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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hyperornithinemia (hi′per-orn′a-then-e-me-a)
Elevated levels of ornithine in the serum; sometimes associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria.

hyperorthocytosis (hi′per-or′tho-si-to′sis)
Hyperleukocytosis in which the relative percentages of the various types of white blood cells are within the normal range and immature forms are not observed. [hyper- + G. orthos, correct, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

hyperosmia (hi-per-oz′me-a)
An exaggerated or abnormally acute sense of smell. SYN: olfactory hyperesthesia, hyperesthesia olfactoria. [hyper- + G. osme, sense of smell]

hyperosmolality (hi′per-oz-mo-lal′i-te)
Increased osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per kilogram of serum water.

hyperosmolarity (hi′per-oz-mo-lar′i-te)
An increase in the osmotic concentration of a solution expressed as osmoles of solute per liter of solution.

hyperosmotic (hi′per-oz-mot′ik)
1. Having an osmolality greater than another fluid, ordinarily assumed to be plasma or extracellular fluid. 2. Relating to increased osmosis.

hyperosteoidosis (hi′per-os-te-oy-do′sis)
Excessive formation of osteoid, as seen in rickets and osteomalacia.

hyperostosis (hi′per-os-to′sis)
1. Hypertrophy of bone. 2. SYN: exostosis. [hyper- + G. osteon, bone, + -osis, condition] ankylosing h. SYN: diffuse idiopathic skeletal h.. h. corticalis deformans [MIM*239000] marked irregular thickening of the skull and bone cortex, with thickening and widening of the shafts of long bones and high serum alkaline phosphatase; autosomal recessive inheritance. diffuse idiopathic skeletal h. (DISH) a generalized spinal and extraspinal articular disorder characterized by calcification and ossification of ligaments, particularly of the anterior longitudinal ligament; distinct from ankylosing spondylitis or degenerative joint disease. SYN: ankylosing h., Forestier disease, hyperostotic spondylosis. flowing h. SYN: rheostosis. h. frontalis interna abnormal deposition of bone on the inner aspect of the os frontale, visible by x-ray; may be a part of Morgagni syndrome. generalized cortical h. SYN: van Buchem syndrome. infantile cortical h. [MIM*114000] neonatal subperiosteal bone formation over many bones, especially the mandible, clavicles, and the shafts of long bones; it follows fever, usually appearing before 6 months of age and disappearing during childhood; familial cases are inherited as autosomal dominant. SYN: Caffey disease, Caffey syndrome, Caffey-Silverman syndrome. streak h. SYN: rheostosis.

hyperovarianism (hi′per-o-va′re-an-izm)
Sexual precocity in young girls due to premature maturation of the hypotholomic-pituitary axis and development of ovaries accompanied by the secretion of ovarian hormones. SYN: true precocious puberty.

hyperoxaluria (hi′per-ok-sa-loo′re-a)
Presence of an unusually large amount of oxalic acid or oxalates in the urine; renal stones may occur. SYN: oxaluria. primary h. and oxalosis [MIM*259900 & MIM*260000] a metabolic disorder, usually evident clinically in the first decade of life, characterized by calcium oxalate nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, extrarenal oxalosis, and increased urinary output of oxalic and glycolic acids, leading to progressive renal failure and uremia. Type I is due to a deficiency in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and type II to a deficiency in D-glycerate dehydrogenase; the latter is a milder disease with a better long-term prognosis for renal function. Both types are inherited as autosomal recessive, caused by mutation in the alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase gene (AGXT) on 2q.

hyperoxia (hi-per-ok′se-a)
1. An increased amount of oxygen in tissues and organs. 2. A greater oxygen tension than normal, such as that produced by breathing air or oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere.

hyperoxidation (hi′per-oks-i-da′shun)
Excessive oxidation.

hyperpancreatism (hi′per-pan′kre-a-tizm)
A condition of increased activity of the pancreas, trypsin being in excess among the enzymes.

