen as one of the manifestations of acute pancreatitis. [hyper- + amylase, + G. haima, blood]

hyperanacinesia, hyperanacinesis (hi′per-an-a-si-ne′ze-a, -ne′sis)
SYN: hyperanakinesia.

hyperanakinesia, hyperanakinesis (hi′per-an-a-ki-ne′ze-a, -ki-ne′sis)
Excessive to-and-fro movement, e.g., of the stomach or intestine. SYN: hyperanacinesia, hyperanacinesis. [hyper- + G. anakinesis, to-and-fro movement]

hyperaphia (hi′per-a′fe-a)
Extreme sensitivity to touch. SYN: oxyaphia, tactile hyperesthesia. [hyper- + G. haphe, touch]

hyperaphic (hi-per-af′ik)
Marked by hyperaphia.

hyperargininemia (hi′per-ar-jen-in-e-me-a)
Elevated levels of arginine in the blood plasma; usually associated with a deficiency of arginase.

hyperbaric (hi-per-bar′ik)
1. Pertaining to pressure of ambient gases greater than 1 atmosphere. 2. Concerning solutions, more dense than the diluent or medium; e.g., in spinal anesthesia, a h. solution has a density greater than that of spinal fluid. [hyper- + G. baros, weight]

hyperbarism (hi-per-bar′izm)
Disturbances in the body resulting from the pressure of ambient gases at greater than 1 atmosphere; e.g., nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, bends. [hyper- + G. baros, weight]

hyperbetalipoproteinemia (hi′per-bet-a-lip′o-pro-te-ne′me-a)
Enhanced concentration of β-lipoproteins in the blood. familial h. See type II familial hyperlipoproteinemia. familial h. and hyperprebetalipoproteinemia SYN: type III familial hyperlipoproteinemia.

hyperbilirubinemia (hi′per-bil′i-roo-bi-ne′me-a)
An abnormally large amount of bilirubin in the circulating blood, resulting in clinically apparent icterus or jaundice when the concentration is sufficient. neonatal h. serum bilirubin greater than 12.9 mg/dl (220 μol/L) or rising at a rate greater than 5 mg/dl per day; also applied to a nonphysiologic pattern of h., i.e., jaundice in the first 24 hours of life or extending beyond the first week of life in term infants.

hyperbrachycephaly (hi′per-brak-e-sef′a-le)
An extreme degree of brachycephaly, with a cephalic index of over 85. [hyper- + G. brachys, short, + kephale, head]

hypercalcemia (hi′per-kal-se′me-a)
An abnormally high concentration of calcium compounds in the circulating blood; commonly used to indicate an elevated concentration of calcium ions in the blood. humoral h. of benignancy h. induced by parathyroid hormonelike protein of benign tumor. idiopathic h. of infants persistent h. of unknown cause in very young children, associated with osteosclerosis, renal insufficiency, and sometimes hypertension; also may be associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis, elfin facies, and mental retardation.

hypercalcinuria (hi′per-kal-si-noo′re-a)
SYN: hypercalciuria.

hypercalciuria (hi′per-kal-se-yu′re-a)
Excretion of abnormally large amounts of calcium in the urine, as in hyperparathyroidism and types of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. SYN: calcinuric diabetes, hypercalcinuria, hypercalcuria.

hypercalcuria (hi′per-kal-ku′re-a)
SYN: hypercalciuria.

hypercapnia (hi-per-kap′ne-a)
Abnormally increased arterial carbon dioxide tension. SYN: hypercarbia. [hyper- + G. kapnos, smoke, vapor]

hypercarbia (hi-per-kar′be-a)
SYN: hypercapnia.

hypercardia (hi-per-kar′de-a)
Hypertrophy of the heart. [hyper- + G. kardia, heart]

hypercatabolic (hi′per-kat-a-bol′ik)
Pertaining to hypercatabolism.

hypercatabolism (hi′per-ka-tab′o-lizm)
Excessive metabolic breakdown of a specific substance or of body tissue in general, leading to weight loss and wasting.

