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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


hypoconule (hi-po-kon′ul)
The distal, or fifth, cusp of an upper molar tooth. [hypo- + Mod. L. dim. of L. conus, cone]

hypoconulid (hi-po-kon′u-lid)
The distal, or fifth, cusp of a lower molar tooth. [hypo- + Mod. L. dim. of L. conus, cone]

hypocorticoidism (hi-po-kor′ti-koyd-izm)
SYN: adrenocortical insufficiency.

hypocupremia (hi′po-koo-pre′me-a)
Reduced copper content of the blood; found in Wilson disease because ceruloplasmin is depressed, even though serum albumin-attached copper is increased. [hypo- + L. cuprum, copper, + G. haima, blood]

hypocycloidal (hi′-po-si-kloy′dal)
A tricyclic motion used by mechanical tomography units to optimize blurring and reduce artifacts. [hypo- + G. kuklos, circle, + -oeides, appearance]

hypocystotomy (hi′po-sis-tot′o-me)
Perineal cystotomy.

hypocythemia (hi′po-si-the′me-a)
Hypocytosis of the circulating blood, such as that observed in aplastic anemia. [hypo- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood]

hypocytosis (hi′po-si-to′sis)
Varying degrees of abnormally low numbers of red and white cells and other formed elements of the blood; in some instances, the term is also used to indicate a paucity of component cells of any tissue. SEE ALSO: cytopenia, pancytopenia. [hypo- + G. kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

hypodactyly, hypodactylia, hypodactylism (hi′po-dak′ti-le, -dak-til′e-a, -dak′til-izm)
Less than the full normal complement of digits. [hypo- + G. daktylos, finger]

hypoderm (hi′po-derm)
SYN: subcutaneous tissue. [hypo- + G. derma, skin]

Hypoderma (hi-po-der′ma)
A genus of botflies whose larvae are the cause of a tropical form of myiasis linearis (cutaneous larva migrans) of man; occasionally they invade the interior of the eye. Two species, H. bovis and H. lineatum, are botflies of cattle. The ova of H. bovis are deposited on hairs of the legs, and the larvae penetrate the skin and migrate through the tissues to the skin of the back, where they appear during late winter as the common warbles; these ulcerate to the surface and mature larvae escape in early summer, fall to the ground, pupate, and give rise to a new generation of flies. [hypo- + G. derma, skin]

hypodermatoclysis (hi′po-der-ma-tok′li-sis)
Rarely used spelling of hypodermoclysis.

hypodermatomy (hi′po-der-mat′o-me)
Subcutaneous division of a structure. [hypo- + G. derma, skin, + tome, incision]

hypodermatosis (hi′po-der-ma-to′sis)
Infection of herbivores and humans with larvae of flies of the genus Hypoderma.

hypodermic (hi′po-der′mik)
1. SYN: subcutaneous. 2. SYN: h. injection. 3. SYN: h. syringe.

hypodermis (hi-po-der′mis)
subcutaneous tissue.

hypodermoclysis (hi′po-der-mok′li-sis)
Subcutaneous injection of a saline or other solution. [hypo- + G. derma, skin, + klysis, a washing out]

hypodiploid (hi′-po-dip′loid)
Having a chromosome number less than the diploid number.

hypodipsia (hi-po-dip′se-a)
A physiologic condition, perhaps caused by hypertonicity of body fluids, insufficient to initiate drinking but at times sufficient to sustain drinking when started; loosely, oligodipsia. SYN: insensible thirst, subliminal thirst. [hypo- + G. dipsa, thirst]

hypodontia (hi-po-don′she-a)
A condition of having fewer than the normal complement of teeth, either congenital or acquired. SYN: oligodontia, partial anodontia. [hypo- + G. odous, tooth]

hypodynamia (hi′po-di-na′me-a, -di-nam′e-a)
Diminished power. [hypo- + G. dynamis, force] h. cordis diminished force of cardiac contraction.