hyperparasite (hi-per-par′a-sit)
A secondary parasite capable of development within a previously existing parasite.

hyperparasitism (hi-per-par′a-sit-izm)
A condition in which a secondary parasite develops within a previously existing parasite. SYN: biparasitism.

hyperparathyroidism (hi′per-par-a-thi′royd-izm)
A condition due to an increase in the secretion of the parathyroids, causing elevated serum calcium, decreased serum phosphorus, and increased excretion of both calcium and phosphorus, calcium stones and sometimes generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica. primary h. h. due to neoplasms or idiopathic hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. secondary h. h. that arises as a result of disordered metabolism producing hypocalcemia, as in chronic uremia due to renal disease, malabsorption, rickets, or osteomalacia; associated with hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands.

hyperparotidism (hi′per-pa-rot′i-dizm)
Increased activity of the parotid glands.

hyperpathia (hi-per-path′e-a)
Exaggerated subjective response to painful stimuli, with a continuing sensation of pain after the stimulation has ceased. [hyper- + G. pathos, suffering]

hyperpepsia (hi-per-pep′se-a)
1. Abnormally rapid digestion. 2. Impaired digestion with hyperchlorhydria. [hyper- + G. pepsis, digestion]

hyperpepsinia (hi′per-pep-sin′e-a)
An excess of pepsin in the gastric juice.

hyperperistalsis (hi′per-per-i-stal′sis)
Excessive rapidity of the passage of food through the stomach and intestine.

hyperphagia (hi-per-fa′je-a)
Gluttony; overeating. [hyper- + G. phagein, to eat]

hyperphalangism (hi′per-fa-lan′jizm)
Presence of a supernumerary phalanx in a finger or toe. SYN: polyphalangism.

hyperphenylalaninemia (hi′per-fen′il-al-a-ni-ne′me-a)
The presence of abnormally high blood levels of phenylalanine, which may or may not be associated with elevated tyrosine levels, in newborn infants (premature and full-term), associated with the heterozygous state of phenylketonuria, maternal phenylketonuria, or transient deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase or p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxidase. malignant h. 1. dHPR-deficient form; an inherited disorder in which there is an absence or deficiency of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR); this results in impaired regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin, causing an elevation in phenylalanine levels; 2. gTP-CH form; an inherited disorder in which there is a deficiency of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase, an enzyme used in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin; 3. 6-PTS form; an inherited disorder in which there is a deficiency of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase, an enzyme that participates in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. SYN: nonclassical phenylketonuria. non-PKU h. a benign phenotype in which phenylalanine monooxygenase is deficient but is greater than 1% of normal levels.

hyperphonesis (hi′per-fo-ne′sis)
An increase in the percussion sound or of the voice sound in auscultation. [hyper- + G. phonesis, a sounding]

hyperphonia (hi′per-fo′ne-a)
Excessive effort in voice production characterized by loudness and undue tension of the vocal muscles. [hyper- + G. phone, sound, voice]

hyperphoria (hi-per-fo′re-a)
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate upward, prevented by binocular vision. [hyper- + G. phora, motion]

hyperphosphatasemia (hi′per-fos′fa-ta-se′me-a)
Abnormally high content of alkaline phosphatase in the circulating blood. SEE ALSO: hyperphosphatasia.

hyperphosphatasia (hi′per-fos-fa-ta′ze-a) [MIM*239000 and MIM*239300]
A skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, macrocranium, expansion of the diaphyses of tubular bones with multiple fractures, patchy osteosclerosis, leg bowing, and occasionally mental retardation; serum alkaline phosphatase is elevated; autosomal recessive inheritance.

hyperphosphatemia (hi′per-fos-fa-te′me-a)
Abnormally high concentration of phosphates in the circulating blood.

hyperphosphaturia (hi′per-fos-fa-too′re-a)
An increased excretion of phosphates in the urine.

