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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hyperhydration (hi′per-hi-dra′shun)
Excess water content of the body; may result from the intravenous administration of unduly large amounts of glucose solution. SYN: overhydration.

hyperhydrochloria (hi′per-hi-dro-klor′e-a)
SYN: hyperchlorhydria.

hyperhydrochloridia (hi′-per-hi′dro-chlor-id-e-a)
Excessive acid secretion by the stomach; associated with peptic ulcer disease. [hyper + hydrochloric, acid + -ia]

hyperhydropexy, hyperhydropexis (hi-per-hi′dro-pek-se, hi′per-hi-dro-pek′sis)
Increased fixation of water in tissues. [hyper- + G. hydor, water, + pegnymi, to fasten]

hyperhydroxyprolinemia (hi′per-hi-drok′se-pro-len-e-me-a)
See hydroxyprolinemia.

hyperimidodipeptiduria (hi′per-im′i-do-di-pep′tid-oor-e-a)
Elevated levels of imidodipeptides ( e.g., Xaa&cbond;Pro) in the urine; due to a deficiency of prolidase.

hyperimmune (hi′per-im-mum′)
Having large quantities of specific antibodies in the serum from repeated immunizations or infections.

hyperimmunity (hi′per-i-mu′-ni-te)
A high degree of immunity.

hyperimmunization (hi′per-im-oo-ni-zashun)
1. The induction of a heightened state of immunity by the administration of repeated doses of antigen, often used in allergy desensitization. 2. Passively acquired immunity by the injection of hyperimmune gamma globulin.

hyperindicanemia (hi′per-in′di-kan-e′me-a)
An unusually large amount of indican in the circulating blood; i.e., greater than that observed in most instances of indicanemia.

hyperinfection (hi′per-in-fek′shun)
Infection by very large numbers of organisms as a result of immunologic deficiency. Cf.:superinfection.

hyperinflation (hi-per-in-fla′shun)
Overdistention of airways and alveoli, sometimes leading to emphysema, caused by obstructive lung disease; occurs reversibly with asthma, and can occur locally with aspiration of a foreign body with a subsequent ball-valve phenomenon. [hyper- + inflation]

hyperinosemia (hi′per-i′no-se′me-a, hi′per-in′o-)
A greatly increased quantity of fibrinogen in the circulating blood; under certain conditions, unusually large amounts of fibrin may be formed, thereby resulting in a greater degree of coagulability of the blood. SYN: hyperinosis. [hyper- + G. is (in-), fiber, + haima, blood]

hyperinosis (hi-per-i-no′sis)
SYN: hyperinosemia.

hyperinsulinemia (hi′per-in′soo-lin-e′me-a)
SYN: hyperinsulinism.

hyperinsulinism (hi′per-in′soo-lin-izm)
Increased levels of insulin in the plasma due to increased secretion of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; decreased hepatic removal of insulin is a cause in some patients, although h. usually is associated with insulin resistance and is commonly found in obesity in association with varying degrees of hyperglycemia. SYN: hyperinsulinemia. alimentary h. elevated levels of insulin in the plasma following ingestion of meals by individuals with abnormally rapid gastric emptying ( e.g., following gastroenterostomy or vagotomy); rapid glucose absorption leads to excessive insulin release which in turn can lead to a marked fall in blood glucose to hypoglycemic levels.

hyperinvolution (hi′per-in′vo-loo′shun)
SYN: superinvolution.

hyperisotonic (hi′per-i-so-ton′ik)
SYN: hypertonic.

hyperkalemia (hi′per-ka-le′me-a)
A greater than normal concentration of potassium ions in the circulating blood. SYN: hyperkaliemia, hyperpotassemia. [hyper- + Mod. L. kalium, potash, + G. haima, blood]

hyperkaliemia (hi′per-kal-i-e′me-a)
SYN: hyperkalemia.

hyperkaluresis (hi′per-kal-u-re′sis)
Excessive urinary excretion of potassium. [hyper- + Mod. L. kalium, potassium, + G. oureo, to urinate]

hyperkeratinization (hi′per-ker′at-i-ni-za′shun)
SYN: hyperkeratosis.