hypodynamic (hi′po-di-nam′ik)
Possessing or exhibiting subnormal power or force.

hypoeccrisis (hi′po-ek′ri-sis)
Reduced excretion of waste matter. [hypo- + G. eccrisis, separation]

hypoeccritic (hi′po-e-krit′ik)
Characterized by hypoeccrisis.

hypoechoic (hi′po-e-ko′ik)
A region in an ultrasound image in which the echoes are weaker or fewer than normal or in the surrounding regions. [hypo- + echo + -ic]

hypoeosinophilia (hi′po-e′o-sin-o-fil′e-a)
SYN: eosinopenia.

hypoesophoria (hi′po-es-o-fo′re-a)
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate downward and inward, prevented by binocular vision. [hypo- + G. eso, within, + phoros, bearing]

hypoesthesia (hi′po-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: hypesthesia.

hypoexophoria (hi′po-ek-so-fo′re-a)
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate downward and outward, prevented by binocular vision. [hypo- + G. exo, without, + phoros, bearing]

hypoferremia (hi′po-fer-e′me-a)
A deficiency of iron in the circulating blood.

hypofibrinogenemia (hi′po-fi-brin′o-je-ne′me-a)
Abnormally low concentration of fibrinogen in the circulating blood plasma.

hypofrontality (hi′po-fron-tal′i-te)
A decrease in the neuronal activity of various areas of the frontal lobes, arising from various etiologies and associated with a number of clinical symptoms or disorders.

hypofunction (hi′po-funk-shun)
Reduced, low, or inadequate function.

hypogalactia (hi′po-ga-lak′she-a)
Less than normal milk secretion. [hypo- + G. gala, milk]

hypogalactous (hi′po-ga-lak′tus)
Producing or secreting a less than normal amount of milk.

hypogammaglobinemia (hi′po-gam′a-glo′bi-ne′me-a)
SYN: hypogammaglobulinemia.

hypogammaglobulinemia (hi′po-gam′a-glob′u-li-ne′me-a)
Decreased quantity of the gamma fraction of serum globulin; sometimes used loosely to denote decreased quantity of immunoglobulins in general; associated with increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections. SYN: hypogammaglobinemia. acquired h. SYN: common variable immunodeficiency. primary h. h. due to a primary immunodeficiency of immunoglobulin-forming cells (B-lymphocytes). secondary h. SYN: secondary immunodeficiency. transient h. of infancy a type of primary immunodeficiency that occurs in infants of both sexes, usually before the sixth month of life, probably resulting from immaturity of lymphoid tissue. SYN: transient agammaglobulinemia. X-linked h., X-linked infantile h. a congenital, primary immunodeficiency characterized by decreased numbers (or absence) of circulating B lymphocytes with corresponding decrease in immunoglobulins of the five classes; associated with marked susceptibility to infection by pyogenic bacteria (notably, pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae) beginning after loss of maternal antibodies; X-linked recessive inheritance caused by mutation in the Bruton tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) on Xq. X-linked h. with growth hormone deficiency h. combined with a reduced number of B cells; characterized by short stature, delayed puberty, and recurrent infections.

hypoganglionosis (hi′po-gang-le-on-o′sis)
A reduction in the number of ganglionic nerve cells.

hypogastric (hi-po-gas′trik)
Relating to the hypogastrium.

hypogastrium (hi′po-gas′tre-um) [TA]
SYN: pubic region, pubic region. [G. hypogastrion, lower belly, fr. hypo, under, + gaster, belly]

hypogastrocele (hi′po-gas′tro-sel)
Hernia of the lower part of the abdomen. [hypogastrium + G. kele, hernia]

hypogastropagus (hi′po-gas-trop′a-gus)
Twins joined at the hypogastrium. See conjoined twins, under twin. [hypogastrium + G. pagos, fr. pegnynai, to fasten]

hypogastroschisis (hi′po-gas-tros′ki-sis)
Congenital fissure of the abdominal wall in the hypogastric region. [hypogastrium + G. schisis, cleaving]

hypogenesis (hi′po-jen′e-sis)
Congenital defect of growth with underdevelopment of parts or organs of the body. [hypo- + G. genesis, origin] polar h. a less than normal degree of development at the cephalic or caudal extremity of the embryo.

