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Medical Dictionary


incidentaloma (in′si-den-ta-lo′ma)
Mass lesion, usually of the adrenal gland, serendipitously noted during computerized tomographic examinations performed for other reasons. [incidental + -oma, tumor]

incisal (in-si′zal)
Cutting; relating to the cutting edges of the incisor and cuspid teeth. [L. incido, pp. -cisus, to cut into]

incise (in-siz′)
To cut with a knife.

incision (in-sizh′un)
A cut; a surgical wound; a division of the soft parts usually made with a knife. [L. incisio] bucket-handle i. a bilateral subcostal abdominal i.. celiotomy i. an i. through the abdominal wall. chevron i. a bilateral subcostal i. in the abdomen, in the shape of an inverted “V”; used in upper abdominal procedures. clamshell i. i. made up of bilateral submammary anterior thoracotomies connected by a transverse sternotomy and providing access similar to that of a standard sternotomy. SEE ALSO: transverse thoracosternotomy. SYN: clamshell thoracotomy. collar i. a cervical i., placed a few cm above the sternal notch, that is frequently used for thyroid or parathyroid procedures. Deaver i. an i. in the right lower abdominal quadrant, with medial displacement of the rectus muscle. Dührssen incisions three surgical incisions of an incompletely dilated cervix, corresponding roughly to 2, 6, and 10 o'clock, used as a means of effecting immediate delivery of the fetus when there is an entrapped head during a breech delivery. endaural i. i. through the external auditory canal, avoiding cartilage, to permit mastoid surgery. Fergusson i. an i. used in maxillectomy, along the junction of the nose and cheek, and bisecting the upper lip. flank i. an i. usually made near and parallel to the 12th rib between the iliac crest and the rib. Kocher i. an i. several inches below and parallel with the right costal margin. lumbotomy i. SYN: posterior nephrectomy. McBurney i. an i. parallel with the course of the external oblique muscle, one or two inches cephalad to the anterior superior spine of the ilium. midline i. a vertical abdominal i. placed in the midline aponeurosis between the two sheaths of the rectus muscles of the abdomen. paramedian i. an i. lateral to the midline. Pfannenstiel i. an i. made transversely, and through the external sheath of the recti muscles, about an inch above the pubes, the muscles being separated at the midline in the direction of their fibers. postauricular i. an i. parallel and a few millimeters posterior to the retroauricular fold, made to gain access to the mastoid cortex. transmeatal i. an i. in the skin of the posterior external auditory canal that extends from just above the posterior malleolar fold to six o'clock inferiorly; for access to the posterior part of the middle ear. transverse abdominal i. an abdominal i. that is placed perpendicular to the axis of the rectus muscles of the abdomen.

incisive (in-si′siv)
1. Cutting; having the power to cut. 2. Relating to the incisor teeth.

incisor (in-si′zor)
SYN: i. tooth. [L. incido, to cut into] central i. the first tooth in the maxilla and mandible on either side of the midsagittal plane of the head. Hutchinson incisors SYN: Hutchinson teeth, under tooth. lateral i. SYN: second i.. second i. second maxillary or mandibular permanent or deciduous tooth on either side of the midsagittal plane of the head. SYN: lateral i..

