|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A state characterized by abnormally enhanced secretion of pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin).
A condition in which sleep periods are excessively long, but the person responds normally in the intervals; distinguished from somnolence. [hyper- + L. somnus, sleep]
Pertaining to or characterized by supersonic speeds of Mach 5 or greater. While any speed above the speed of sound may be referred to as supersonic, speeds of Mach 5 or greater are specifically referred to as h.. [hyper- + L. sonus, sound]
A condition of high blood pressure and increased circulatory activity. [hyper- + G. sphyxis, pulse]
Any of a group of conditions in which the cellular components of the blood or platelets are removed at an abnormally high rate by the spleen, resulting in low circulating levels.
Excessive sebaceous secretion.
Excessive tension or strength. [hyper- + G. sthenos, strength]
Pertaining to or marked by hypersthenia.
Excretion of urine of unusually high specific gravity and concentration of solutes, resulting usually from loss or deprivation of water. [hyper- + G. sthenos, strength, + ouron, urine]
Increased susceptibility or response to an infective, chemical, or other agent.
Abnormal force or duration of the cardiac systole.
Relating to or marked by hypersystole.
Abnormal distance between two paired organs. [hyper- + G. tele, far off, + horizo, to separate, fr. horos, a boundary] Bixler type h. accompanying features are microtia and clefting of the lip, palate, and nose, mental deficiency, atresia of the auditory canals, ectopic kidneys, and thenar hypoplasia; autosomal recessive inheritance canthal h. SYN: telecanthus. ocular h. [MIM*145400] increased width between the eyes due to an arrest in development of the greater wings of the sphenoid, thus fixing the orbits in the widely separated fetal position; autosomal dominant inheritance. Ocular h. is a feature of many syndromes. A distinct form [MIM*145410] shows other congenital defects such as hypospadias and esophageal anomalies. SEE ALSO: faciodigitogenital dysplasia. SYN: Greig syndrome, Opitz BBB syndrome, Opitz G syndrome.
Former name for angiotensin.
Former name for angiotensinogen.
High blood pressure; transitory or sustained elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure to a level likely to induce cardiovascular damage or other adverse consequences. H. has been arbitrarily defined as a systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg. Consequences of uncontrolled h. include retinal vascular damage (Keith-Wagener-Barker changes), cerebrovascular disease and stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy and failure, myocardial infarction, dissecting aneurysm, and renovascular disease. An underlying disorder ( e.g., renal disease, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma) is identified in fewer than 10% of all cases of h.. The remainder, traditionally labeled “essential” h., probably arise from a variety of disturbances in normal pressure-regulating mechanisms (which involve baroreceptors, autonomic influences on the rate and force of cardiac contraction and vascular tone, renal retention of salt and water, formation of angiotensin II under the influence of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme, and other factors known and unknown), and most are probably genetically conditioned. SYN: hyperpiesis, hyperpiesia. [hyper- + L. tensio, tension] Because of its wide prevalence and its impact on cardiovascular health, h. is a major cause of disease and death in industrialized societies. It is estimated that 50–70 million Americans, including about 50% of all people over age 60, have h., but that only about one-third of these are aware of their condition and are under appropriate treatment. H. causes 35,000 deaths annually in the U.S., and is a contributing factor in a further 180,000 deaths. It is associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of heart attack and a 7- to 10-fold increase in the risk of stroke. The prevalence of h. and the incidence of nonfatal and fatal consequences are substantially higher in African-Americans. Although people with extremely high diastolic pressure may experience headache, dizziness, and even encephalopathy, uncomplicated h. seldom causes symptoms. Hence the diagnosis of h. is usually made by screening apparently healthy persons or those under treatment for another condition. Risk factors for h. include a family history of h., African-American race, advancing age, the postmenopausal state, excessive dietary sodium, obesity, excessive use of alcohol, sedentary lifestyle, and chronic emotional stress. Treatment options include lifestyle changes (maintenance of healthful