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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


hypokinetic (hi′po-ki-net′ik)
Relating to or characterized by hypokinesis.

hypoleukemia (hi′po-loo-ke′me-a)
SYN: subleukemic leukemia.

hypoleydigism (hi-po-li′dig-izm)
Subnormal secretion of androgens by the interstitial (Leydig) cells of the testes.

hypolipoproteinemia (hi′po-lip′o-pro-ten-e-me-a)
Decreased levels of a lipoprotein in the serum.

hypoliposis (hi′po-li-po′sis)
Presence of an abnormally small amount of fat in the tissues.

hypologia (hi′po-lo′je-a)
Lack of ability for speech. [hypo- + G. logos, word]

hypolymphemia (hi′po-lim-fe′me-a)
Abnormally small numbers of lymphocytes in the circulating blood.

hypomagnesemia (hi′po-mag-ne-se′me-a)
Subnormal blood serum concentration of magnesium; may cause convulsions and concurrent hypocalcemia.

hypomania (hi′po-ma′ne-a)
A mild degree of mania.

hypomastia (hi′po-mas′te-a)
Atrophy or congenital smallness of the breasts. [hypo- + G. mastos, breast]

hypomelancholia (hi′po-mel-an-ko′le-a)
A mild degree of mental depression.

hypomelanosis (hi′po-mel-a-no′sis)
SYN: leukoderma. h. of Ito [MIM*146150 and MIM*308300] not a specific entity but rather represents features of many different forms of mosaicism; characterized by unilateral or bilateral hypopigmented macules in whorls, streaks, and patches in a “marble-cake” pattern, variably associated with epidermal nevi, alopecia, and ocular, skeletal, and neural abnormalities. SEE ALSO: incontinentia pigmenti. SYN: incontinentia pigmenti achromians.

hypomelia (hi-po-me′le-a)
General term for hypoplasia of some or all parts of one or more limbs. [hypo- + G. melos, limb]

hypomenorrhea (hi′po-men-o-re′a)
Diminution of the flow or a shortening of the duration of menstruation. [hypo- + G. men, month, + rhoia, flow]

hypomere (hi′po-mer)
1. The portion of the myotome that extends ventrolaterally to form body-wall and limb muscle, innervated by the primary ventral ramus of a spinal nerve. See hypaxial. 2. Less commonly, the somatic and splanchnic layers of the lateral mesoderm which give rise to the lining of the celom. [hypo- + G. meros, part]

hypometabolism (hi′po-me-tab′o-lizm)
Reduced metabolism. SEE ALSO: hypometabolic state. euthyroid h. an unusual condition resembling myxedema but with an apparently normal thyroid gland.

hypometria (hi-po-me′tre-a)
Ataxia characterized by underreaching an object or goal; seen with cerebellar disease. Cf.:hypermetria. [hypo- + G. metron, measure]

hypomnesia (hi-po-ne′ze-a)
Impaired memory. Cf.:hypermnesia. [hypo- + G. mneme, memory]

hypomorph (hi′po-morf)
1. A person whose standing height is short in proportion to the sitting height, owing to shortness of the limbs. Cf.:hypermorph, endomorph. 2. A mutant gene that causes a partial decrease in the activity controlled by the gene. Cf.:hypermorph. [hypo- + G. morphe, form]

hypomotility (hi′po-mo-til′i-te)
SYN: hypokinesis.

hypomyelination, hypomyelinogenesis (hi′po-mi′e-lin-a-shun, -o-jen′e-sis)
Defective formation of myelin in the spinal cord and brain; the basis for a number of demyelinating diseases.

hypomyotonia (hi′po-mi-o-to′ne-a)
A condition of diminished muscular tonus. [hypo- + G. mys (myo-) muscle, + tonos, tension]

hypomyxia (hi′po-mik′se-a)
A condition in which the secretion of mucus is diminished. [hypo- + G. myxa, mucus]

hyponatremia (hi′po-na-tre′me-a)
Abnormally low concentrations of sodium ions in the circulating blood. [hypo- + natrium, + G. haima, blood] depletional h. decreased serum sodium concentration associated with loss of sodium from the circulating blood via the GI tract, kidney, skin, or into “third space.” Accompanied by hypovolemic and hypotonic state.

hyponeocytosis (hi′po-ne′o-si-to′sis)
Leukopenia associated with the presence of immature and young leukocytes (especially in the granulocytic series), i.e., a “shift to the left” in the hemogram. SYN: hyposkeocytosis. [hypo- + G. neos, new, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

hyponoia (hi′po-noy′-a)
Deficient or sluggish mental activity or imagination. [hypo- + G. noeo, to think]

hyponychial (hi′po-nik′e-al)
1. SYN: subungual. 2. Relating to the hyponychium.