incisura, pl .incisurae (in′si-soo′ra, in′si-soo′re) [TA]
SYN: notch. [L. a cutting into] i. acetabuli [TA] SYN: acetabular notch. i. angularis [TA] SYN: angular incisure. i. anterior auriculae [TA] i. anterior auris SYN: anterior notch of auricle. i. apicis cordis [TA] SYN: notch of cardiac apex. i. cardiaca SYN: cardial notch. i. cardiaca pulmonis sinistri [TA] SYN: cardiac notch of left lung. i. cardialis [TA] SYN: i. cardialis. SYN: i. cardialis [TA] . i. cartilaginis meatus acustici [TA] SYN: notch in cartilage of acoustic meatus. i. cerebelli anterior SYN: anterior cerebellar notch. i. cerebelli posterior SYN: posterior cerebellar notch. i. clavicularis [TA] SYN: clavicular notch of sternum. incisurae costales [TA] SYN: costal notches, under notch. i. ethmoidalis [TA] SYN: ethmoidal notch. i. fibularis [TA] SYN: fibular notch. i. frontalis [TA] SYN: frontal notch. i. interarytenoidea [TA] SYN: interarytenoid notch. i. intertragica [TA] SYN: intertragic notch. i. ischiadica major [TA] SYN: greater sciatic notch. i. ischiadica minor [TA] SYN: lesser sciatic notch. i. jugularis ossis occipitalis [TA] SYN: jugular notch of occipital bone. i. jugularis ossis temporalis [TA] SYN: jugular notch of petrous part of temporal bone. i. jugularis sternalis [TA] SYN: jugular notch of sternum. i. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal notch. i. ligamenti teretis hepatis [TA] SYN: notch for ligamentum teres. i. mandibulae [TA] SYN: mandibular notch. i. mastoidea [TA] SYN: mastoid notch. i. nasalis [TA] SYN: nasal notch. i. pancreatis [TA] SYN: pancreatic notch. i. parietalis [TA] SYN: parietal notch. i. preoccipitalis [TA] SYN: preoccipital notch. i. pterygoidea SYN: pterygoid notch. i. radialis [TA] SYN: radial notch. i. rivini SYN: tympanic notch. i. santorini SYN: notch in cartilage of acoustic meatus. i. scapulae SYN: suprascapular notch. i. semilunaris ulnae SYN: trochlear notch. i. sphenopalatina [TA] SYN: sphenopalatine notch. i. supraorbitalis [TA] SYN: supraorbital notch. SEE ALSO: supraorbital foramen. i. tentorii [TA] SYN: tentorial notch. i. of tentorium tentorial notch. i. terminalis auricularis [TA] SYN: terminal notch of auricle. i. terminalis auris SYN: terminal notch of auricle. i. thyroidea inferior [TA] SYN: inferior thyroid notch. i. thyroidea superior [TA] SYN: superior thyroid notch. i. tragica SYN: intertragic notch. i. trochlearis [TA] SYN: trochlear notch. i. tympanica [TA] SYN: tympanic notch. i. ulnaris [TA] SYN: ulnar notch. i. umbilicalis SYN: notch for ligamentum teres. i. vertebralis [TA] SYN: vertebral notch.

incisure (in-si′zhoor)
SYN: notch. [L. incisura] angular i. [TA] a sharp angular depression in the lesser curvature of the stomach at the junction of the body with the pyloric canal. SYN: incisura angularis [TA] , angular notch, sulcus angularis. Lanterman incisures SYN: Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Rivinus i. SYN: tympanic notch. Santorini incisures SYN: notch in cartilage of acoustic meatus. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures funnel-shaped interruptions in the regular structure of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers, formerly interpreted as actual breaks in the sheath but shown by electron microscopy to correspond each to a strand of cytoplasm locally separating the two otherwise fused oligodendroglial (or, in peripheral nerves, Schwann cell) membranes composing the myelin sheath. SYN: Lanterman incisures, Schmidt-Lanterman clefts. tympanic i. SYN: tympanic notch.

inclinatio, pl .inclinationes (in′kli-na′she-o, -na-she-o′nez) [TA]
SYN: inclination. [L.] i. pelvis [TA] SYN: pelvic inclination.

inclination (in-kli-na′shun) [TA]
1. A leaning or sloping. 2. In dentistry, deviation of the long axis of a tooth from the perpendicular. SYN: inclinatio [TA] , version (3) . [L. inclinatio, a leaning] condylar guidance i. the angle of i. of the condylar guidance to an accepted horizontal plane. enamel rod i. the direction of the enamel rods with reference to the outer surface of the enamel of a tooth. lateral condylar i. the direction of the lateral condyle path. pelvic i. [TA] the angle that the plane of the superior pelvic aperture makes with the horizontal plane. SYN: inclinatio pelvis [TA] , i. of pelvis. i. of pelvis SYN: pelvic i..

inclinometer (in′kli-nom′e-ter)
Obsolete instrument for determining the direction of the ocular axes in astigmatism. [L. in- clino, to incline, + G. metron, measure]

inclusion (in-kloo′zhun)
1. Any foreign or heterogeneous substance contained in a cell or in any tissue or organ, not introduced as a result of trauma. 2. The process by which a foreign or heterogeneous structure is misplaced in another tissue. [L. inclusio, a shutting in, fr. includo, pp. -clusis, to close in] cell inclusions 1. the residual elements of the cytoplasm that are metabolic products of the cell, e.g., pigment granules or crystals; 2. storage materials such as glycogen or fat; 3. engulfed material such as carbon or other foreign substances. SEE ALSO: i. bodies, under body. Döhle inclusions SYN: Döhle bodies, under body. fetal i. unequal conjoined twins in which the incompletely developed parasite is wholly enclosed in the autosite. leukocyte inclusions SYN: Döhle bodies, under body.

