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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


hypercoagulable (hi′-per-ko-ag′oo-la-bl)
Characterized by abnormally increased coagulation.

hypercorticoidism (hi′per-kor′ti-koyd-izm)
Excessive secretion of one or more steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex; sometimes used also to designate the state produced by therapeutic administration of large quantities of steroids having glucocorticoid activity, e.g., hydrocortisone. SEE ALSO: Cushing syndrome. SYN: adrenalism, hyperadrenalcorticalism, hyperadrenocorticalism.

hypercortisolism (hi′per-kor′ti-sol-izm)
See hyperadrenocorticalism.

hypercryalgesia (hi′per-kri-al-je′ze-a)
SYN: hypercryesthesia. [hyper- + G. kryos, cold, + algesis, the sense of pain]

hypercryesthesia (hi′per-kri-es-the′ze-a)
Extreme sensibility to cold. SYN: hypercryalgesia. [hyper- + G. kryos, cold, + aisthesis, sensation]

hypercupremia (hi′per-koo-pre′me-a)
An abnormally high level of plasma copper. [hyper- + L. cuprum, copper, + G. haima, blood]

hypercyanotic (hi′per-si-a-not′ik)
Marked by extreme cyanosis.

hypercyesis, hypercyesia (hi′per-si-e′sis, -e′ze-a)
SYN: superfetation. [hyper- + G. kyesis, pregnancy]

hypercythemia (hi′per-si-the′me-a)
The presence of an abnormally high number of red blood cells in the circulating blood. SYN: hypererythrocythemia. [hyper- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood]

hypercytochromia (hi′per-si-to-kro′me-a)
Increased intensity of staining of a cell, especially blood cells. [hyper- + G. kytos, cell, + chroma, color]

hypercytosis (hi′per-si-to′sis)
Obsolete term for any condition in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the circulating blood or the tissues; frequently used synonymously with leukocytosis.

hyperdicrotic (hi′per-di-krot′ik)
Pronouncedly dicrotic. SYN: superdicrotic.

hyperdicrotism (hi-per-dik′ro-tizm, -di′kro-tizm)
Extreme dicrotism.

hyperdiploid (hi′per-dip′loid)
Having a chromosome number greater than the diploid number.

hyperdipsia (hi-per-dip′se-a)
Intense thirst that is relatively temporary. [hyper- + G. dipsa, thirst]

hyperdistention (hi′per-dis-ten′shun)
Extreme distention. SYN: superdistention.

hyperechoic (hi′per-e-ko′ik)
1. In ultrasonography, pertaining to material that produces echoes of higher amplitude or density than the surrounding medium. 2. Denoting a region in an ultrasound image in which the echoes are stronger than normal or than surrounding structures.

hyperekplexia (hi′per-ek-pleks′e-a) [MIM#149400]
A hereditary disorder in which there are pathologic startle responses, i.e., protective reactions to unanticipated, potentially threatening, stimuli of any type, particularly auditory; the stimuli induce often widespread and violent sudden contractions of the head, neck, spinal, and sometimes limb musculature, resulting in involuntary shouting, jerking, jumping, and falling; autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance forms, with the responsible gene localized to chromosome 5q; probably the result of lack of inhibitory neurotransmitters, glycine, or GABA. SYN: kok disease, startle disease. [hyper- + G. ekplexia, sudden shock, fr. ekplesso, to startle]

hyperemesis (hi-per-em′e-sis)
Excessive vomiting. [hyper- + G. emesis, vomiting] h. gravidarum pernicious vomiting in pregnancy. h. lactentium vomiting by nursing infants with pyloric stenosis.

hyperemetic (hi′per-e-met′ik)
Marked by excessive vomiting.

hyperemia (hi-per-e′me-a)
The presence of an increased amount of bloodflow in a part or organ. SEE ALSO: congestion. [hyper- + G. haima, blood] active h. h. due to an increased afflux of arterial blood into dilated capillaries. SYN: arterial h., fluxionary h.. arterial h. SYN: active h.. Bier h. obsolete term for h. produced by Bier method (2) . collateral h. increased blood flow through abundant collateral channels when the circulation through the main artery to a part is arrested. fluxionary h. SYN: active h.. passive h. h. due to an obstruction in the flow of blood from the affected part, the venous radicles becoming distended. SYN: venous h.. peristatic h. SYN: peristasis. reactive h. h. following the arrest and subsequent restoration of the blood supply to a part. venous h. SYN: passive h..

hyperemic (hi-per-e′mik)
Denoting hyperemia.

