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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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inscriptio (in-skrip′she-o)
SYN: inscription. [L. fr. in-scribo, pp. -scriptus, to write on] i. tendinea SYN: tendinous intersection.

inscription (in-skrip′shun)
1. The main part of a prescription; that which indicates the drugs and the quantity of each to be used in the mixture. 2. A mark, band, or line. SYN: inscriptio. [L. inscriptio] tendinous i. SYN: tendinous intersection.

Insecta (in-sek′ta)
The insects, the largest class of the phylum Arthropoda and the largest major grouping of living things, chiefly characterized by flight, great adaptability, vast speciation in terrestrial and freshwater environments, and possession of three pairs of jointed legs and, usually, two pairs of wings. Some are parasitic, others serve as intermediate hosts for parasites, including those that cause many human diseases. Some are wingless; others, such as the Diptera, have only one pair of wings. Respiration is by tracheoles, cuticle-lined air tubes that pass air directly to the tissues. Development in higher forms is holometabolous and passes through distinctive egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. SYN: Hexapoda. [L. pl. of insectus, insect, fr. in-seco, pp. -sectus, to cut into]

insectarium (in-sek-ta′re-um)
Place for keeping and breeding insects for scientific purposes. [L.]

insecticide (in-sek′ti-sid)
An agent that kills insects. [insect + L. caedo, to kill]

insectifuge (in-sek′ti-fooj)
A substance that drives off insects. [insect + L. fugo, to put to flight]

Insectivora (in-sek-tiv′o-ra)
An order of small, plantigrade, placental mammals that are extremely active and often highly predaceous; they feed mostly on insects and small rodents, although the jes or potomogale of Africa feeds on fish. Eight living families include the solenodons of Cuba and Haiti, tenrecs of Madagascar, hedgehog of Europe and Asia, and shrews and moles of the U.S., Africa, and Asia. [insect + L. voro, to devour]

insectivorous (in-sek-tiv′o-rus)
Insect-eating. [insect + L. voro, to devour]

insecurity (in-se-kur′i-te)
A feeling of unprotectedness and helplessness.

insemination (in-sem-i-na′shun)
Deposit of seminal fluid within the vagina, normally during coitus. SYN: semination. [L. in-semino, pp. -atus, to sow or plant in, fr. semen, seed] artificial i. the introduction of semen into the vagina other than by coitus. donor i. SYN: heterologous i.. heterologous i. artificial i. with semen from a donor who is not the woman's husband. SYN: donor i.. homologous i. artificial i. with the husband's semen. intrauterine i. (IUI) placement of sperm that have been washed of seminal fluid directly into the uterus to bypass the cervix.

insenescence (in-se-nes′ens)
The process of growing old. [L. insenesco, to begin to grow old]

insensible (in-sen′si-bl)
1. SYN: unconscious. 2. Not appreciable by the senses. [L. in-sensibilis, fr. in, neg. + sentio, pp. sensus, to feel]

insert (in′sert)
1. An additional length of base pairs in DNA that has been introduced into that DNA. 2. An additional length of bases that has been introduced into RNA. 3. An additional length of amino acids acyl residues that has been introduced into a protein.

insertion (in-ser′shun)
1. A putting in. 2. The usually more distal attachment of a muscle to the more movable part of the skeleton, as distinguished from origin. 3. In dentistry, the intraoral placing of a dental prosthesis. 4. Intrusion of fragments of any size from molecular to cytogenetic into the normal genome. [L. insertio, a planting in, fr. insero, -sertus, to plant in] parasol i. SYN: velamentous i.. velamentous i. a form of i. of the fetal blood vessels into the placenta, in which the vessels separate before reaching the placenta and develop toward it in a fold of amnion, somewhat like the ribs of an open parasol. SYN: parasol i..

insheathed (in-shethd′)
Enclosed in a sheath or capsule.

insidious (in-sid′e-us)
Treacherous; stealthy; denoting a disease that progresses gradually with inapparent symptoms. [L. insidiosus, cunning, fr. insidiae (pl.), an ambush]

insight (in′sit)
Self-understanding as to the motives and reasons behind one's own actions or those of another's.

in situ (in si′too)
In position, not extending beyond the focus or level of origin. [L. in, in, + situs, site]

insolation (in-so-la′shun)
1. Exposure to the sun's rays. 2. SYN: sunstroke. [L. insolare, to place in the sun]

insoluble (in-sol′u-bl)
Not soluble.

insomnia (in-som′ne-a)
Inability to sleep, in the absence of external impediments, such as noise, a bright light, etc., during the period when sleep should normally occur; may vary in degree from restlessness or disturbed slumber to a curtailment of the normal length of sleep or to absolute wakefulness. SYN: sleeplessness. [L. fr. in- priv. + somnus, sleep] conditioned i. a form of i. resulting from conditioned behaviors that are incompatible with sleep, e.g., each time a person walks into his bedroom, his first thought is that he is not going to be able to sleep. subjective i. a condition characterized by the subjective experience of greatly reduced sleep, in the context of relatively normal physiologic measures of sleep.