incoherent (in-ko-her′ent)
Not coherent; disjointed; confused; denoting a lack of connectedness or organization of parts during verbal expression. [L. in- neg. + co-haereo, pp. -haesus, to cling together, fr. haereo, to stick]

incompatibility (in′kom-pat-i-bil′i-te)
1. The quality of being incompatible. 2. A means of classifying bacterial plasmids; two plasmids are incompatible if they cannot coexist in one host cell. physiologic i. a form of i. in which the substances in a mixture exert opposing physiologic actions. SYN: therapeutic i.. Rh antigen i. SYN: erythroblastosis fetalis. therapeutic i. SYN: physiologic i..

incompatible (in-kom-pat′i-bl)
1. Not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance, without resulting in an undesirable reaction (including chemical alteration or destruction or pharmacologic effect). 2. Denoting persons who are unable to associate with one another without resulting anxiety and conflict. 3. Having genotypes that put progeny at high risk of severe recessive disorders or that promote harmful maternal-fetal reaction ( e.g., erythroblastosis fetalis is Rh i.). 4. Having antigenic nonidentity between a donor and a recipient. [L. in- neg., + con-, with, + patior, pp. passus, to suffer, tolerate]

incompetence, incompetency (in-kom′pe-tens, in-kom′pe-ten-se)
1. The quality of being incompetent or incapable of performing the allotted function, especially failure of cardiac or venous valves to close completely. 2. In forensic psychiatry, the inability to distinguish right from wrong or to manage one's affairs. [L. in-, neg. + com-peto, strive after together] aortic i. defective closure of the aortic valve permitting regurgitation into the left ventricle during diastole. cardiac i. inability of the ventricles to pump out the blood returning to the atria fast enough to prevent an abnormal rise in atrial pressure or to pump sufficient blood to maintain normal circulatory function. cardiac valvular i. failure of a valve to perform its fundamental function: insurance of one-way flow; manifested by regurgitation of blood in the opposite direction when the valve is supposed to be closed. mitral i. defective closure of the mitral valve permitting regurgitation into the left atrium during systole. muscular i. imperfect closure of an anatomically normal cardiac valve, in consequence of defective action of its papillary muscles. pulmonary i., pulmonic i. defective closure of the pulmonic valve permitting regurgitation into the right ventricle during diastole. pyloric i. a patulous state or want of tone of the pylorus that allows the passage of food into the intestine before gastric digestion is completed. relative i. imperfect closure of a cardiac valve, in consequence of excessive dilation of the corresponding cavity of the heart. tricuspid i. defective closure of the tricuspid valve permitting regurgitation into the right atrium during systole. valvular i. SYN: valvular regurgitation.

inconstant (in-kon′stant)
1. Irregular. 2. In anatomy, denoting a structure, such as an artery, nerve, etc., that may or may not be present.

incontinence (in-kon′ti-nens)
1. Inability to prevent the discharge of any of the excretions, especially of urine or feces. 2. Lack of restraint of the appetites, especially sexual. Cf.:intemperance. SYN: incontinentia. [L. in-continentia, fr. in- neg. + con-tineo, to hold together, fr. teneo, to hold] fecal i. SYN: i. of feces. i. of feces the involuntary voiding of feces into clothing or bedclothes, usually due to pathology affecting sphincter control or loss of cognitive functions. SYN: fecal i.. i. of milk SYN: galactorrhea. overflow i. involuntary loss of urine associated with overdistention of the bladder, with or without a detrusor contraction. SYN: paradoxical i., passive i.. paradoxical i. SYN: overflow i.. passive i. SYN: overflow i.. i. of pigment loss of melanin from the epidermis, and accumulation in melanophages in the upper dermis; seen in several inflammatory diseases of the skin and in incontinentia pigmenti. reflex i. loss of urine due to unintended detrusor hyperreflexia. stress urinary i. (SUI) leakage of urine as a result of coughing, straining, or some sudden voluntary movement, due to incompetence of the sphincteric mechanisms. SYN: urinary exertional i.. urge i., urgency i. leakage of urine by unintended detrusor contraction with a strong desire to void. urinary exertional i. SYN: stress urinary i.. i. of urine the involuntary voiding of urine into clothing or bedclothes. A common problem in elderly populations, especially those in nursing homes, it may be due to neurologic abnormalities, loss of sphincter function (especially common in multiparous women), chronic bladder outlet obstruction, or loss of cognitive functions.

