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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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hypovolemia (hi′po-vo-le′me-a)
A decreased amount of blood in the body. SYN: hyphemia. [hypo- + L. volumen, volume, + G. haima, blood]

hypovolemic (hi′po-vo-le′mik)
Pertaining to or characterized by hypovolemia.

hypovolia (hi-po-vo′le-a)
Diminished water content or volume of a given compartment; e.g., extracellular h.. [hypo- + L. volumen, volume]

hypoxanthine (Hyp) (hi-po-zan′thin)
6-Oxypurine; purin-6(1H)-one;a purine present in the muscles and other tissues, formed during purine catabolism by deamination of adenine; elevated in molybdenum-cofactor deficiency. SYN: 6-hydroxypurine. h. guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) SYN: h. phosphoribosyltransferase. h. oxidase SYN: xanthine oxidase. h. phosphoribosyltransferase an enzyme present in human tissue that converts h. and guanine to their respective 5′ nucleotides, with 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate as the ribose-phosphate donor; a partial deficiency of this enzyme can result in elevated purine biosynthesis resulting in gout; another level of deficiency is associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. SYN: h. guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.

hypoxanthinosine (hi′po-zan-then′o-sen)
SYN: inosine.

hypoxemia (hi-pok-se′me-a)
Subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood, short of anoxia. [hypo- + oxygen, + G. haima, blood]

hypoxia (hi-pok′se-a)
Decrease below normal levels of oxygen in inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissue, short of anoxia. [hypo- + oxygen] anemic h. h. resulting from a decreased concentration of functional hemoglobin or a reduced number of erythrocytes; it is caused by hemorrhage or anemia of various types, or by poisoning with carbon monoxide, nitrites, or chlorates. diffusion h. abrupt transient decrease in alveolar oxygen tension when room air is inhaled at the conclusion of a nitrous oxide anesthesia, because nitrous oxide diffusing out of the blood dilutes the alveolar oxygen. hypoxic h. h. resulting from a defective mechanism of oxygenation in the lungs; may be caused by a low tension of oxygen, abnormal pulmonary function or respiratory obstruction, or a right-to-left shunt in the heart. ischemic h. tissue h. characterized by tissue oligemia and caused by arterial or arteriolar obstruction or vasoconstriction. oxygen affinity h. h. due to reduced ability of hemoglobin to release oxygen. stagnant h. tissue h. characterized not by tissue oligemia (tissue blood volume being normal or even increased), but by intravascular stasis due to impairment of venous outflow or (in some instances) to decreased arterial inflow.

hypoxic (hi-pok′sik)
Denoting or characterized by hypoxia.

hypsarhythmia, hypsarrhythmia (hip′sa-rith′me-a)
The abnormal and characteristically chaotic electroencephalogram commonly found in patients with infantile spasms. [G. hypsi, high, + a- priv. + rhythmos, rhythm]

hypsi-, hypso-
High, height. [G. hypsos, height]

hypsibrachycephalic (hip-se-brak′e-se-fal′ik)
Having a high broad head. [hypsi- + G. brachys, broad, + kephale, head]

hypsicephaly (hip-si-sef′a-le)
SYN: oxycephaly. [hypsi- + G. kephale, head]

hypsiconchous (hip-si-kon′kus)
Having a high orbit, with an orbital index above 85. [hypsi- + G. konchos, a shell, the upper part of the skull]

hypsiloid (hip′si-loyd)
Y-shaped; U-shaped. SYN: upsiloid, ypsiliform. [G. upsilon (ypsilon)]

hypsistaphylia (hip′si-sta-fil′e-a)
A condition in which the palate is high and narrow. [hypsi- + G. staphyle, uvula]

hypsistenocephalic (hip-si-sten′o-se-fal′ik)
Having a high, narrow head. [hypsi- + G. stenos, narrow, + kephale, head]

hypso-
See hypsi-.

hypsocephaly (hip-so-sef′a-le)
SYN: oxycephaly. [hypso- + G. kephale, head]

hypsochromic (hip-so-krom′ik)
Denoting the shift of an absorption spectrum maximum to a shorter wavelength (greater energy). [hypso- + G. chroma, color]

hypsodont (hip′so-dont)
Having long teeth. [hypso- + G. odous, tooth]

hypurgia (hi-per′je-a)
A rarely used term for any minor factor(s) modifying the course of a disease for good or for ill, especially the former. [G. hypourgia, help, service, fr. hypo, + ergon, work]

Hyrtl
Joseph, Austrian anatomist, 1811–1894. See H. anastomosis, H. foramen, H. loop, H. epitympanic recess, H. sphincter.

hyster-
See hystero-.

hysteralgia (his′ter-al′je-a)
Pain in the uterus. SYN: hysterodynia, metrodynia. [hystero- + G. algos, pain]

hysteratresia (his′ter-a-tre′ze-a)
Atresia of the uterine cavity, usually resulting from inflammatory endocervical adhesions.