hyponychium (hi′po-nik′e-um) [TA]
The epithelium of the nail bed, particularly its proximal part in the region of the nailroot and lunula, forming the nail matrix. [hypo- + G. onyx, nail]

hyponychon (hi-pon′i-kon)
Subungual hemorrhage. [hypo- + G. onyx, nail]

hypooncotic (hi′po-on-kot′ik)
Indicating an oncotic pressure less than normal, e.g., of blood plasma.

hypoorthocytosis (hi′po-or′tho-si-to′sis)
Leukopenia in which the relative numbers of the various types of white blood cells are within the normal range, and no immature cells are found in the circulating blood. [hypo- + G. orthos, correct, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

hypoovarianism (hi′po-o-va′re-an-izm)
Inadequate ovarian function, commonly referring to reduced secretion of ovarian hormones. SYN: hypovarianism.

hypopancreatism (hi′po-pan′kre-a-tizm)
A condition of diminished activity of digestive enzyme secretion by the pancreas.

hypopancreorrhea (hi′po-pan′kre-o-re′a)
Reduced delivery of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretions. [hypo- + pancreas + G. rhoia, flow]

hypoparathyroidism (hi′po-par-a-thi′royd-izm)
A condition due to diminution or absence of the secretion of the parathyroid hormones, with low serum calcium and tetany, and sometimes with increased bone density. SEE ALSO: pseudohypoparathyroidism. SYN: parathyroid insufficiency. familial h. inherited isolated h. characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, cataracts, intracerebral calcifications, and tetany; all three mendelian forms (sex-linked, autosomal dominant and recessive) of inheritance are known [MIM*146200, MIM*241400, and MIM*307700]. The autosomal dominant form is caused by mutation in either the parathyroid hormone gene (PTH) on chromosome 11p or the calcium sensing receptor gene (CASR) on 3q.

hypopepsia (hi-po-pep′se-a)
Impaired digestion, especially that due to a deficiency of pepsin. SYN: oligopepsia. [hypo- + G. pepsis, digestion]

hypoperistalsis (hi′po-per-i-stal′sis)
Reduced or inadequate peristalsis.

hypophalangism (hi′po-fa-lan′jizm)
Congenital absence of one or more of the phalanges of a finger or toe.

hypopharynx (hi′po-far′inks)

hypophonesis (hi′po-fo-ne′sis)
In percussion or auscultation, a sound that is diminished or fainter than usual. [hypo- + G. phonesis, a sounding]

hypophonia (hi′po-fo′ne-a)
An abnormally weak voice due to incoordination of the muscles concerned in vocalization. SYN: leptophonia, microphonia, microphony. [hypo- + G. phone, voice]

hypophoria (hi′po-fo′re-a)
A tendency of the visual axis of one eye to deviate downward, prevented by binocular vision. [hypo- + G. phora, motion]

hypophosphatasemia (hi′po-fos′fa-ta-se′me-a)
SYN: hypophosphatasia.

hypophosphatasia (hi′po-fos′fa-ta′ze-a)
An abnormally low content of alkaline phosphatase in the circulating blood. SYN: hypophosphatasemia. adult h. an autosomal dominant trait with early loss of teeth, bowing, and beaten-copper skull; there is evidence that the basic defect is in liver alkaline phosphatase. childhood h. a relatively mild autosomal recessive form of h.; it may be allelic with congenital h.. congenital h. [MIM*241500] a rare disorder associated with a low level of serum alkaline phosphatase, hyperphosphaturia, hypercalcemia, skeletal abnormalities, pathologic fractures, craniostenosis, premature loss of teeth, and often early death; eyes may show blue sclerae, lid retraction, band-shaped keratopathy, cataracts, papilledema, and optic atrophy; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the liver alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL) on chromosome 1p.

hypophosphatemia (hi′po-fos-fa-te′me-a)
Abnormally low concentrations of phosphates in the circulating blood. See also entries under rickets.

hypophosphaturia (hi′po-fos′fa-too′re-a)
Reduced urinary excretion of phosphates.

hypophosphorous acid (hi-po-fos′fo-rus)
An aqueous solution containing 31% HPH2O2; used as a stabilizing reducing agent in pharmaceutical preparations.

hypophrasia (hi′po-fra′ze-a)
Slowness or lack of speech associated with a psychosis or brain injury. [hypo- + G. phrasis, speaking]

hypophyseal (hi′po-fiz′e-al)
SYN: hypophysial.

hypophysectomize (hi′pof-i-sek′to-miz)
To remove the pituitary gland.

hypophysectomy (hi′pof-i-sek′to-me)
Surgical removal of the hypophysis or pituitary gland.

hypophyseoprivic (hi′po-fiz′e-o-priv′ik)
SYN: hypophysioprivic.

hypophyseotropic (hi′po-fiz′e-o-trop′ik)
SYN: hypophysiotropic.