incontinent (in-kon′ti-nent)
Denoting incontinence.

incontinentia (in-kon′ti-nen′she-a)
SYN: incontinence. [L.] i. pigmenti [MIM*146150, MIM*308300, and MIM*308310] a rare genodermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented lesions in linear, zebra stripe, and other bizarre configurations following the lines of Blaschko; occasionally accompanied by other developmental anomalies of the eyes, teeth, nails, skeleton, nails, heart. The dermatologic features involve four stages: stage I is characterized by erythema, vesicles, and pustules; stage II by papules, verrucous lesions, and hyperkeratosis; stage III by hyperpigmentation; and stage IV by pallor, atrophy, and scarring. Historically, there were thought to be two forms: 1) the sporadic type of i. pigmenti (IP1), which is now known to be hypomelanosis of Ito and 2) the familial type (IP2), which is X-linked dominant and a genetic lethal in males. SEE ALSO: hypomelanosis of Ito. SYN: Bloch-Sulzberger disease, Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome. i. pigmenti achromians [MIM*146150] SYN: hypomelanosis of Ito.

incoordination (in-ko-or-di-na′shun)
SYN: ataxia. [L. in- neg. + coordination]

incorporation (in-kor-po-ra′shun)
SYN: identification. [L. in-, in, + corporare, pp. corporatus, to make into a body]

increase (in′kres)
Any growth in quantity. absolute cell i. an actual i. in one of the types of leukocytes, the absolute number of leukocytes in 1 cu mm of blood being obtained by multiplying the total leukocyte count by the percentage of the cell types in question. base i. at low levels a hearing aid signal-processing strategy to i. gradually the amplification of low frequencies at low-intensity levels. treble i. at low levels a hearing aid signal-processing strategy to i. gradually the amplification of high-frequency sounds at low levels.

increment (in′kre-ment)
A change in the value of a variable; usually an increase, with “decrement” applied to a decrease, though “i.” can also correctly be applied to both. [L. incrementum, increase]

Generic term for all insulinotropic substances originating in the gastrointestinal tract that are released into the circulation by meals containing glucose. One is glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, which is released into the circulation from crypt cells in the proximal duodenum and jejunum after meals containing glucose or long-chain fatty acids. Another is proglucagon-derived polypeptide, cleavage product of glucagon, which is further processed into glucagonlike peptide-1 and then to glucagonlike insulinotropic peptide.

incretion (in-kre′shun)
The functional activity of an endocrine gland. [in- + secretion]

incrustation (in′krus-ta′shun)
1. Formation of a crust or a scab. 2. A coating of some adventitious material or an exudate; a scab. [L. in-crusto, pp. -atus, to incrust, fr. crusta, crust]

incubation (in′ku-ba′shun)
1. Act of maintaining controlled environmental conditions for the purpose of favoring growth or development of microbial or tissue cultures or to maintain optimal conditions for a chemical or immunologic reaction. 2. Maintenance of an artificial environment for an infant, usually a premature or hypoxic one, by providing proper temperature, humidity, and, usually, oxygen. 3. The development, without sign or symptom, of an infection from the time the infectious agent gains entry until the appearance of the first signs or symptoms. [L. incubo, to lie on]

incubator (in′ku-ba′tor)
1. A container in which controlled environmental conditions may be maintained; e.g., for culturing microorganisms. 2. An apparatus for maintaining an infant (usually premature) in an environment of proper oxygenation, humidity, and temperature.

incubus (in′koo-bus)
Originally, an evil spirit that lay upon and oppressed sleeping persons; especially, a male spirit that copulated with sleeping women. Cf.:succubus. [L. fr. incubo, to lie on]

incudal (in′koo-dal)
Relating to the incus.

incudectomy (in-koo-dek′to-me)
Removal of the incus of the tympanum. [incus + G. ektome, excision]

incudes (in-koo′dez)
Plural of incus. [L.]

incudiform (in-koo′di-form)
Shaped like an anvil. [L. incus (incud-), anvil]

incudomalleal (in-koo′do-mal′le-al)
Relating to the incus and the malleus; denoting the articulation between the incus and the malleus in the middle ear. SYN: ambomalleal.