insomniac (in-som′ne-ak)
1. A sufferer from insomnia. 2. Exhibiting, tending toward, or producing insomnia.

insorption (in-sorp′shun)
Movement of substances from the lumen of the gut into the blood. [L. in, in, + sorbeo, to suck]

inspection


inspersion (in-sper′shun, -zhun)
Sprinkling with a fluid or a powder. [L. inspersio, fr. in-spergo, pp. -spersus, to scatter upon, fr. spargo, to scatter]

inspiration (in-spi-ra′shun)
SYN: inhalation (1) . [L. inspiratio, fr. in-spiro, pp. -atus, to breathe in] crowing i. noisy breathing associated with respiratory obstruction, usually at the larynx.

inspiratory (in-spi′ra-to-re)
Relating to or timed during inhalation.

inspire (in-spir′)
SYN: inhale.

inspirometer (in-spi-rom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the force, frequency, or volume of inspirations. [L. in-spiro, to breathe in, + G. metron, measure]

inspissate (in-spis′at)
To perform or undergo inspissation.

inspissation (in-spi-sa′shun)
1. The act of thickening or condensing, as by evaporation or absorption of fluid. 2. An increased thickening or diminished fluidity. [L. in, intensive, + spisso, pp. -atus, to thicken]

inspissator (in-spis′a-tor)
An apparatus for evaporating fluids.

instability (in-sta-bil′i-te)
The state of being unstable, or lacking stability. detrusor i. involuntary detrusor contractions that may occur at bladder volumes below capacity. SYN: detrusor hyperreflexia. spinal i. the inability of the spinal column, under physiologic loads, to maintain its normal configuration; may result in damage to the spinal cord or nerve roots or lead to the development of a painful spinal deformity.

instar (in′stahr)
Any of the successive nymphal stages in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolous insects (simple or incomplete metamorphosis), or the stages of larval change by successive molts that characterize the holometabolous insects (complex or complete metamorphosis). [L. form]

instep
The arch, or highest part of the dorsum of the foot. SEE ALSO: tarsus.

instillation (in-sti-la′shun)
Dropping of a liquid on or into a body part. [L. instillatio, fr. in-stillo, pp. -atus, to pour in by drops, fr. stilla, a drop]

instillator (in′sti-la-ter)
A device for performing instillation. SYN: dropper.

instinct (in′stinkt)
1. An enduring disposition or tendency of an organism to act in an organized and biologically adaptive manner characteristic of its species. 2. The unreasoning impulse to perform some purposive action without an immediate consciousness of the end to which that action may lead. 3. In psychoanalytic theory, the forces or drives assumed to exist behind the tension caused by the needs of the id. [L. instinctus, impulse] aggressive i. SYN: death i.. death i. an i. of living creatures toward self-destruction, death, or a return to the inorganic lifelessness from which they arose. SYN: aggressive i.. ego instincts self-preservative needs and self-love, as opposed to object love; drives that are primarily erotic. herd i. tendency or inclination to band together with and share the customs of others of a group, and to conform to the opinions and adopt the views of the group. SYN: social i.. life i. the i. of self-preservation and sexual procreation; the basic urge toward preservation of the species. SYN: sexual i.. sexual i. SYN: life i.. social i. SYN: herd i..

instinctive, instinctual (in-stink′tiv, -stink′choo-al)
Relating to instinct.

instrument (in′stroo-ment)
A tool or implement. [L. instrumentum] diamond cutting instruments in dentistry, cylinders, disks, and other cutting instruments to which numerous small diamond pyramids have been attached by a plating of metal. hearing i. SYN: hearing aid. Krueger i. stop a mechanical device limiting the insertion of a root canal i. into a canal. plugging i. SYN: plugger. purse-string i. an intestinal clamp with jaws at an angle to the handle; when closed across the bowel, large grooved interdigitating serrations allow passage of a straight needle and suture through each side to form a purse-string suture, after which the clamp is removed. Sabouraud-Noiré i. an obsolete device for measuring the quantity of x-rays by means of the change in color of a disk of barium platinocyanide which exposure to them produces; the unit used in this method is called tint B. see erythema dose. stereotactic i., stereotaxic i. an apparatus attached to the head, used to localize precisely an area in the brain by means of coordinates related to intracerebral structures. test handle i. a root canal i. the handle of which is similar to a collet chuck and which can be secured in position on the root canal i. to adjust its effective length.

instrumentarium (in′stroo-men-tar′e-um)
A collection of instruments and other equipment for an operation or for a medical procedure.