hyperencephaly (hi′per-en-sef′a-le)
A fetal developmental deficiency of the vault of the cranium, exposing the poorly formed brain. [hyper- + G. enkephalos, brain]

hypereosinophilia (hi′per-e-o-sin-o-fil′e-a)
A greater degree of abnormal increase in the number of eosinophilic granulocytes in the circulating blood or the tissues; e.g., in diseases where the degree of eosinophilia usually ranges from 10–30%, an increase to 50 or 60% (or more) might be regarded as h..

hyperergia (hi′per-er′je-a)
An allergic hypersensitivity. SYN: hypergia.

hyperergic (hi-per-er′jik)
Relating to hyperergia. SYN: hypergic.

hypererythrocythemia (hi′per-e-rith′ro-si-the′me-a)
SYN: hypercythemia.

hyperesophoria (hi′per-es-o-fo′re-a)
A tendency of one eye to deviate upward and inward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. eso, inward, + phora, movement]

hyperesthesia (hi′per-es-the′ze-a)
Abnormal acuteness of sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. [hyper- + G. aisthesis, sensation] auditory h. SYN: hyperacusis. cervical h. the hypersensitivity of teeth in the cervical area due to exposure of the dentin. gustatory h. SYN: hypergeusia. muscular h. sensitiveness of the muscles to pressure. olfactory h., h. olfactoria SYN: hyperosmia. h. optica extreme sensitivity of the eyes to light. See photophobia, photosensitivity. tactile h. SYN: hyperaphia.

hyperesthetic (hi′per-es-thet′ik)
Marked by hyperesthesia.

hypereuryprosopic (hi′per-u′ri-pro-sop′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by a very low and wide face. [hyper- + G. eurys, wide, + prosopon, face]

hyperexophoria (hi′per-ek-so-fo′re-a)
A tendency of one eye to deviate upward and outward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. exo, outward, + phora, movement]

hyperextension (hi′per-eks-ten′shun)
Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit. SYN: overextension, superextension.

hyperferremia (hi′per-fer-e′me-a)
High serum iron level; found in hemochromatosis.

hyperfibrinogenemia (hi′per-fi-brin′o-je-ne′e-a)
An increased level of fibrinogen in the blood. SYN: fibrinogenemia.

hyperfibrinolysis (hi′per-fi-brin-ol′i-sis)
Markedly increased fibrinolysis, as in subdural hematomas.

hyperflexion (hi-per-flek′shun)
Flexion of a limb or part beyond the normal limit. SYN: superflexion.

hyperfructosemia (hi′per-fruk-to-se-me-a)
Elevated serum fructose levels.

hypergalactosis (hi′per-ga-lak-to′sis)
Excessive secretion of milk. [hyper- + G. gala, milk, + -osis, condition]

hypergammaglobulinemia (hi′per-gam-a-glob′u-li-ne′me-a)
An increased amount of the γ-globulins in the plasma, such as that frequently observed in chronic infectious diseases.

hyperganglionosis (hi-per-ga′ng-gle-o-no′sis)
SYN: neuronal hyperplasia.

hypergenesis (hi-per-jen′e-sis)
Excessive development or redundant production of parts or organs of the body. [hyper- + G. genesis, production]

hypergenetic (hi-per-je-net′ik)
Relating to hypergenesis.

hypergenitalism (hi-per-jen′i-tal-izm)
Abnormal overdevelopment of genitalia.

hypergeusia (hi-per-goo′se-a, -joo′se-a)
Abnormal acuteness of the sense of taste. SYN: gustatory hyperesthesia. [hyper- + G. geusis, taste]

hypergia (hi-per′je-a)
SYN: hyperergia.

hypergic (hi-per′jik)
SYN: hyperergic.

hyperglandular (hi-per-glan′dyu-lar)
Characterized by overactivity or increased size of a gland.

hyperglobulia, hyperglobulism (hi′per-glob-u′le-a, -glob′u-lizm)
Old term for polycythemia. [hyper- + L. globulus, globule]

hyperglobulinemia (hi′per-glob′u-lin-e′me-a)
An abnormally high concentration of globulins in the circulating blood plasma.

hyperglycemia (hi′per-gli-se′me-a)
An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the circulating blood, seen especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. SYN: hyperglycosemia. [hyper- + G. glykys, sweet, + haima, blood] ketotic h. an inborn error of glycine metabolism characterized by lethargy, vomiting, convulsions, hypertonia, and difficulty breathing; milk protein and casein induce attacks; autosomal recessive inheritance. nonketotic h. SYN: hyperosmolar (hyperglycemic) nonketotic coma. posthypoglycemic h. SYN: Somogyi phenomenon.