incudostapedial (in-koo′do-sta-pe′de-al)
Relating to the incus and the stapes; denoting the articulation between the incus and the stapes in the middle ear.

incurable (in-kur′a-bl)
Denoting a disease or morbid process that is unresponsive to medical or surgical treatment.

incurvation (in′ker-va′shun)
An inward curvature; a bending inward.

incus, gen. incudis, pl .incudes (ing′kus, in-koo′dis, in-koo′dez) [TA]
The middle of the three ossicles in the middle ear; it has a body and two limbs or processes (long crus of i. and short crus of i.); at the tip of the long crus is a small knob, the lenticular process, which articulates with the head of the stapes. SYN: anvil. [L. anvil]

incycloduction (in-si-klo-duk′shun)
A cycloduction in which the upper pole of the cornea is rotated inward (medially). [in- + cyclo- + L. duco, pp. ductus, to lead]

incyclophoria (in-si′klo-fo′re-a)
A cyclophoria in which the 12 o'clock position in the iris tends to twist medially. [L. in- + cyclo- + G. phora, a carrying]

incyclotropia (in-si-klo-tro′pe-a)
A cyclotropia in which the upper poles of the corneas are rotated inward (medially) to each other. [in- + cyclo- + G. trope, a turning]

in d.
Abbreviation for L. in dies, daily.

indanedione derivatives
Anticoagulants similar to warfarin in action. Anisindione and phenindione are clinically used; diphenadione is very long acting and used as a rodenticide.

indanediones (in′dan-di-onz)
A class of orally effective indirect-acting anticoagulants of which phenindione is representative.

indeciduate (in-de-sid′u-at)
Relating to the mammals (Indecidua) that do not shed any maternal uterine tissue when expelling the placenta at birth ( e.g., horse, pig), in contrast to deciduate mammals ( e.g., human, dog, rodent).

indenization (in-den-i-za′shun)
SYN: innidiation. [in- + denizen]

indentation (in-den-ta′shun)
1. The act of notching or pitting. 2. A notch. 3. A state of being notched. [Mediev. L. indento, pp. -atus, to make notches like teeth, fr. L. dens (dent-), tooth]

1. The relationship between two or more events in which no information about any combination of some of them contains any information about any combination of the others. 2. The state of mutual detachment between or among autonomous units. causal i. the state of systems that share no causes or effects. stochastic i. i. of two or more events or variables; the state in which their joint probability or distribution is equal to the product of their marginal probabilities or distributions.