instrumentation (in′stroo-men-ta′shun)
1. The use of instruments. 2. In dentistry, the application of armamentarium in a restorative procedure.

insuccation (in′su-ka′shun)
Maceration or soaking, especially of a crude drug to prepare it for further pharmaceutical operation. [L. insuco, pp. -atus, to soak in, fr. in, in, + sucus, juice, sap (improp. succ-)]

insudate (in′soo-dat)
Fluid swelling within an arterial wall (ordinarily serous), differing from an exudate in that it does not come to lie extramurally. [L. in, in, + sudo, pp. -atus, to sweat]

insufficiency (in-su-fish′en-se)
Lack of completeness of function or power. SEE ALSO: incompetence. [L. in-, neg. + sufficientia, fr. sufficio to suffice] accommodative i. a lack of appropriate accommodation for near focus. acute adrenocortical i. severe adrenocortical i. when an intercurrent illness or trauma causes an increased demand for adrenocortical hormones in a patient with adrenal i. due to disease or use of relatively large amounts of similar hormones as therapy; characterized by nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and frequently hyperthemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia; can be fatal if untreated. SYN: addisonian crisis, adrenal crisis, Bernard-Sergent syndrome. adrenocortical i. loss, to varying degrees, of adrenocortical function. SYN: hypocorticoidism. aortic i. valvular regurgitation. cardiac i. SYN: heart failure (1) . chronic adrenocortical i. adrenocortical i. usually as the result of idiopathic atrophy or destruction of both adrenal glands by tuberculosis, an autoimmune process, or other diseases; characterized by fatigue, decreased blood pressure, weight loss, increased melanin pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes, anorexia, and nausea or vomiting; without appropriate replacement therapy, it can progress to acute adrenocortical i.. SYN: Addison disease, addisonian syndrome, hyposupradrenalism, morbus Addisonii. convergence i. that condition in which an exophoria or exotropia is more marked for near vision than for far vision. coronary i. inadequate coronary circulation leading to anginal pain. SYN: coronarism (1) . divergence i. that condition in which an esophoria or esotropia is more marked for far vision than for near vision. exocrine pancreatic i. lack of exocrine secretions of pancreas, due to destruction of acini, usually by chronic pancreatitis; lack of digestive enzymes from pancreas results in diarrhea, usually fatty (steatorrhea) because of lack of pancreatic enzymes. hepatic i. defective functional activity of the liver cells. latent adrenocortical i. adrenocortical i. not clinically evident but which can become severe if a sudden stress, such as an intercurrent acute illness, develops. mitral i. valvular regurgitation. muscular i. failure of any muscle to contract with its normal force, especially such failure of any of the eye muscles. myocardial i. SYN: heart failure (1) . parathyroid i. SYN: hypoparathyroidism. partial adrenocortical i. normal basal adrenocortical function with failure of adrenocortical reserve to respond to ACTH stimulation. primary adrenocortical i. adrenocortical i. caused by disease, destruction, or surgical removal of the adrenal cortices. pulmonary i. valvular regurgitation. pyloric i. patulousness of the pyloric outlet of the stomach, allowing regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach. renal i. defective function of the kidneys, with accumulation of waste products (particularly nitrogenous) in the blood. respiratory i. failure to adequately provide oxygen to the cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. secondary adrenocortical i. adrenocortical i. caused by failure of ACTH secretion resulting from anterior pituitary disease or inhibition of ACTH production resulting from exogenous steroid therapy. thyroid i. subnormal secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland. SEE ALSO: hypothyroidism. tricuspid i. valvular regurgitation. uterine i. atony of the uterine musculature. valvular i. SYN: valvular regurgitation. velopharyngeal i. anatomical or functional deficiency in the soft palate or superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx, resulting in the inability to achieve velopharyngeal closure. venous i. inadequate drainage of venous blood from a part, resulting in edema or dermatosis.

insufflate (in-suf′lat)
To deliver air or gas under pressure to a cavity or chamber of the body as, e.g,, the injection of carbon dioxide into the peritoneum to achieve pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. [L. in-sufflo, to blow on or into]

insufflation (in-suf-la′shun)
1. The act or process of insufflating. 2. SYN: inhalant (3) . perirenal i. an obsolete technique involving injection of air or carbon dioxide about the kidneys for radiography of the adrenal glands. peritoneal i. the administration of a gas, usually carbon dioxide, within the peritoneal cavity to facilitate laparoendoscopic procedures.

insufflator (in′suf-la-ter)
An instrument used in insufflation.

insula, gen. and pl. insulae (in′soo-la, -le) [TA]
1. [TA] An oval region of the cerebral cortex overlying the extreme capsule, lateral to the lenticular nucleus, buried in the depth of the fissura lateralis cerebri (sylvian fissure), separated from the adjacent opercula by the circular sulcus of i.. SYN: insular area, insular cortex, island of Reil. 2. SYN: island. 3. Any circumscribed body or patch on the skin. [L. island] Haller i. a doubling of the thoracic duct for part of its course through the thorax. SYN: Haller anulus.