weight; at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise several days a week; limitation of sodium intake to 2.4 g daily and of ethanol to 1 oz daily; consumption of adequate potassium, calcium, and magnesium; and avoidance of excessive emotional stress) and a broad range of drugs, including diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, α1-adrenergic antagonists, centrally acting alpha-agonists, and others. In recent decades, early detection and aggressive treatment of h. have reduced associated morbidity and mortality. Current practice standards call for still more diligent management, including prevention through avoidance of known risk factors, particularly in persons with a family history of h., and control of cofactors known to increase the risk of cardiovascular damage in persons with h. (smoking, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus). Some studies suggest that the goal of treatment should be a diastolic blood pressure of 80 or lower. accelerated h. h. advancing rapidly with increasing blood pressure and associated with acute and rapidly worsening signs and symptoms. adrenal h. h. due to an adrenal medullary pheochromocytoma or to hyperactivity or functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex. benign h. h. that runs a relatively long and symptomless course. borderline h. by consensus, that blood pressure zone between highest acceptable “normal” blood pressure and hypertensive blood pressure. The Framingham Heart Study defines this as pressures between 140 and 160 mm Hg systolic and 90 and 95 mm Hg diastolic. episodic h. h. manifest intermittently, triggered by anxiety or emotional factors. SYN: paroxysmal h.. essential h. h. without known cause. SYN: idiopathic h., primary h.. gestational h. h. during pregnancy in a previously normotensive woman or aggravation of h. during pregnancy in a hypertensive woman. SYN: pregnancy-induced h.. Goldblatt h. increased blood pressure following obstruction of blood flow to one kidney. idiopathic h. SYN: essential h.. labile h. frequently changing levels of elevated blood pressure. malignant h. severe h. that runs a rapid course, causing necrosis of arteriolar walls in kidney, retina, etc.; hemorrhages occur, and death most frequently is caused by uremia or rupture of a cerebral vessel. pale h. h. with pallor of the skin, a severe form with pronounced constriction of peripheral vessels. paroxysmal h. SYN: episodic h.. portal h. h. in the portal system as seen in cirrhosis of the liver and other conditions causing obstruction to the portal vein. postpartum h. increased blood pressure immediately following the completion of labor. pregnancy-induced h. SYN: gestational h.. primary h. SYN: essential h.. pulmonary h. h. in the pulmonary circuit; may be primary, or secondary to pulmonary or cardiac disease, e.g., fibrosis of the lung or mitral stenosis. renal h. h. secondary to renal disease. renovascular h. h. produced by renal arterial obstruction. secondary h. arterial h. produced by a known cause, e.g., hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, etc., in contrast to primary h. that is of unknown cause. systemic venous h. increased pressure in the veins ultimately leading to the right atrium nearly always due to disease of the right heart or pericardium but occasionally due to blockade of one or both venae cavae.
1. Marked by an increased blood pressure. 2. Denoting a person suffering from high blood pressure.
hypertensor (hi-per-ten′ser, -sor)
Hypergonadism in the male, characterized by proliferation of Leydig cells with excessive production of testosterone.
Diffuse hyperplasia of the theca cells of the graafian follicles. stromal h. condition in which luteinized cells are present in ovarian stroma at a distance from follicular structures.
SYN: polythelia. [hyper- + G. thele, nipple]
Extreme sensitiveness to heat. [hyper- + G. therme, heat, + algesis, pain]
Therapeutically induced hyperpyrexia. [hyper- + G. therme, heat] malignant h. rapid onset of extremely high fever with muscle rigidity, precipitated by exogenous agents in genetically susceptible persons, especially by halothane or succinylcholine. Cf.:futile cycle. SYN: fulminant hyperpyrexia.
Extreme sensitiveness to heat. [hyper- + G. therme, heat, + aisthesis, feeling]
An abnormal increase of thrombin in the blood, frequently resulting in a tendency to intravascular coagulation.
State of overactivity, greater than average and less than the overactivity of the manic state of manic-depressive disorder. [hyper- + G. thymos, soul, thought]
1. Pertaining to hyperthymia. 2. Pertaining to hyperthymism.
Excessive activity of the thymus gland; formerly postulated to be a causal factor in certain instances of unexpected and sudden death, such as status thymicolymphaticus. SYN: hyperthymization.