index, gen. indicis, pl .indicesindexes (in′deks, -di-sis, -di-sez, -dek-sez)
1. [NA] SYN: i. finger. 2. A guide, standard, indicator, symbol, or number denoting the relation in respect to size, capacity, or function, of one part or thing to another. SEE ALSO: quotient, ratio. 3. A core or mold used to record or maintain the relative position of a tooth or teeth to one another and/or to a cast. 4. A guide, usually made of plaster, used to reposition teeth, casts, or parts. 5. In epidemiology, a rating scale. [L. one that points out, an informer, the forefinger, an i., fr. in-dico, pp. -atus, to declare] absorbancy i. 1. SYN: specific absorption coefficient. 2. SYN: molar absorption coefficient. alveolar i. 1. SYN: gnathic i.. 2. SYN: basilar i.. amnionic fluid i. the sum of the diameters of the largest vertical pocket of amnionic fluid in each of the four quadrants of the uterus as obtained by ultrasound; a measure of fluid volume during pregnancy. anesthetic i. ratio of the number of units of anesthetic required for anesthesia to the number of units of anesthetic required to produce respiratory or cardiovascular failure. antitryptic i. an obsolete term for the relative retardation in loss of viscosity of a solution of casein incubated with trypsin, to which a drop of abnormal blood serum (as from a cancerous patient) has been added, compared with that in a similar solution to which normal serum has been added; if the former drips through the tube of the viscosimeter in 100 seconds, and the latter in 104 seconds, the antitryptic i. is 4. apnea-hypopnea i. the number of apneic and hypopneic episodes combined per hour of sleep. Arneth i. an expression based on adding the percentages of polymorphonuclear neutrophils with 1 or 2 lobes in their nuclei, plus one-half the percentage with 3 lobes; the normal value is 60%. SEE ALSO: Arneth formula, Arneth count. auricular i. relation of the width to the height of the auricle or pinna: (width of pinna × 100)/length of pinna. Ayala i. the cerebrospinal i. when 10 ml of cerebrospinal fluid have been removed. SYN: Ayala quotient, spinal quotient. basilar i. ratio between the basialveolar line and the maximum length of the cranium, according to the formula: (basialveolar line × 100)/length of cranium. SYN: alveolar i. (2) . Bödecker i. a modification of the DMF caries i.. body mass i. an anthropometric measure of body mass, defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared; a method of determining caloric nutritional status. buffer i. SYN: buffer value. cardiac i. the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time divided by the body surface area; usually expressed in liters per minute per square meter. centromeric i. the ratio of the length of the short arm of the chromosome to that of the total chromosome; ordinarily expressed as a percentage. cephalic i. the ratio of the maximal breadth to the maximal length of the head, obtained by the formula: (breadth × 100)/length. SYN: length-breadth i.. cephalo-orbital i. the ratio of the cubic content of the two orbits to that of the cranial cavity multiplied by 100. cerebral i. the ratio of the transverse to the anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity multiplied by 100. cerebrospinal i. the figure obtained by multiplying the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, after fluid has been withdrawn by spinal puncture, by the quantity of fluid withdrawn and then dividing by the original pressure. chemotherapeutic i. the ratio of the minimal effective dose of a chemotherapeutic agent to the maximal tolerated dose. Originally used by Ehrlich to express the relative toxicity of a chemotherapeutic agent to a parasite and to its host. chest i. SYN: thoracic i.. cranial i. the ratio of the maximal breadth to the maximal length of the skull, obtained by the formula: (breadth × 100)/length. Cumulative I. Medicus collection of medical literature, published annually, which began in the US Army Surgeon General's office at the end of the Civil War. It has been taken over by the National Library of Medicine and has evolved into a database called MEDLINE. Dean fluorosis i. an i. that measures the degree of mottled enamel (fluorosis) in teeth; used most often in epidemiological field studies. def caries i., DEF caries i. an i. of past caries experience based upon the number of decayed, extracted, and filled deciduous (indicated by lower case letters) or permanent (indicated by capital letters) teeth. degenerative i. the percentage of granulocytes that contain toxic granules in the cytoplasm, as compared with the total percentage of granulocytes. dental i. (DI) 1. relation of the dental length (distance from the mesial surface of the first premolar to the distal surface of the third molar) to the basinasal (basion to nasion) length: (dental length ×100)/basinasal length; 2. a system of numbers for indicating comparative size of the teeth. SYN: Flower dental i.. df caries i., DF caries i. an i. of past caries experience based upon the number of decayed and filled deciduous (indicated by lower case letters) or permanent (indicated by capital letters) teeth. SYN: df, DF. diet quality i. a measure of the quality of the diet using a composite of eight recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and nutrients from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Meeting the standard is assigned a value of 0, within 30% of goal a value of 1, differing by more than 30% a 2. The resulting i. can be a figure of between 0–16, the lower the better. The NAS recommendations include : reducing total fat intake to 30% or less of total energy; reducing saturated fatty-acid intake to less than 10% of energy; reducing cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily; eating 5 or more servings daily of vegetables and fruits; increasing intake of starches and other complex carbohydrates by eating 6 or