hypogenetic (hi′po-je-net′ik)
Relating to hypogenesis.

hypogenitalism (hi-po-jen′i-tal-izm)
Partial or complete failure of maturation of the genitalia; commonly, a consequence of hypogonadism.

hypogeusia (hi-po-gu′se-a)
Diminished sense of taste. It may be: 1) general to all tastants, partial to some tastants, or specific to one or more tastants; 2) due to transport disorders (in access to the interior of the taste bud) or to sensorineural disorders (affecting the gustatory sensory cells or nerves or the central gustatory neural pathways); and 3) hereditary or acquired. [hypo- + G. geusis, taste]

hypoglobulia (hi′po-glo-bu′le-a)
Obsolete term for abnormally low numbers of red blood cells in the circulating blood; also used infrequently with reference to abnormally decreased proportions of erythroid elements in the bone marrow. [hypo- + G. globulus, globule]

hypoglossal (hi-po-glos′al)
1. Below the tongue. 2. Relating to the twelfth cranial nerve, nervus hypoglossus. SYN: hypoglossus. [L. hypoglossus fr. hypo- + glossus, tongue]

hypoglossis (hi-po-glos′is)
SYN: hypoglottis.

hypoglossus (hi′po-glos′us)
SYN: hypoglossal, hypoglossal. [L.]

hypoglottis (hi′po-glot′is)
The undersurface of the tongue. SYN: hypoglossis. [G. hypoglossis, or -glottis, undersurface of tongue, fr. hypo, under, + glossa, tongue]

hypoglycemia (hi′po-gli-se′me-a)
1. Symptoms resulting from low blood glucose (normal glucose range 60–100 mg/dL (3.3 to 5.6 mmol/L)) which are either autonomic or neuroglycopenic. Autonomic symptoms include sweating, trembling, feelings of warmth, anxiety, and nausea. Neuroglycopenic symptoms include feelings of dizziness, confusion, tiredness, difficulty speaking, headache and inability to concentrate. 2. Organic disease more often leads to neuroglycopenic symptoms, functional disorders to autonomic symptoms. Functional h. is of doubtful existence; the so-called post-prandial hypoglycemic syndrome has not been confirmed by blood sugar measurements. No convincing evidence has been found of the existence of early-diabetes h., or alimentary h.. SYN: glucopenia. fasting h. excessively low blood glucose in association with fasting; can be seen in patients with hyperinsulinism but also occurs without definable disease. ketotic h. the most common form of childhood h. after the neonatal period; it usually presents between the ages of 18 months and 5 years, and resolves spontaneously by late childhood; manifested by hypoglycemic episodes usually occurring during minor illnesses that cause decreased appetite; probably due to a defect in gluconeogenesis and limited glycogen stores. leucine h. reduction in blood glucose concentration produced by administration of leucine; believed to reflect the ability of this amino acid to stimulate insulin secretion. leucine-induced h. rare cause of h. occurring following ingestion of leucine. Seen especially in infants. SYN: leucine-sensitive h.. leucine-sensitive h. SYN: leucine-induced h.. mixed h. h. due to more than one cause. neonatal h. [MIM*240900] familial onset of symptomatic h. during infancy, with persistently low blood glucose; a variant form [MIM*240800] is leucine-induced with hyperinsulinism and variable mental retardation.

hypoglycemic (hi′po-gli-se′mik)
Pertaining to or characterized by hypoglycemia.