hysterectomy (his-ter-ek′to-me)
Removal of the uterus; unless otherwise specified, usually denotes complete removal of the uterus (corpus and cervix). [hystero- + G. ektome, excision] abdominal h. removal of the uterus through an incision in the abominal wall. SYN: abdominohysterectomy. abdominovaginal h. a combined vaginal and abdominal surgical approach that allows partial or complete removal of vagina, vulva, rectum, and perineum (abdominoperineal approach), as well as pelvic organs; usually done in cases of advanced pelvic cancer. cesarean h. cesarean section followed by h.. SYN: Porro h.. laparoscopic-assisted vaginal h. vaginal h. in which the ovarian pedicle, broad ligament, and uterosacral ligaments are surgically severed using laparoscopic instruments and the procedure completed through a colpotomy done in the typical fashion. modified radical h. an extended h. in which a portion of the upper vagina is removed; the ureters are exposed and pulled back laterally without dissection from the ureteral bed. SYN: TeLinde operation. Porro h. SYN: cesarean h.. radical h. complete removal of the uterus, upper vagina, and parametrium. subtotal h. SYN: supracervical h.. supracervical h. removal of the fundus of the uterus, leaving the cervix in situ. SYN: subtotal h.. vaginal h. removal of the uterus through the vagina without incising the wall of the abdomen. SYN: colpohysterectomy, vaginohysterectomy.

hysteresis (his-ter-e′sis)
1. Failure of either one of two related phenomena to keep pace with the other; or any situation in which the value of one depends upon whether the other has been increasing or decreasing. 2. The lag of a magnetic effect behind its cause. SYN: magnetic inertia. 3. The temperature differential that exists when a substance, such as reversible hydrocolloid, melts at one temperature and solidifies at another. 4. The basis of a type of cooperativity observed in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions in which the degree of cooperativity is associated with a slow conformational change of the enzyme. Cf.:allosterism, cooperativity. [G. h., a coming later] static h. the difference in the value reached by a dependent variable at a particular constant value of the independent variable, depending on whether the latter value had been approached from above or below; e.g., in measuring the pressure volume relations of the lungs, if one completely expires and then inspires to a particular volume and holds it constant, the transpulmonary pressure required to maintain that lung volume is greater than if one had completely inspired and then expired to the same volume and held it constant.

hysteria (his-ter′e-a, his-ter′)
A somatoform (psychoneurotic or psychosomatic) disorder in which there is an alteration or loss of physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder such as paralysis of an arm or disturbance of vision, but that is instead apparently an expression of a psychological conflict or need; a diagnostic term, referable to a wide variety of psychogenic symptoms involving disorder of function, which may be mental, sensory, motor, or visceral. See somatoform disorder. [G. hystera, womb, from the original notion of womb-related disturbances in women] anxiety h. h. characterized by manifest anxiety. conversion h. h. characterized by the substitution, through psychic transformation, of physical signs or symptoms for anxiety; generally restricted to such major symptoms as blindness, deafness, and paralysis, or lesser ones such as blurred vision and numbness. SYN: conversion h. neurosis, conversion neurosis, conversion reaction. dissociative h. an unconscious process sometimes seen in patients with multiple personalities, or in h., in which a group of mental processes is separated from the rest of the thinking processes, resulting in an independent functioning of these processes and a loss of the usual relationships among them. epidemic h. SYN: mass h.. mass h. 1. spontaneous, en masse development of identical physical and/or emotional symptoms among a group of individuals, as seen in a classroom of schoolchildren; 2. a socially contagious frenzy of irrational behavior in a group of people as a reaction to an event. SYN: epidemic h., mass sociogenic illness.

hysterical, hysteric (his-ter′e-kal, -ter′ik)
Relating to or characterized by hysteria.

hysterics (his-ter′iks)
An expression of emotion accompanied often by crying, laughing, and screaming.

hystero-, hyster-
1. The uterus. SEE ALSO: metr-, utero-. [G. hystera, womb (uterus)] 2. Hysteria. [G. hystera, womb (uterus)] 3. Later, following. [G. hysteros, later]

hysterocatalepsy (his′ter-o-kat′a-lep-se)
Hysteria with cataleptic manifestations.

hysterocele (his′ter-o-sel)
1. An abdominal or perineal hernia containing part or all of the uterus. 2. Protrusion of uterine contents into a weakened, bulging area of uterine wall. [hystero- + G. kele, hernia]

hysterocleisis (his′ter-o-kli′sis)
Operative occlusion of the uterus. [hystero- + G. kleisis, closure]

hysterocolposcope (his′ter-o-kol′po-skop)
Instrument for inspection of the uterine cavity and vagina. [hystero- + G. kolpos, vagina, + skopeo, to view]

hysterocystopexy (his′ter-o-sis′to-pek-se)
Attachment of both uterus and bladder to the abdominal wall to correct prolapse. [hystero- + G. kystis, bladder, + pexis, fixation]

hysterodynia (his′ter-o-din′e-a)
SYN: hysteralgia. [hystero- + G. odyne, pain]

hysterogenic, hysterogenous (his-ter-o-jen′ik, his-ter-oj′e-nus)
Causing hysterical symptoms or reactions. [hysteria + G. -gen, producing]

hysterogram (his′ter-o-gram)
1. X-ray examination of the uterus, usually using a contrast medium. 2. A recording of the strength of uterine contractions.