hyperkeratosis (hi′per-ker-a-to′sis)
Thickening of the horny layer of the epidermis or mucous membrane. SEE ALSO: keratoderma, keratosis. SYN: hyperkeratinization. h. congenita SYN: ichthyosis vulgaris. diffuse h. of palms and soles an autosomal dominant disorder with onset in early infancy; characterized by hyperkeratotic, scaling plaques and often hyperhidrosis on the palms and soles. SYN: Unna-Thost syndrome. epidermolytic h. [MIM*144200] characterized by localized lesions, keratosis palmaris and plantaris, and elevated IgE, associated with h., hypergranulosis, and reticular degeneration in the upper epidermis; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma gene (EPPK) on chromosome 17q. Generalized epidermolytic h. is present in bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. SYN: porcupine skin. h. follicularis et parafollicularis discrete and confluent horny follicular plugs on a crateriform base, often occurring on the arms and legs in diabetics with renal failure; possibly a severe form of perforating folliculitis. SEE ALSO: perforating folliculitis. SYN: Kyrle disease. generalized epidermolytic h. SYN: bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. h. lenticularis perstans [MIM*144150] small hyperkeratotic papules on the dorsa of the feet and legs and occasionally elsewhere, with pinpoint keratotic papules of the palms and soles; onset in the third and fourth decades; an autosomal dominant trait. SYN: Flegel disease.

hyperketonemia (hi′per-ke′to-ne′me-a)
Elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in the blood.

hyperketonuria (hi′per-ke′to-noo′re-a)
Increased urinary excretion of ketonic compounds.

hyperkinemia (hi′per-ki-ne′me-a)
Increased circulation rate; increased volume flow through the circulation; supernormal cardiac output. [hyper- + G. kineo, to move, + haima, blood]

hyperkinesis, hyperkinesia (hi′per-ki-ne′sis, -ne′ze-a)
1. Excessive motility. 2. Excessive muscular activity. SYN: hypercinesis, hypercinesia, supermotility. [hyper- + G. kinesis, motion]

hyperkinetic (hi′per-ki-net′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by hyperkinesia.

hyperlactation (hi′per-lak-ta′shun)
SYN: superlactation.

hyperleukocytosis (hi′per-loo′ko-si-to′sis)
An unusually great increase in the number and proportion of leukocytes in the circulating blood or the tissues; i.e., much more than that ordinarily observed in most instances of leukocytosis.

hyperlexia (hi-per-lek′se-a)
In mentally retarded children, the presence of relatively advanced reading ability. [hyper- + G. lexis, word, phrase]

hyperlipemia (hi′per-li-pe′me-a)
Elevated levels of lipids in the blood plasma. There are several types of h.. One is associated with a deficiency of δ-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase. SEE ALSO: lipemia. carbohydrate-induced h. SYN: type III familial hyperlipoproteinemia, type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia. combined fat- and carbohydrate-induced h. SYN: type V familial hyperlipoproteinemia. familial combined h. familial hyperlipoproteinemia. familial fat-induced h. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. idiopathic h. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. mixed h. SYN: type V familial hyperlipoproteinemia.

hyperlipidemia (hi′per-lip-i-de′me-a)
SYN: lipemia. mixed h. SYN: mixed hyperlipoproteinemia familial, type 5 h.. mixed hyperlipoproteinemia familial, type 5 h. elevations of VLDL and chylomicrons found in plasma. SYN: mixed h..

hyperlipoidemia (hi′per-lip-oy-de′me-a)
SYN: lipemia.