hyperphrenia (hi-per-fre′ne-a)
Rarely used term for an excessive degree of intellectual activity; a form of mania. [hyper- + G. phren, mind]

hyperpiesis, hyperpiesia (hi′per-pi-e′sis, -pi-e′ze-a)
SYN: hypertension. [hyper- + G. piesis, pressure]

hyperpietic (hi-per-pi-et′ik)
Relating to or marked by high blood pressure.

hyperpigmentation (hi′per-pig-men-ta′shun)
An excess of pigment in a tissue or part.

hyperpipecolatemia (hi-per-pip′e-ko-la-te′me-a)
A metabolic disorder in which serum concentration of pipecolic acid is greatly increased; characterized by hepatomegaly and progressive, generalized demyelination of the nervous system. SYN: hyperpipecolic acidemia.

hyperpipecolic acidemia (hi′per-pi′pe-ko-lik)
SYN: hyperpipecolatemia.

hyperpituitarism (hi′per-pi-too′i-ta-rizm)
Excessive production of anterior pituitary hormones, especially growth hormone; may result in gigantism or acromegaly.

hyperplasia (hi-per-pla′zhe-a)
An increase in number of normal cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased. SEE ALSO: hypertrophy. SYN: numerical hypertrophy, quantitative hypertrophy. [hyper- + G. plasis, a molding] adenomatous h. SYN: complex endometrial h.. angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node h. SYN: benign giant lymph node h.. angiolymphoid h. with eosinophilia solitary or multiple small benign cutaneous erythematous nodules, occurring mainly on the head and neck in young adults, characterized by dermal proliferation of blood vessels with vacuolated histiocytoid endothelial cells and with a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, lymphocytes which may form follicles, and histiocytes. SYN: Kimura disease. atypical endometrial h. increase in the number of glands, which have little, if any, stroma separating them but retain an orderly architecture distinguishing them from adenocarcinoma. atypical melanocytic h. proliferation of melanocytes showing nuclear atypicality, especially as scattered single cells high in the epidermis; interpreted by some pathologists as malignant melanoma in situ. basal cell h. increase in the number of cells in an epithelium resembling the basal cells. benign giant lymph node h. solitary masses of lymphoid tissue containing concentric perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes, occurring usually in the mediastinum or hilar region of young adults; similar changes have been reported outside the mediastinum and, if associated with interfollicular sheets of plasma cells, may progress to lymphoma or plasmacytoma. SYN: angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node h., Castleman disease. benign prostatic h. progressive enlargement of the prostate due to h. of both glandular and stromal components, typically beginning in the fifth decade and sometimes causing obstructive or irritative symptoms, or both; does not evolve into cancer. cementum h. SYN: hypercementosis. complex endometrial h. closely packed endometrial glands, with a single layer of cells with slightly enlarged nuclei that are generally basally located. SYN: adenomatous h.. congenital adrenal h. a group of autosomal recessively inherited disorders associated with a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis, resulting in elevation of ACTH levels and overproduction and accumulation of cortisol precursors proximal to the block; androgens are produced in excess, causing virilization. The most common disorder is the 21-hydroxylase deficiency, caused by mutation in the cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21) on chromosome 6p. There are four major types with some clinical similarities but distinctive genetic and biochemical differences: 1) the salt-losing form [MIM*201710, MIM*201810, and MIM*201910], 2) the hypertensive form [MIM*202010 and MIM*202110], 3) the simple virilizing form [MIM*201910], and 4) the pseudohermaphrodite form [MIM*201810 and MIM*202110]. congenital virilizing adrenal h. a series of inherited inborn errors of metabolism with h. of the adrenal cortex and overproduction of virilizing hormones. Most common forms are due to partial or complete 21-hydroxylase deficiency, leading to increased ACTH production by the pituitary, stimulating adrenal growth and function. Severe form is characterized by salt-losing state. cystic h. formation of multiple retention cysts from obstruction of ducts or glands by h. of the lining epithelium, as in fibrocystic disease of the breast and metropathia hemorrhagica. cystic h. of the breast SYN: fibrocystic condition of the breast. denture h. SYN: inflammatory fibrous h.. ductal h. h. characterized by intraductal proliferation of epithelial cells, e.g., in the breast. endometrial h. increase in the number of endometrial glands, usually secondary to hyperestrinism; classified as simple h., complex h., or complex h. with atypia; the latter may progress to adenocarcinoma. fibromuscular h. thickening of arterial media by fibrosis and muscular h., usually involving the renal arteries and causing multifocal stenosis and hypertension; a variety of fibromuscular dysplasia. focal epithelial h. multiple soft nodular lesions of the lips, buccal mucosa, tongue, and other oral sites in children and adolescents; lesions spontaneously regress after a period of several months, and have been attributed to papovaviruses. SYN: Heck disease. gingival h. gingival enlargement due to proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. SYN: gingival proliferation. inflammatory fibrous h. overgrowth of tissue in the mucobuccal or labial fold, induced by chronic trauma from ill-fitting dentures. SYN: denture h., epulis fissuratum. inflammatory papillary h. closely arranged papules of the palatal mucosa underlying an ill-fitting denture. SYN: palatal papillomatosis. intravascular papillary endothelial h. a benign florid papillary endothelial proliferation within the veins of the skin or subcutis, less often in visceral blood vessels. neuronal h. increased numbers of ganglion cells with myenteric plexus h. and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in nerves of the mucosa and submucosa. Clinically, neuronal h. mimics Hirschsprung disease. Similar findings are seen in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, type IIB, and in neurofibromatosis. SYN: hyperganglionosis, neuronal intestinal dysplasia. nodular h. of prostate glandular and stromal h. occurring very commonly in the transition zone and anterior fibromuscular stroma of older men, forming nodules that may increasingly obstruct the urethra. nodular regenerative h. SYN: nodular transformation of the liver. pseudoepitheliomatous h., pseudocarcinomatous h. a benign marked increase and downgrowth of epidermal cells, observed in chronic inflammatory dermatoses and over some dermal neoplasms and nevi; microscopically, it resembles well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. senile sebaceous h. h. of mature sebaceous glands, forming a nodule on the skin of the face or forehead in elderly persons. simple endometrial h. increase in the amount of endometrial tissue, with glands separated by abundant stroma. SYN: Swiss cheese endometrium. squamous cell h. increase in the number of cells in a squamous epithelium. SYN: hypertrophic dystrophy. verrucous h. h. of the oral mucosa, occurring in the elderly, characterized by sharp or blunt upward papillary projections of squamous epithelium.