hyperglyceridemia (hi′per-glis′er-i-de′me-a)
Elevated plasma concentration of glycerides. endogenous h. type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia or, more commonly, a nonfamilial sporadic variety. exogenous h. persistent h. due to retarded rate of removal from plasma of chylomicrons of dietary origin; occurs in alcoholism, hypothyroidism, insulinopenic diabetes mellitus, types I and V hyperlipoproteinemia, and during acute pancreatitis.

hyperglycinemia (hi′per-gli-si-ne′me-a)
Elevated plasma glycine concentration. ketotic h. an inherited metabolic defect which results from a deficiency of propionyl Coenzyme A carboxylase, the enzyme that converts propionate to methylmalonate; the enzyme requires biotin as a cofactor; clinically, affected infants have overwhelming illness, with lethargy, metabolic acidosis with ketosis, hypotonia; coma and seizures typically develop with early death; propionic acid is markedly elevated in plasma and urine; there is also hyperammonemia, and elevated levels of other metabolites as well, including glycine, hence the original name for the syndrome. SYN: methylmalonic acidemia, propionic acidemia. nonketotic h. [MIM*238300] an inborn error of glycine metabolism, due to a deficiency of glycine dicarboxylase P protein (GCSP), a component of glycine cleavage system; characteristically overwhelming disease in the newborn period, with coma, seizures and death, or, less often, gradual onset with failure to thrive, focal seizures, and mental retardation; there is massive elevation of plasma glycine, with increased levels in cerebrospinal fluid and urine; plasma hyperosmolality, severe dehydration occur without ketoacidosis; autosomal recessive inheritance; caused by mutation in the GCSP gene on chromosome 9p.

hyperglycinuria (hi′per-gli-si-noo′re-a)
Enhanced urinary excretion of glycine.

hyperglycogenolysis (hi′per-gli′ko-je-nol′i-sis)
Excessive glycogenolysis. [hyper- + glycogen + G. lysis, loosening]

hyperglycorrhachia (hi′per-gli-ko-rak′e-a)
Excessive sugar in the cerebrospinal fluid. [hyper- + G. glykys, sweet, + rhachis, spine]

hyperglycosemia (hi′per-gli-ko-se′me-a)
SYN: hyperglycemia.

hyperglycosuria (hi′per-gli-ko-soo′re-a)
Persistent excretion of unusually large amounts of glucose in the urine; i.e., an extreme degree of glucosuria.

hyperglyoxylemia (hi′per-gli-ok′si-le′me-a)
Enhanced plasma (and possibly tissue) concentrations of glyoxylate; may develop during thiamine deficiency.

hypergnosis (hi-per-no′sis)
1. Projection of inner conflicts into the environment. 2. Exaggerated perception, such as the expansion of an isolated thought. [hyper- + G. gnosis, knowledge]

hypergonadism (hi-per-go′nad-izm)
A clinical state resulting from enhanced secretion of gonadal hormones.

hypergonadotropic (hi′per-go′na-do-trop′ik)
Indicating an increased production or excretion of gonadotropic hormones.

hypergranulosis (hi′per-gran-u-lo′sis)
Increased thickness of the granular layer of the epidermis, associated with hyperkeratosis. [hyper- + (stratum) granulosum + -osis, condition]

hyperguanidinemia (hi′per-gwan′i-di-ne′me-a)
A condition in which there is an abnormally large amount of guanidine in the circulating blood.

hypergynecosmia (hi′per-gi-ne-koz′me-a)
Overdevelopment of secondary sex characteristics of the mature female or their precocious development in the young girl. [hyper- + G. gyne, woman, + kosmeo, to decorate]

hyperhedonia, hyperhedonism (hi′per-he-do′ne-a, -he′don-izm)
The feeling of an abnormally great pleasure in any act or from any happening. [hyper- + G. hedone, pleasure]

hyperhemoglobinemia (hi′per-he′mo-glo-bi-ne′mme-a)
An unusually large amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood plasma; i.e., much more than that ordinarily observed in most examples of hemoglobinemia.

hyperheparinemia (hi′per-hep′ar-in-e′me-a) [MIM*144050]
Elevated plasma concentrations of heparin; believed to be the cause of a heritable bleeding tendency; probably autosomal dominant inheritance.

hyperhidrosis (hi′per-hi-dro′sis)
Excessive or profuse sweating. SYN: polyhidrosis, sudorrhea. [hyper- + hidrosis] gustatory h. excessive sweating of the lips, nose, and forehead after eating certain foods; it is physiologic in many persons, but sometimes occurs after parotid surgery or as a result of damage to the parasympathetic or sympathetic nerves of the head and neck.


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