more servings daily of bread, cereal, and legumes; maintaining protein intake at moderate levels (levels lower than twice the RDA); limiting total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less; and maintaining adequate calcium intake (approximately the RDA). dmfs caries i., DMFS caries i. an i. of past caries experience based upon the number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces of deciduous (indicated by lower-case letters) or permanent (indicated by capital letters) teeth. effective temperature i. a composite i. of environmental comfort which is compared after exposure to different combinations of air temperature, humidity, and movement. empathic i. the degree of emotional understanding or empathy experienced by a health services provider or other person concerning another person, more particularly of a sufferer from some emotional or somatic condition. endemic i. the percentage of children infected with malaria or other endemic disease, in any given locality. erythrocyte indices calculations for determining the average size, hemoglobin content, and concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells, specifically mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration; results are commonly used in the classification and diagnosis of red cell disorders. facial i. relation of the length of the face to its maximal width between the zygomatic prominences; to get superior facial i., the length of the face is measured from the nasion to the alveolar point: (nasialveolar length × 100)/bizygomatic width; for total facial i., length is measured from the nasion to the mental tubercle: (nasimental length × 100)/bizygomatic width. Flower dental i. SYN: dental i.. free thyroxine i. (FTI) an arbitrary value obtained by multiplying the triiodothyronine uptake by the serum thyroxine concentration; it largely corrects for variations in thyroid-bound globulin concentration by providing a clinically valid estimate of the physiologically active free thyroxine; direct assay or laboratory measurement of free serum thyroxine yields a more accurate value. glycemic i. a ranking of the rise in serum glucose from various foodstuffs. gnathic i. relation between the basialveolar (basion to alveolar point) and basinasal (basion to nasion) lengths: (basialveolar length × 100)/basinasal length; the result indicates the degree of projection of the maxilla or upper jaw. SYN: alveolar i. (1) . health status i. set of measurements designed to detect short-term fluctuations in health of members of a population; the measurements usually include physical function, emotional well-being, activities of daily living, feelings, etc. height-length i. SYN: vertical i.. international sensitivity i. (ISI) the slope of the line of best fit relating the log prothrombin time obtained with a standard reagent to the log prothrombin time obtained with the working reagent for both normal and patients who receive stable oral anticoagulant therapy; the standard reagents used for this value assignment are reference preparations calibrated against the World Health Organization standard reagent. SEE ALSO: international normalized ratio. iron i. an obsolete i. of iron obtained by dividing the figure for the average content of iron in normal blood (42.74 mg) by the red cell count in millions; it normally varies between 8 and 9; in pernicious anemia, the i. is usually greater than 10, but it tends to be normal in chronic secondary anemia. karyopyknotic i. an i. used to monitor the hormonal status of the patient as reflected by exfoliated vaginal cells and their morphology; an expression of the percentage of intermediate and superficial cells from squamous cells of vaginal epithelium which have pyknotic nuclei. length-breadth i. SYN: cephalic i.. length-height i. SYN: vertical i.. leukopenic i. a significant decrease in the white blood count after ingestion of food to which a patient is hypersensitive, a count made during the normal fasting state being used as the basis for evaluation of the postprandial count. maturation i. an i. indicating the degree of maturation attained by the vaginal epithelium as adjudged by the cell types being exfoliated; serves as an objective means of evaluating hormonal secretion or response; represents the percentage of parabasal cells/intermediate cells/superficials, in that order; “shift to the left” indicates more immature cells on the surface (atrophy), while “shift to the right” indicates more mature epithelium. metacarpal i. the average ratio of length to breadth of metacarpals II to V; this ratio is increased in the Marfan syndrome. mitotic i. the ratio of cells in a tissue that are undergoing mitosis, often expressed as either the number of cells in a specified area of tissue section or as a percentage of the total cell sample. molar absorbancy i. SYN: molar absorption coefficient. nasal i. relation of the greatest width of the nasal aperture to the length of a line from the nasion to the lower border of the nasal aperture: (nasal width × 100)/nasal height. nucleoplasmic i. the quotient of the nuclear volume divided by the cytoplasmic volume. obesity i. body weight divided by body volume. opsonic i. a value that indicates the relative content of opsonin in the blood of a person with an infectious disease, as evaluated in vitro in comparison with presumably normal blood; the opsonic i. is calculated from the following equation: phagocytic i. of normal serum ÷ phagocytic i. of test serum = 1 ÷ x, where x represents the opsonic i.. orbital i. relation of the height of the orbit to its width: (orbital height × 100)/orbital width. orbitonasal i. the ratio of the width between the lateral angles of the eyes, measured with a tape measure passing over the root of the nose times 100, to the width between the lateral angles of the eyes measured with a caliper. palatal i., palatine i. SYN: palatomaxillary