An abnormality of the thyroid gland in which secretion of thyroid hormone is usually increased and is no longer under regulatory control of hypothalamic-pituitary centers; characterized by a hypermetabolic state, usually with weight loss, tremulousness, elevated plasma levels of thyroxin and/or triiodothyronine, and sometimes exophthalmos; may progress to severe weakness, wasting, hyperpyrexia, and other manifestations of thyroid storm; often associated with exophthalmos (Graves disease). SEE ALSO: thyrotoxicosis. SYN: hyperthyrea, thyroidism (1) , thyrointoxication. hereditary h. a rare inherited (autosomal dominant) disorder with constitutive stimulation of the thyrocytes. iodine-induced h. SYN: Jod-Basedow phenomenon. masked h. h. occurring without the usual manifestations, especially lack of hyperactivity and eye findings, often with hypoactivity, even somnolence. Manifestation can be limited to heart failure. ophthalmic h. SYN: Graves disease. primary h. h. due to a disorder originating within the thyroid gland, in contrast to one of pituitary origin; may be due to generalized overactivity of the gland, to a localized hyperactive nodule, or to circulating antibody, which stimulates the gland (long-acting thyroid stimulator). secondary h. h. due to stimulation of the thyroid gland by an excess of thyrotrophin secreted by the pituitary gland.
An elevated thyroxine concentration in the blood.
Extreme tension of the muscles or arteries. SYN: hypertonicity (1) . [hyper- + G. tonos, tension] h. polycythemica a form of polycythemia without a prominent degree of splenomegaly, but with increased blood pressure. sympathetic h. overfunction of the sympathetic nervous system, often experienced as anxiety.
1. Having a greater degree of tension. SYN: spastic (1) . 2. Having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or interstitial fluid; more specifically, refers to a fluid in which cells shrink. SYN: hyperisotonic.
1. SYN: hypertonia. 2. An increased effective osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Excessively thick eyebrows. [hyper- + G. thrix, hair, + ophrys, eyebrow]
Growth of hair in excess of the normal. SEE ALSO: hirsutism. SYN: hypertrichiasis. [hyper- + G. trichosis, being hairy] h. lanuginosa excessive growth of lanugo hair associated with internal malignancy. nevoid h. congenital growth of hair abnormal for its site, texture, color, or length; often associated with congenital melanocytic nevi. h. partialis abnormally excessive hair growth in patches in unusual areas. h. universalis generalized excessive hair growth.
Elevated triglyceride concentration in the blood. familial h. 1. SYN: type I familial hyperlipoproteinemia. 2. SYN: type IV familial hyperlipoproteinemia.
A microorganism that requires living cells to supply the enzyme systems necessary for growth and reproduction.
Relating to or characterized by hypertrophy.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation. Use of the term may be restricted to denote greater bulk through increase in size, but not in number, of cells or other individual tissue elements. Cf.:hyperplasia. SYN: hypertrophia. [hyper- + G. trophe, nourishment] adaptive h. thickening of the walls of a hollow organ, like the urinary bladder, when there is obstruction to outflow. benign prostatic h. erroneous term that is often considered a synonym of nodular hyperplasia of prostate. compensatory h. increase in size of an organ or part of an organ or tissue, when called upon to do additional work or perform the work of destroyed tissue or of a paired organ. compensatory h. of the heart thickening of the walls of the heart in response to vascular, valvular, other heart disease, or athletic conditioning. complementary h. increase in size or expansion of part of an organ or tissue to fill the space left by the destruction of another portion of the same organ or tissue. concentric h. thickening of the walls of the heart or any cavity with apparent diminution of the capacity of the cavity. eccentric h. thickening of the wall of the heart or other cavity, with dilation. endemic h. enlargement of the calcaneus preceded by fever and pain in the heel, reported from the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and in Taiwan among the indigenous population. false h. SYN: pseudohypertrophy. functional h. SYN: physiologic h.. giant h. of gastric mucosa SYN: Ménétrier disease. hemangiectatic h. SYN: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. lipomatous h. SYN: lipomatous infiltration. numerical h. SYN: hyperplasia. physiologic h. temporary increase in size of an organ or part to provide for a natural increase of function, such as the kind that occurs in the walls of the uterus and in the mammae during pregnancy. SYN: functional h.. quantitative h. SYN: hyperplasia. simple h. increase in size of cells. simulated h. increased size of a part due to continued growth unrestrained by attritions, as is seen in the case of the teeth of certain animals when the opposing teeth have been destroyed. true h. an increase in size involving all the different tissues composing the part. vicarious h. h. of an organ following failure of another organ because of a functional relationship between them; e.g., enlargement of the pituitary gland, after destruction of the thyroid.