hyperlipoproteinemia (hi′per-lip′o-pro′te-in-e′me-a, -pro′ten-)
An increase in the lipoprotein concentration of the blood. acquired h. nonfamilial h. that develops as a consequence of some primary disease, such as thyroid deficiency. familial h. a group of diseases characterized by changes in concentration of β-lipoproteins and pre-β-lipoproteins and the lipids associated with them. See type I familial h., type II familial h., type III familial h., type IV familial h., type V familial h.. lipoprotein(a) h. elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) in the serum; associated with an increased risk of coronary disease. type I familial h. [MIM*238600] h. characterized by the presence of large amounts of chylomicrons and triglycerides in the plasma when the patient has a normal diet, and their disappearance on a fat-free diet; low α- and β-lipoproteins on a normal diet, with increase on a fat-free diet; decreased plasma postheparin lipolytic activity; and low tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. It is accompanied by bouts of abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, pancreatitis, and eruptive xanthomas; autosomal recessive inheritance; caused by mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) on chromosome 8p. SEE ALSO: familial lipoprotein lipase inhibitor. SYN: Bürger-Grütz syndrome, familial fat-induced hyperlipemia, familial hyperchylomicronemia, familial hypertriglyceridemia (1) , idiopathic hyperlipemia. type II familial h. [MIM*143890 and MIM*144400] h. characterized by increased plasma levels of β-lipoproteins and cholesterol, elevated or normal levels of triglycerides; heterozygotes have mild lipid changes and are susceptible to atherosclerosis in middle age, but homozygotes have severe changes—often with generalized xanthomatosis, xanthelesma, corneal arcus, and frank clinical atherosclerosis as young adults. This disorder is divided into two classes, both inherited as autosomal dominant with homozygotes more severely affected than heterozygotes: 1) type IIA, which is characterized by elevated LDL but normal triglycerides and is due to a deficiency of the LDL receptor, a defect of the receptor or a modified LDL-apolipoprotein B-100, caused by mutation in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene on chromosome 19p. SYN familial hypercholesterolemia; 2) type IIB has elevated LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides, due to dysregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase), the rate-controlling enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. SYN familial hyperbetalipoproteinemia, familial hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis. type III familial h. [MIM*107741] h. characterized by increased plasma levels of LDL, β-lipoproteins, pre-β-lipoproteins, cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high carbohydrate diet, and glucose tolerance is abnormal; frequent eruptive xanthomas and atheromatosis, particularly coronary artery disease; biochemical defect lies in apolipoproteins; there are many varieties; one variety is caused by mutation in the APOE gene on chromosome 19q. SYN: carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia, dysbetalipoproteinemia, familial hyperbetalipoproteinemia and hyperprebetalipoproteinemia, familial hypercholesterolemia with hyperlipemia. type IV familial h. [MIM*144600] plasma levels of VLDL, pre-β-lipoproteins and triglycerides are increased on a normal diet, but β-lipoproteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids are normal; hypertriglyceridemia is induced by a high carbohydrate diet; may be accompanied by abnormal glucose tolerance and susceptibility to ischemic heart disease; probably autosomal dominant inheritance but genetic heterogeneity is a possibility. SYN: carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia, familial hyperprebetalipoproteinemia, familial hypertriglyceridemia (2) . type V familial h. [MIM*144650] h. characterized by increased plasma levels of chylomicrons, VLDL, pre-β-lipoproteins, and triglycerides, and slight rise of cholesterol on a normal diet, with β-lipoproteins normal; may be accompanied by bouts of abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, susceptibility to atherosclerosis, and abnormal glucose tolerance; probably autosomal recessive inheritance. SYN: combined fat- and carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia, familial hyperchylomicronemia with hyperprebetalipoproteinemia, mixed hyperlipemia.

hyperliposis (hi′per-li-po′sis)
1. Excessive adiposity. 2. An extreme degree of fatty degeneration. [hyper- + G. lipos, fat]

hyperlithuria (hi′per-li-thu′re-a)
An excessive excretion of uric (lithic) acid in the urine.

hyperlogia (hi-per-lo′je-a)
Morbid verbosity or loquacity. See logorrhea. [hyper- + G. logios, eloquent]

hyperlordosis (hi′per-lor-do′sis)
Extreme lordosis.

hyperlucent (hi′-per-loo′sent)
A region on a chest film showing greater than normal film blackening from increased transmission of x-rays. See unilateral h. lung. [hyper- + L. lucens, shining, fr. luceo, to shine]

hyperlysinemia (hi′per-li-si-ne′me-a) [MIM*238700]
A metabolic disorder characterized by mental retardation, convulsions, anemia, and asthenia; associated with an abnormal increase of the amino acid lysine in the circulating blood due to a deficiency of lysine-ketoglutarate reductase. One variant [MIM*268700] is associated with a deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, resulting in h. and saccharopinemia.

hyperlysinuria (hi′per-li-si-noo′re-a)
The presence of abnormally high concentrations of lysine in the urine; a form of aminoaciduria that occurs in cystinuria, hepatolenticular degeneration, and the Fanconi syndrome.

hypermagnesemia (hi′per-mag-ne-se′me-a)
An abnormally large concentration of magnesium in the blood serum.