i.. palatomaxillary i. relation of the palatomaxillary width, measured between the outer borders of the alveolar arch just above the middle of the second molar tooth, and the palatomaxillary length, measured from the alveolar point to the middle of a transverse line touching the posterior borders of the two maxillae: (palatomaxillary width × 100)/palatomaxillary length; it notes the varying forms of the dental arcade and palate. SYN: palatal i., palatine i.. Pearl i. the number of failures of a contraceptive method per 100 woman years of exposure. pelvic i. the ratio of the conjugate of the pelvic inlet to the transverse diameters of the pelvis: (conjugate of pelvic inlet × 100)/transverse diameter. phagocytic i. the average number of bacteria or other particles observed in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes or other phagocytic cells after mixing and incubating, at 37°C. It may reflect either the average number of particles ingested or the rate at which particles are cleared from either the blood or a culture. Pirquet i. an obsolete method of establishing the presence of malnutrition by dividing the weight (grams/10) by the sitting height (in cm); the cube root of the quotient if < 0.945 was considered as indicating malnutrition. PMA i. an i. which measures the presence or absence of gingival inflammation as occurring on the papillae or the marginal or attached gingivae. ponderal i. cube root of body weight times 100 divided by height in cm. pressure-volume i. method of evaluating the cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics. pulsatility i. calculation of Doppler measurements of systolic and diastolic velocities in the uterine, umbilical, or fetal circulations. refractive i. (n) the relative velocity of light in another medium compared to the velocity in air; e.g., in the case of air to crown glass, n = 1.52; in the case of air to water, n = 1.33. SEE ALSO: law of refraction. Robinson i. an i. used to calculate heart work load. See double product. Röhrer i. body weight in grams times 100 divided by the cube of height in centimeters. root caries i. the ratio of the number of teeth with carious lesions of the root, and/or restorations of the root, to the number of teeth with exposed root surfaces. sacral i. a ratio obtained by multiplying the greatest breadth of the sacrum by 100 and dividing by the length. saturation i. an indication of the relative concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cells, calculated as: grams of hemoglobin per 100 ml (expressed as percent of normal) ÷ hematocrit value (expressed as percent of normal) = saturation i. The normal i. for adults and infants is 0.97 to 1.02; in primary and secondary anemia, the i. is usually considerably less than 0.97. Schilling i. SYN: Schilling blood count. shock i. the quotient of the cardiac rate divided by the systolic blood pressure; normally approximately 0.5, but in shock ( e.g., rising pulse rate with falling blood pressure), the i. may reach 1.0. short increment sensitivity i. a measure of the ability to detect small (1dB) increments in intensity; with cochlear lesions, this ability exceeds normal. small increment sensitivity i. SISI test. spiro-i. spiro-i.. splenic i. a rough indication of the salubrity, or the reverse, in regard to malaria of a particular district, judged by the relative absence or prevalence of enlarged spleens among the population. staphyloopsonic i. the opsonic i. calculated in relation to a staphylococcal infection, with a young culture of Staphylococcus aureus or the strain of staphylococcus from the patient being used in the test. stroke work i. a measure of the work done by the heart with each contraction, adjusted for body surface area; equal to the stroke volume of the heart multiplied by the arterial pressure and divided by body surface area; the normal stroke work i. does not exceed 40 g-m per m2. therapeutic i. the ratio of LD50 to ED50, used in quantitative comparison of drugs. thoracic i. anteroposterior diameter of the thorax times 100 divided by the transverse diameter of the thorax. SYN: chest i.. tibiofemoral i. the ratio obtained by multiplying the length of the tibia by 100 and dividing by the length of the femur. transversovertical i. SYN: vertical i.. tuberculoopsonic i. the opsonic i. calculated in relation to tuberculous infection, with an actively growing culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the strain of tubercle bacillus from the patient being used in the test. ultraviolet i. a daily i. issued by the U.S. National Weather Service for many cities, forecasting the amount of dangerous ultraviolet light that will arrive at the earth's surface about noon the following day. uricolytic i. the percentage of uric acid oxidized to allantoin before being secreted. vertical i. the relation of the height to the length of the skull: (height × 100)/length. SYN: height-length i., length-height i., transversovertical i.. vital i. the ratio of births to deaths within a population during a given time. Volpe-Manhold I. (V-MI) an i. for comparing the amount of dental calculus in individuals. volume i. an indication of the relative size ( e.g., volume) of erythrocytes, calculated as follows: hematocrit value, expressed as per cent of normal ÷ red blood cell count, expressed as per cent of normal = volume i.. zygomaticoauricular i. the ratio between the zygomatic and the auricular diameters of the skull or head.

indican (in′di-kan)
1. Indoxyl β-d-glucoside from Indigofera species and Polygonium tinctorium; a source of indigo. SYN: plant i.. 2. 3-Indoxylsulfuric acid, a substance found (as its salts) in sweat and in variable amounts in urine; indicative, when in quantity, of protein putrefaction in the intestine (indicanuria). SYN: metabolic i., uroxanthin. metabolic i. SYN: i. (2) . plant i. SYN: i. (1) .


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