An ocular deviation with one eye higher than the other. [hyper- + G. trope, a turn]
hyperuracil thyminuria (hi′per-oor′a-sil)
An inherited disorder in which there are elevated levels of uracil and thymine in the urine; associated with a deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and resultant impaired CNS function.
Enhanced blood concentrations of uric acid.
Relating to or characterized by hyperuricemia.
Increased urinary excretion of uric acid.
Repeated inoculation of an individual already immunized; used as a means of preparing a highly potent antiserum.
Abnormally high plasma concentrations of valine, a common finding in maple syrup urine disease.
Abnormally vascular; containing an excessive number of blood vessels. [hyper- + L. vas, a vessel]
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production, so that alveolar carbon dioxide pressure decreases to below normal. SYN: overventilation.
A condition resulting from the ingestion of an excessive amount of a vitamin preparation, symptoms varying according to the particular vitamin implicated; serious effects may be caused by overdosage with fat-soluble vitamins, especially A or D, and rarely with water-soluble vitamins.
Abnormally increased volume of blood. SYN: plethora (1) , repletion. [hyper- + L. volumen, volume, + G. haima, blood]
Pertaining to or characterized by hypervolemia.
Augmented water content or volume of a given compartment; e.g., cellular h..
Diminished sensitivity to stimulation. SYN: hypoesthesia. [G. hypo, under, + aisthesis, feeling] olfactory h. SYN: hyposmia.
hypha, pl .hyphae (hi′fa, hi′fe)
A branching tubular cell characteristic of the filamentous fungi (molds). In most species the hyphae are divided by cross-walls (septa) into multicellular hyphae; intercommunicating hyphae constitute a mycelium, the visible colony on natural substrates or artificial laboratory media. The terms h. and mycelium often are used interchangeably. [G. hyphe, a web] racquet h. a vegetative h. with distal ends of successive cells inflated, resembling a string of elongated snowshoes or tennis racquets; seen in many mycelial fungi, e.g., many dermatophyte species in culture. spiral hyphae hyphae that end in a flat or helical coil, as in laboratory colonies of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
A habitually lessened or attenuated degree of pleasure from that which should normally give great pleasure. [G. hypo, under, + hedone, pleasure]
Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye. [G. hyphaimos, suffused with blood]
SYN: hypovolemia. [hypo- + G. haima, blood] intertropical h., tropical h. SYN: ancylostomiasis.
Hyphomyces destruens (hi-fo-mi′ses des′troo-enz)
Older name for Pythium insidiosum.
A class of fungi that includes all of the filamentous members of the Fungi Imperfecti that form neither acervuli nor pycnidia. No sexual reproduction occurs; most members of this group produce asexual spores. [G. hyphe, web, + mykes, fungus]
A disease of horses and mules (rarely of humans) caused by the fungus Pythium insidiosum (Hyphomyces destruens), characterized by granulomatous and necrotic lesions that appear on the head and lower legs, ulcerate, and enlarge by subcutaneous extension.
Denoting a transitional state, related to the hypnoidal, preceding sleep; applied also to various hallucinations that may manifest themselves at that time. See hypnoidal. [hypno- + G. agogos, leading]
Sleep, hypnosis. [G. hypnos,]
Psychoanalysis or other psychotherapy which employs hypnosis as an adjunctive technique.
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