insular (in′soo-lar)
Relating to any insula, especially the island of Reil.

insulate (in′su-lat)
To prevent the passage of electric or radiant energy by the interposition of a nonconducting substance. [L. insulatus, made like an island]

insulation (in-su-la′shun)
1. The act of insulating. 2. The nonconducting substance so used. 3. The state of being insulated.

insulator (in′su-la-ter)
A nonconducting substance used as insulation.

insulin (in′su-lin)
A polypeptide hormone, secreted by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, that promotes glucose utilization, protein synthesis, and the formation and storage of neutral lipids; available in a variety of preparations including genetically engineered human i., which is presently favored, i. is used parenterally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. [L. insula, island, + -in] biphasic i. the specific antidiabetic principle of the pancreas of the ox in a solution of that from the pancreas of the pig. globin i. SYN: regular i.. globin zinc i. a sterile solution of i. modified by the addition of zinc chloride and globin; it contains 100 units per ml; duration of action is about 18 hours. human i. a protein that has the normal structure of i. produced by the human pancreas, prepared by recombinant DNA techniques and by semisynthetic processes. immunoreactive i. that portion of i. in blood measured by immunochemical methods for the hormone; presumed to represent the free (unbound) and biologically active fraction of total blood i.. isophane i. a modified form of i. composed of i., protamine, and zinc; an intermediately acting preparation used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. SYN: NPH i.. lente i. SYN: i. zinc suspension. lispro i. a modified version of natural human i., synthesized by a genetically programmed strain of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, in which the amino acids lysine (Lys) and proline (Pro) near the end of the B chain are transposed. This chemical alteration yields an i. with a much faster onset of action, which reaches its peak effect earlier than regular i.. [Lys + Pro] Lispro i., introduced in 1996, has the same molecular weight and the same biochemical functions as the natural hormone, and when administered intravenously its effects are virtually indistinguishable from those of regular i.. However, when it is injected subcutaneously it reaches its peak serum level in 30–90 minutes, as compared to 50–120 minutes for regular i., and it also has a shorter half-life. While the original indication for lispro i. was for use as a rapid-acting premeal i., clinical experience has shown that this agent improves postprandial glucose levels, reduces the incidence of severe hypoglycemia and nighttime hypoglycemia, and improves glucose control as measured by glycosylated hemoglobin, when appropriate adjustments are made to basal i., snacking, and exercise level. Unlike other insulins, lispro i. is not available without a prescription. It is not recommended for use in pregnancy because its effects on the fetus have not been assessed. NPH i. SYN: isophane i.. [Neutral Protamine Hagedorn] protamine zinc i. i. modified by the addition of protamine and zinc chloride; it contains 100 units per ml. regular i. a rapidly acting form of i. which is a clear solution and may be administered intravenously as well as subcutaneously; may be mixed with longer acting forms of i. to extend the duration of effect. Onset of effect occurs in 12 to 1 hour, peak effects are observed in 2 to 3 hours, and the duration of effect is about 5 to 7 hours. SYN: globin i.. semilente i. SYN: prompt i. zinc suspension. ultralente i. a form of zinc precipitated i. in suspension in which the particle size is large, and thus release into the bloodstream after subcutaneous injection is slow; it can be mixed with other insulins having different particle sizes to achieve different durations of activity. Can be derived from porcine, bovine, or genetically engineered human type.

insulinemia (in′su-li-ne′me-a)
Literally, insulin in the circulating blood; usually connotes abnormally large concentrations of insulin in the circulating blood. [insulin + G. haima, blood]

insulinogenesis (in′su-lin-o-jen′e-sis)
Production of insulin. [insulin + G. genesis, production]

insulinogenic, insulogenic (in′su-lin-o-jen′ik, in′su-lo-jen′ik)
Relating to insulinogenesis.

insulinoma (in′su-li-no′ma)
An islet cell adenoma that secretes insulin.

insulitis (in′su-li′tis)
Inflammation of the islands of Langerhans, with lymphocytic infiltration which may result from viral infection and be the initial lesion of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. [L. insula, island, + -itis, inflammation]

insult (in′sult)
An injury, attack, or trauma. [LL. insultus, fr L. insulto, to spring upon]

insurance


insusceptibility (in′su-sep′ti-bil′i-te)
SYN: immunity. [L. suscipio, pp. -ceptus, to take upon one, fr. sub, under, + capio, to take]

int. cib.
Abbreviation for L. inter cibos, between meals.

integral (int′e-gral)
1. Constituent. 2. Integrated. 3. See integration (3) .




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