hypophysial (hi′po-fiz′e-al)
Relating to a hypophysis. SYN: hypophyseal.

hypophysin (hi-pof′i-sin)
An aqueous extract of the posterior lobe of the fresh hypophysis of cattle; contains oxytocin and vasopressin.

hypophysioprivic (hi′po-fiz′e-o-priv′ik)
Denoting the condition in which the pituitary gland may be functionally inactive or may be absent, as after hypophysectomy. SYN: hypophyseoprivic. [hypophysis + L. privus, deprived of]

hypophysiotropic (hi′po-fiz′e-o-trop′ik)
Denoting a stimulatory hormone that acts on the pituitary gland (hypophysis). SYN: hypophyseotropic.

hypophysis (hi-pof′i-sis) [TA]
SYN: pituitary gland. SEE ALSO: hypothalamus. [G. an undergrowth] h. cerebri SYN: pituitary gland. pharyngeal h. residual tissue derived from the hypophysial diverticulum that lies in the lamina propria of the nasopharynx; its cells and their arrangement are identical with those of the pars distalis. SYN: pars pharyngea hypophyseos. h. sicca SYN: posterior pituitary.

hypophysitis (hi-pof-i-si′tis)
Inflammation of the hypophysis. lymphocytic h. an acute anterior pituitary lymphocytic reaction characterized clinically by signs and symptoms of anterior pituitary insufficiency; probably an autoimmune disorder because antipituitary antibodies are present in the serum. SYN: lymphoid h.. lymphoid h. SYN: lymphocytic h..

hypopiesis (hi′po-pi-e′sis)
SYN: hypotension (1) . [hypo- + G. piesis, pressure] orthostatic h. SYN: orthostatic hypotension.

hypopigmentation (hi′po-pig-men-ta′shun)
Deficiency of cutaneous melanin relative to surrounding skin. See albinism. [hypo- + pigmentation]

hypopituitarism (hi′po-pi-too′i-ta-rizm)
A condition due to diminished activity of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis, with inadequate secretion, to varying degrees, of one or more anterior pituitary hormones.

hypoplasia (hi′po-pla′ze-a)
1. Underdevelopment of a tissue or organ, usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells. 2. Atrophy due to destruction of some of the elements and not merely to their general reduction in size. [hypo- + G. plasis, a molding] cartilage-hair h. [MIM*250250 & MIM*250460] a skeletal dysplasia prevalent among the Amish, characterized by short-limb dwarfism, sparse, light-colored hair, T-cell immunologic defect rendering them susceptible to infections, and radiographic findings of metaphyseal dysplasia. Autosomal recessive inheritance, the gene maps to 9p. SYN: McKusick metaphyseal dysplasia. enamel h. a developmental disturbance of teeth characterized by deficient or defective enamel matrix formation; may be hereditary, as in amelogenesis imperfecta, or acquired, as encountered in dental fluorosis, local infection, childhood fevers, and congenital syphilis. focal dermal h. [MIM*305600] inherited as an X-linked dominant with in utero lethality in males; characterized by linear areas of dermal atrophy or h., herniation of fat through the dermal defects, and papillomata of the mucus membranes or skin; may be associated with digital, ocular, and oral anomalies; mental retardation; and bony striations. SYN: Goltz syndrome. optic nerve h. congenitally small optic disk resulting from a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells and, therefore, a reduced number of axons; visual impairment may be marked. See de Morsier syndrome. renal h. an abnormally small kidney that is morphologically normal but has either a reduced number of nephrons or smaller nephrons. h. of right ventricle failure of development of the right ventricle resulting in its having little muscle and much connective tissue instead of the reverse. right ventricular h. SYN: parchment heart. thymic h. SYN: DiGeorge syndrome.

hypoplastic (hi′po-plas′tik)
Pertaining to or characterized by hypoplasia.

hypopnea (hi-pop′ne-a)
Breathing that is shallower, and/or slower, than normal. SYN: oligopnea. [hypo- + G. pnoe, breathing]

hypoposia (hi′po-po′se-a)
Hypodipsia, primarily due to reduced tendency to drink rather than the reduced sensation of thirst. [hypo- + G. posis, drinking]

hypopotassemia (hi′po-po-ta-se′me-a)
SYN: hypokalemia.

hypoproaccelerinemia (hi′po-pro-ak-sel′er-i-ne′me-a)
Abnormally low concentration of blood-clotting factor V, i.e., proaccelerin, in the circulating blood.

hypoproconvertinemia (hi′po-pro-kon-ver′ti-ne′me-a)
Abnormally low concentration of blood-clotting factor VII, i.e., proconvertin, in the circulating blood; a deficiency causes a quantitative prolongation of the prothrombin time.

hypoproteinemia (hi′po-pro′te-in-e′me-a, -pro-ten-)
Abnormally small amounts of total protein in the circulating blood plasma.


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