hyperplastic (hi-per-plas′tik)
Relating to hyperplasia.

hyperpnea (hi-per-ne′a, hi-perp′ne-a)
Breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest. [hyper- + G. pnoe, breathing]

hyperpolarization (hi′per-po′lar-i-za′shun)
An increase in polarization of membranes of nerves or muscle cells; the reverse change from that associated with excitatory action.

hyperpotassemia (hi′per-po-tas-e′me-a)
SYN: hyperkalemia.

hyperprebetalipoproteinemia (hi′per-pre-ba′ta-lip-o-pro′te-in-e′me-a, -pro′ten-)
Increased concentrations of pre-β-lipoproteins in the blood. familial h. SYN: type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia.

hyperprochoresis (hi′per-pro-kor-e′sis)
Rarely used term for hyperperistalsis. [hyper- + G. pro-choreo, to go forward]

hyperproinsulinemia (hi′per-pro-in′sul-i-ne′me-a)
Elevated plasma levels of proinsulin or proinsulin-like material.

hyperprolactinemia (hi′per-pro-lak-ti-ne′me-a)
Elevated levels of prolactin in the blood, which is a normal physiological reaction during lactation, but pathological otherwise; prolactin may also be elevated in cases of certain pituitary tumors, and amenorrhea is often present.