hypermastia (hi-per-mas′te-a)
1. SYN: polymastia. 2. Excessively large mammary glands. [hyper- + G. mastos, breast]

hypermenorrhea (hi′per-men-o-re′a)
Excessively prolonged or profuse menses. SYN: menorrhagia. [hyper- + G. men, month, + rhoia, flow]

hypermetabolism (hi′per-me-tab′o-lizm)
Heat production by the body above normal, as in thyrotoxicosis. extrathyroidal h. a state of increased metabolic rate with normal levels of thyroid hormone production.

hypermetamorphosis (hi′per-met-a-mor′fo-sis)
Excessive and rapid change of ideas occurring in a mental disorder. See mania, manic-depressive, manic excitement. [hyper- + G. metamorphosis, transformation]

hypermethioninemia (hi-per-meth-i-o-men-e-me-a)
Elevated levels of methionine in the sera.

hypermetria (hi-per-me′tre-a)
Ataxia characterized by overreaching a desired object or goal; usually seen with cerebellar disorders. Cf.:hypometria. [hyper- + G. metron, measure]

hypermetrope (hi-per-met′rop)
SYN: hyperope.

hypermetropia (hi′per-me-tro′pe-a)
SYN: hyperopia. [hyper- + G. metron, measure, + ops, eye] index h. h. arising from decreased refractivity of the lens.

hypermnesia (hi-per-ne′ze-a)
1. Extreme power of memory. 2. A capacity under hypnosis for immediate registration and precise recall of many more individual items than is thought possible under ordinary circumstances. Cf.:hypomnesia. [hyper- + G. mneme, memory]

hypermobility (hi′per-mo-bil′i-te)
Increased range of movement of joints, and joint laxity, occurring normally in children and adolescents or as a result of disease, e.g., Marfan or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

hypermorph (hi′per-morf)
1. Person whose sitting height is low in proportion to the standing height, owing to excessive length of limb. Cf.:hypomorph, ectomorph. 2. A mutant gene that causes an increase in the activity controlled by the gene. Cf.:hypomorph. [hyper- + G. morphe, form]

hypermyotrophy (hi′per-mi-ot′ro-fe)
Muscular hypertrophy. [hyper- + G. mys, muscle, + trophe, nourishment]

hypernatremia (hi′per-na-tre′me-a)
An abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions. [hyper- + natrium, + G. haima, blood]

hyperneocytosis (hi′per-ne′o-si-to′sis)
Hyperleukocytosis in which there are considerable numbers of immature and young cells (especially in the granulocytic series); i.e., a “shift to the left” in the hemogram. SYN: hyperskeocytosis. [hyper- + G. neos, new, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

hypernephroid (hi-per-nef′royd)
Resembling or of the type of the adrenal gland. [hyper- + G. nephros, kidney, + eidos, appearance]

hypernoia (hi-per-noy′a)
1. Great rapidity of thought. 2. Excessive mental activity or imagination of the type seen in the manic phase of manic depression. See depression. [hyper- + G. noeo, to think]

hypernomic (hi-per-nom′ik)
Controlled to excess. [hyper- + G. nomos, law]

hypernutrition (hi′per-noo-trish′un)
SYN: supernutrition.

hyperoncotic (hi′per-on-kot′ik)
Indicating an oncotic pressure higher than normal, e.g., of blood plasma.

hyperonychia (hi′per-o-nik′e-a)
Hypertrophy of the nails. [hyper- + G. onyx, (onych-), nail]

hyperope (hi′per-op)
One suffering from hyperopia. SYN: hypermetrope.

hyperopia (H) (hi-per-o′pe-a)
Longsightedness; that optical condition in which only convergent rays can be brought to focus on the retina. SYN: far sight, farsightedness, hypermetropia, long sight. [hyper- + G. ops, eye] absolute h. manifest h. that cannot be overcome by an effort of accommodation. axial h. h. due to shortening of the anteroposterior diameter of the globe of the eye. curvature h. h. due to decreased refraction of the anterior ocular segment. facultative h. SYN: manifest h.. latent h. the difference between total and manifest h.. manifest h. h. that can be compensated by accommodation. SYN: facultative h.. total h. (Ht) that which can be determined after complete paralysis of accommodation by means of a cycloplegic.

hyperopic (H) (hi-per-o′pik)
Pertaining to hyperopia.

hyperorality (hi′per-o-ral′i-te)
A condition in which inappropriate objects are placed in the mouth. [hyper- + L. os (or-), mouth]

hyperorexia (hi′per-o-rek′se-a)
SYN: bulimia nervosa. [hyper- + G. orexis, appetite]




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