hypoglycogenolysis (hi′po-gli′ko-je-nol′i-sis)
Deficient glycogenolysis.

hypoglycorrhachia (hi′po-gli-ko-rak′e-a)
Depressed concentration of glucose in the cerebrospinal fluid; a characteristic of bacterial, fungal, and tuberculous meningitis. [hypo- + G. glykys, sweet, + rhachis, spine]

hypognathous (hi′po-nath′us, hi-pog′na-thus)
Having a congenitally defectively developed small lower jaw. [hypo- + G. gnathos, jaw]

hypognathus (hi′po-nath′us, hi-pog′na-thus)
Unequal conjoined twins in which the rudimentary parasite is attached to the mandible of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [hypo- + G. gnathos, jaw]

hypogonadism (hi′po-go′nad-izm)
Inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiencies in gametogenesis and/or the secretion of gonadal hormones; results in atrophy or deficient development of secondary sexual characteristics and, when occurring in prepubertal males, in altered body habitus characterized by a short trunk and long limbs. familial hypogonadotropic h. [MIM*312100 & MIM*307300] a group of disorders characterized by failure of sexual development, owing to inadequate secretion of pituitary gonadotropins; perhaps X-linked, but probably autosomal dominant and recessive modes of inheritance also exist. hypergonadotropic h. defective gonadal development or function of the gonads, resulting from elevated levels of gonadotropins. hypogonadotropic h. defective gonadal development or function, or both, resulting from inadequate secretion of pituitary gonadotropins. SYN: hypogonadotropic eunuchoidism, secondary h.. male h. SYN: eunuchoidism. primary h. defective gonadal development or function, or both, due to abnormality or loss of the gonad itself. secondary h. SYN: hypogonadotropic h.. h. with anosmia failure of sexual development secondary to inadequate secretion of pituitary gonadotrophins, associated with anosmia due to agenesis of the olfactory lobes of the brain. Autosomal dominant [MIM*147950], autosomal recessive [MIM*244200], and X-linked recessive [MIM*308700] forms exist; the X-linked form is caused by mutation in the Kallmann gene (KAL1) on Xp. SYN: Kallmann syndrome.

hypogonadotropic (hi′po-gon′a-do-trop′ik)
Indicating inadequate secretion of gonadotropins and its consequences.

hypogranulocytosis (hi′po-gran′u-lo-si-to′sis)
SYN: granulocytopenia.

hypohepatia (hi′po-he-pat′e-a)
Rarely used term for underfunctioning of the liver. [hypo- + G. hepar, liver]

hypohidrosis (hi′po-hi-dro′sis)
Diminished perspiration.

hypohydremia (hi′po-hi-dre′me-a)
Any deficiency in the amount of fluid in the blood. [hypo- + G. hydor, water, + haima, blood]

hypohydrochloria (hi′po-hi-dro-klor′e-a)
SYN: hypochlorhydria.

hypoisotonic (hi′po-i-so-ton′ik)
SYN: hypotonic.

hypokalemia (hi′po-ka-le′me-a)
The presence of an abnormally small concentration of potassium ions in the circulating blood; occurs in familial periodic paralysis and in potassium depletion due to excessive loss from the gastrointestinal tract or kidneys. The changes of h. may include vacuolation of renal tubular epithelial cytoplasm with impairment of urinary concentrating power and acidification, flattening of the T wave of the electrocardiogram, and muscle weakness. SYN: hypopotassemia. [hypo- + Mod. L. kalium, potassium, + G. haima, blood]

hypokinemia (hi′po-ki-ne′me-a)
Reduced circulation rate; reduced volume flow through the circulation; subnormal cardiac output. [hypo- + G. kineo, to move, + haima, blood]

hypokinesis, hypokinesia (hi′po-ki-ne′sis, -ne′ze-a)
Diminished or slow movement. SYN: hypocinesis, hypocinesia, hypomotility. [hypo- + G. kinesis, movement]


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