hyperprolinemia (hi′per-pro-li-ne′me-a) [MIM*239500 & MIM*239510]
A metabolic disorder characterized by enhanced plasma proline concentrations and urinary excretion of proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine; autosomal recessive inheritance. Type I h. is associated with a deficiency of proline oxidase and renal disease; Type II h. is associated with a deficiency of Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mental retardation, and convulsions and is caused by mutation in the δ-pyrroline 5 carboxylate gene (P5CD) on 1p.

hyperproteinemia (hi′per-pro′te-in-e′me-a, -pro′ten-)
An abnormally large concentration of protein in plasma.

hyperproteosis (hi′per-pro-te-o′sis)
The condition due to an excessive amount of protein in the diet.

hyperpyretic (hi′per-pi-ret′ik)
Relating to hyperpyrexia. SYN: hyperpyrexial.

hyperpyrexia (hi′per-pi-rek′se-a)
Extremely high fever. [hyper- + G. pyrexis, feverishness] fulminant h. SYN: malignant hyperthermia. heat h. SYN: heatstroke. malignant h. SYN: heatstroke.

hyperpyrexial (hi′per-pi-rek′se-al)
SYN: hyperpyretic.

hyperreflexia (hi′per-re-flek′se-a)
A condition in which the deep tendon reflexes are exaggerated. detrusor h. SYN: detrusor instability.

hyperresonance (hi-per-rez′o-nans)
1. An extreme degree of resonance. 2. Resonance increased above the normal, and often of lower pitch, on percussion of an area of the body; occurs in the chest due to overinflation of the lung as in emphysema or pneumothorax and in the abdomen over distended bowel.

hypersalemia (hi′per-sal-e′me-a)
Obsolete term for an increase in the salt content of the circulating blood.

hypersaline (hi-per-sa′len, -sa′lin)
Marked by increased salt concentrations in a saline solution.

hypersalivation (hi′per-sal-i-va′shun)
Increased salivation.

hypersarcosinemia (hi′per-sar-ko-si-ne′me-a)
SYN: sarcosinemia.

hypersecretion
Excessive secretion of any tissue or gland. gastric h. excessive formation of gastric juice, especially the acid component.

hypersegmentation
Excessive division of a tissue or part into segments. hereditary h. of neutrophils an autosomal dominant condition characterized by neutrophil h.; affected persons are asymptomatic.

hypersensitivity (hi′per-sen-si-tiv′i-te)
Abnormal sensitivity, a condition in which there is an exaggerated response by the body to the stimulus of a foreign agent. See allergy. contact h. 1. SYN: contact dermatitis. 2. SYN: delayed reaction. delayed h. 1. SYN: cell-mediated immunity. 2. SYN: delayed reaction. 3. a cell-mediated response that occurs in immune individuals peaking at 24–48 hours after challenge with the same antigen used in an initial challenge. The interaction of T-helper I lymphocytes with MHC class II positive antigen-presenting cells initiates the response. This interaction induces the T helper 1 and macrophages at the site to secrete cytokines, which are the major players in the reaction. Called tuberculin-type h.. immediate h. an exaggerated immune response mediated by antibodies occurring within minutes after exposing a sensitized individual to the approximate antigen; also called Type I h.. Clinical symptoms include atopic allergy and systemic anaphylaxis. The antigen induces IgE antibodies, which bind to most cells and basophils. Subsequent exposure to antigen causes binding with the cytophilic IgE resulting in the release of mediators. See allergy. tuberculin-type h. SYN: delayed reaction.

hypersensitization (hi′per-sen′si-ti-za′shun)
The immunological process by which hypersensitivity is induced.

hyperserotonemia (hi′per-ser′o-to-ne′me-a)
Unusually large amounts of serotonin in the circulating blood; probable cause of some of the symptoms and signs in the carcinoid syndrome.

hyperskeocytosis (hi′per-ske′o-si-to′sis)
SYN: hyperneocytosis. [G. skaios, left, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]




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