hypercatharsis (hi′per-ka-thar′sis)
Excessive and frequent defecation. [hyper- + G. katharsis, a cleansing]

hypercathexis (hi′per-ka-thek′sis)
In psychoanalysis, an individual's excessive investment of libido or interest in an object, person, or idea. [hyper- + G. kathexis, a holding in, retention]

hypercementosis (hi′per-se-men-to′sis)
Excessive deposition of secondary cementum on the root of a tooth, which may be caused by localized trauma or inflammation, excessive tooth eruption, or osteitis deformans, or may occur idiopathically. SYN: cementum hyperplasia. [hyper- + L. caementum, a rough quarry stone, + -osis, condition]

hyperchloremia (hi′per-klo-re′me-a)
An abnormally large amount of chloride ions in the circulating blood. SYN: chloremia (2) .

hyperchlorhydria (hi′per-klor-hi′dre-a)
Presence of an excessive amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. SYN: chlorhydria, hyperhydrochloria. [hyper- + chlorhydric (acid)]

hyperchloruria (hi′per-klor-u′re-a)
Increased excretion of chloride ions in the urine.

hypercholesteremia (hi′per-ko-les′ter-e′me-a)
SYN: hypercholesterolemia.

hypercholesterinemia (hi′per-ko-les′ter-i-ne′me-a)
SYN: hypercholesterolemia.

hypercholesterolemia (hi′per-ko-les′ter-ol-e′me-a)
The presence of an abnormally large amount of cholesterol in the blood. SYN: hypercholesteremia, hypercholesterinemia. familial h. See type II familial hyperlipoproteinemia. familial h. with hyperlipemia SYN: type III familial hyperlipoproteinemia.

hypercholesterolia (hi′per-ko-les′ter-o′le-a)
The presence of an abnormally large quantity of cholesterol in the bile.

hypercholia (hi-per-ko′le-a)
A condition in which an abnormally large amount of bile is formed in the liver. [hyper- + G. chole, bile]

hyperchromaffinism (hi′per-kro′maf-in-izm)
Presence of a functioning pheochromocytoma.

hyperchromasia (hi′per-kro-ma′ze-a)
SYN: hyperchromatism.

hyperchromatic (hi′per-kro-mat′ik)
1. Abnormally highly colored, excessively stained, or overpigmented. SYN: hyperchromic (1) . 2. Showing increased chromatin. [hyper- + G. chroma, color]

hyperchromatism (hi′per-kro′ma-tizm)
1. Excessive pigmentation. 2. Increased staining capacity, especially of cell nuclei for hematoxylin. 3. An increase in chromatin in cell nuclei. SYN: hyperchromasia, hyperchromia. [hyper- + G. chroma, color]

hyperchromia (hi-per-kro′me-a)
SYN: hyperchromatism. macrocytic h. hyperchromatic macrocythemia; a misnomer inasmuch as the red blood cells are larger than normal, the total amount of hemoglobin per cell is increased, but the percentage of hemoglobin per cell is usually in the normochromic range.

hyperchromic (hi-per-krom′ik)
1. SYN: hyperchromatic (1) . 2. Denoting increased light absorption. 3. Denoting more highly colored than normal. 4. Describing erythrocytes that contain, or appear to contain, more hemoglobin than normal.

hyperchylia (hi-per-ki′le-a)
Excessive secretion of gastric juice. [hyper- + G. chylos, juice]

hyperchylomicronemia (hi′per-ki′lo-mi-kro-ne′me-a)
Increased plasma concentrations of chylomicrons. familial h. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. familial h. with hyperprebetalipoproteinemia SYN: type V familial hyperlipoproteinemia.

hypercinesis, hypercinesia (hi′per-si-ne′sis, -si-ne′ze-a)
SYN: hyperkinesis.

hypercoagulability (hi′per-ko-ag′oo-la-bil-i-te)
Abnormally increased coagulability.




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