hysterograph (his′ter-o-graf)
Apparatus for recording the strength of uterine contractions.

hysterography (his′ter-og′ra-fe)
1. Radiographic examination of the uterine cavity filled with a contrast medium. 2. Graphic procedure used to record uterine contractions. [hystero- + G. grapho, to write]

hysteroid (his′ter-oyd)
Resembling or simulating hysteria. [hystero- + G. eidos, resemblance]

hysterolysis (his-ter-ol′i-sis)
Breaking up of adhesions between the uterus and neighboring parts. [hystero- + G. lysis, dissolution]

hysterometer (his-ter-om′e-ter)
A graduated sound for measuring the depth of the uterine cavity. SYN: uterometer. [hystero- + G. metron, measure]

hysteromyomectomy (his′ter-o-mi-o-mek′to-me)
SYN: myomectomy. [hysteromyoma + G. ektome, excision]

hysteromyotomy (his′ter-o-mi-ot′o-me)
Incision into the muscles of the uterus. [hystero- + G. mys, muscle, + tome, incision]

hystero-oophorectomy (his′ter-o-o′of-o-rek′to-me)
Surgical removal of the uterus and ovaries. [hystero- + G. oon, egg, + phoros, bearing, + ektome, excision]

hysteropathy (his-ter-op′a-the)
Any disease of the uterus. [hystero- + G. pathos, suffering]

hysteropexy (his′ter-o-pek-se)
Fixation of a displaced or abnormally movable uterus. SYN: uterofixation, uteropexy. [hystero- + G. pexis, fixation] abdominal h. attachment of the uterus to the anterior abdominal wall.

hysteroplasty (his′ter-o-plas-te)
SYN: uteroplasty.

hysterorrhaphy (his-ter-or′a-fe)
Sutural repair of a lacerated uterus. [hystero- + G. rhaphe, suture]

hysterosalpingectomy (his′ter-o-sal-pin-jek′to-me)
Operation for the removal of the uterus and one or both uterine tubes. [hystero- + G. salpinx, a trumpet, + ektome, excision]

hysterosalpingography (his′ter-o-sal-ping-gog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of radiopaque material. SYN: hysterotubography, uterosalpingography, uterotubography. [hystero- + G. salpinx, a trumpet, + grapho, to write]

hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy (his′ter-o-sal-ping′go-o-of-o-rek′to-me)
Excision of the uterus, oviducts, and ovaries. [hystero- + G. salpinx, trumpet, + oon, egg, + phoros, bearing, + ektome, excision]

hysterosalpingostomy (his′ter-o-sal-ping-gos′to-me)
Operation to restore patency of a uterine tube. [hystero- + G. salpinx, trumpet, + stoma, mouth]

hysteroscope (his′ter-o-skop)
An endoscope used in direct visual examination of the uterine cavity. SYN: uteroscope. [hystero- + G. skopeo, to view] contact h. h. with a graded refractive index rod lens; it does not require distension for visualization and affords very short focal length views; suitable for localizing hemorrhages. flexible h. steerable flexible h. of small diameter for operative or diagnostic procedures, that does not require an outer sheath, has fiberoptics for visualization, and must be used with a distending gas.

hysteroscopy (his-ter-os′ko-pe)
Visual instrumental inspection of the uterine cavity. SYN: uteroscopy.

hysterospasm (his′ter-o-spazm)
Spasm of the uterus.

hysterosystole (his-ter-o-sis′to-le)
A delayed contraction of the heart; opposed to premature contraction or extrasystole. [G. hysteros, following, after, + systole, a contracting]

hysterothermometry (his′ter-o-ther-mom′e-tre)
Measurement of uterine temperature.

hysterotomy (his-ter-ot′o-me)
Incision of the uterus. SYN: metrotomy, uterotomy. [hystero- + G. tome, incision] abdominal h. transabdominal incision into the uterus. SYN: abdominohysterotomy. vaginal h. incision into the uterus via the vagina. SYN: colpohysterotomy.

hysterotrachelectomy (his′ter-o-trak-el-ek′to-me)
Removal of the cervix uteri. [hystero- + G. trachelos, neck, + ektome, excision]

hysterotracheloplasty (his′ter-o-trak′e-lo-plas-te)
Plastic surgery of the cervix uteri. [hystero- + G. trachelos, neck, + plastos, formed, shaped]

hysterotrachelorrhaphy (his′ter-o-trak-e-lor′a-fe)
Sutural repair of a lacerated cervix uteri. [hystero- + G. trachelos, neck, + rhaphe, a seam]

hysterotrachelotomy (his′ter-o-trak-e-lot′o-me)
Incision of the cervix uteri. [hystero- + G. trachelos, neck, + tome, incision]

hysterotubography (his′ter-o-too-bog′ra-fe)
SYN: hysterosalpingography.

Hz
Abbreviation for hertz.




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